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Wednesday, May 5, 2021

Tana Bhagat Movement (1914-1919)- JPSC/JSSC

Tana Bhagat Movement (1914-1919)

  • Tana Bhagat movement was a tribal uprising of a section of the Tana Bhagats and Oraon tribes under the leadership of Jatra Oraon occurring during the late colonial period in the Chotanagpur region of Jharkhand (then Bihar). 

Tana Bhagat Movement (1914-1919)
  • This movement originated along with the Birsa Movement. It was a multi-dimensional movement, as its leaders came forward on the issues of their social identity, religious traditions, and human rights. 

  • Tana Bhagat was not an individual, but a branch of the Oraon tribe, who had adopted the Kudukh religion. They opposed the taxes imposed on them by the British and they staged a Satyagraha (Civil disobedience movement) even before Gandhi's Satyagraha movement. They opposed the Zamindars, the moneylenders, the missionaries, the Muslims, and the British. Tana Bhagats are a follower of Mahatma Gandhi and believes in Ahimsa (Non-violence).

A Course of Movement:


  • The young man Jatra Oraon (Bhagat) was recognized as the hero of this movement, who lived supernatural beliefs. On the basis of Janushruti, this man was given a vision by an Oraon diety 'Dharmesh', and gave him some instructions and ordered him to start this movement.

  • Jatra Bhagat, after getting the order from 'Dharmesh' diety, gave up the work of ghosts and became immortal. He refused to believe in the superstition of the people and gave the message of bringing sattvikta in the conduct. He also ordered forced labor or low-wage laborers not to do such work. He soon became very popular among the people and they started discussing everything with him. 

  • This made the British nervous and they arrested Jatra Bhagat. Fury spread among the people of this place. The British also started arresting all the people related to this movement. As a result of this, violence erupted and a social revival spread. The British brutally suppressed this movement, yet this movement was successful in awakening social consciousness.

  • Thus, the tribal revolts against the British government, to some extent, played an important role in bringing their rights to the oppressed people of Jharkhand. 

  • In these movements, all the elements such as aggression, vandalism, resentment, power organization, and policy reasons were present which gave rise to rebellion. The erstwhile situation in Jharkhand was pathetic and ironically, outsiders who had come to exploit this naturally endowed region had almost disposed of the original tribes. 

  • Far from education and deprived of facilities, these tribal societies were living its life peacefully. They were all happy in their own festivals, customs, and their own social fabric. Even after being in the shadow for almost 300 years of instability, anarchy, exploitation, oppression, humiliation, and poverty, these tribes kept their existence and their livelihood. 

  • The people of Jharkhand performed their duties towards the country. These people made an incomparable contribution to India's freedom struggle, which cannot be forgetten.

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