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Showing posts with label POLITICAL. Show all posts
Showing posts with label POLITICAL. Show all posts

Monday, May 24, 2021

Thungon Committee (1988) - Panchayati Raj (Rural Economics)

Thungon Committee-Panchayati Raj 

In 1988, a sub-committee of the Constitutive Committee of Parliament was constituted under the chairmanship of P.K.Thungon to examine the political and administrative structure in the district for the purpose of district planning. This committee suggested the strengthening of the Panchayati Raj system.

Thungon Committee (1988)

Recommendations by Thungon Committee:

  • The Panchayati Raj bodies should be constitutionally recognized.

  • A three-tier system of Panchayati Raj with panchayats at the village, block, and district levels.

  • Zila Parishad should be the pivot of the Panchayati Raj system. It should act as the planning and development agency in the district.

  • The Panchayati Raj bodies should have a fixed tenure of five years.


  • A planning and coordination committee should be set up at the state level under the chairmanship of the minister for planning. The presidents of Zila Parishads should be its members.

  • A detailed list of subjects for Panchayati Raj should be prepared and incorporated in the Constitution.


  • A state finance commission should be set up in each state. It would lay down the criteria and guidelines for the devolution of finances to the Panchayati Raj institutions.

  • The district collector should be the chief executive officer of the Zila Parishad.

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Sunday, May 23, 2021

Gadgil Committee (1988) - Panchayati Raj (Rural Economics)

Gadgil Committee - Panchayati Raj

The committee on Policy and Programmes was constituted in 1988 by the Congress Party under the chairmanship of V.N. Gadgil. This committee was asked to consider the question of "how best Panchyati Raj institutions could be made effective".

Gadgil Committee (1988)

Recommendations by Gadgil Committee:

  • A constitutional status should be bestowed on the Panchayati Raj institutions.

  • A three-tier system of the Panchayati Raj with panchayats at the village, block, and district levels.


  • The members of Panchayats at all three levels should be directly elected.

  • Reservations for SCs, STs, and women.

  • The Panchayati Raj bodies should have the responsibility of preparing and implementation plans for socio-economic development. For this purpose, a list of the subjects should be specified in the constitution.


  • Establishment of a State Finance Commission for the allocation of finances to the Panchayats.

  • Establishment of a State Election Commission for the conduction of elections to the panchayats.

The above recommendations of the Gadgil Committee became the basis for drafting an amendment bill aimed at conferring the constitutional status and protection to the Panchayat Raj institutions.

👉 Previous Page:Ashok Mehta Committee (1978) - Panchyati Raj (Rural Economics)

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Ashok Mehta Committee (1978) - Panchyati Raj (Rural Economics)

Ashok Mehta Committee  - Panchyati Raj

In December 1977, the Janta Government appointed a committee on Panchayati Raj institutions under the chairmanship of Ashok Mehta. It submitted its report in August 1978 and made 132 recommendations to revive and strengthen the declining Panchayati Raj system in the country.

Ashok Mehta Committee  (1978)

Recommendations by Ashok Mehta Committee:

  • The three-tier system of Panchayati Raj should be replaced by the two-tier system, Zila Parishad at the district level. Below it, the Mandal Panchayat consists of a group of villages with a total population of 15,000 to 20,000.

  • A district should be the first point for decentralization under popular supervision below the state level.


  • There should be an official participation of political parties at all levels of panchayat elections.

  • The Panchayati Raj institutions should have compulsory powers of taxation to mobilize their own financial resources.

  • There should be a regular social audit by a district-level agency and by a committee of legislators to check whether the funds allotted for the vulnerable social and economic groups are actually spent on them.

  • The state government should not supersede the panchayat raj institutions. In case of an imperative supersession, elections should be held within six months from the date of supersession.

  • The Nyaya panchayat should be kept as separate bodies from that of development panchayats. They should be presided over by a qualified judge.

  • The chief electoral officer of a state in consultation with the chief election commissioner should organize and conduct the Panchayati Raj elections.

  • Development functions should be transferred to the Zila Parishad and all development staff should work under its control and supervision.


  • A minister of Panchayati Raj should be appointed in the State Council of ministers to look after the affairs of the Panchyati Raj institutions.

  • Seats for SCs and STs should be reserved based on their population.

  • A constitutional recognition should be accorded to the Panchayati Raj institutions. This would give them the requisite status and assurance of continuous functioning.

Due to the collapse of the Janata Government before the completion of its term, no action could be taken on the recommendations of the Ashok Mehta Committee at the central level.

However, three states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal took steps to revitalize the Panchayati Raj, keeping in view some of the recommendations of the Ashok Mehta Committee. 

👉 Previous Page:Balwant Rai Mehta Committee (1957) - Panchayati Raj (Rural Economics)

👉 Next Page:Gadgil Committee (1988) - Panchayati Raj (Rural Economics)

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Balwant Rai Mehta Committee (1957) - Panchayati Raj (Rural Economics)

Balwant Rai Mehta Committee - Panchayati Raj

In January 1957, the Government of India appointed a committee to examine the working of the Community Development Programme (1952) and the National Extension Programme (1953) and to suggest measures for their better working. The chairman of this committee was Balwant Rai G Mehta. The committee submitted its report in November 1957 and recommended the establishment of the scheme of "democratic decentralization", which ultimately came to be known as Panchayati Raj.

Balwant Rai Mehta Committee (1957)

Recommendations by Balwant Rai Mehta:

  • Establishment of a three-tier Panchayati Raj system- Gram Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level, and Zila Parishad at the district level. These tiers should be organically linked enough as a device of indirect elections.

  • The village Panchayat should be constituted with directly elected representatives, whereas the Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad should be constituted with indirectly elected members.


  • The Panchayat Samiti should be the executive body while the Zila Parishad should be the advisory, coordinating, and supervisory body.

  • The district collector should be the chairman of the Zila Parishad.

  • There should be a genuine transfer of power and responsibility of these democratic bodies.

  • Adequate resources should be transferred to these bodies to enable them to discharge their functions and fulfill their responsibilities.

  • A system should be evolved to effect further devolution of authority in the future.

These recommendations of the committee were accepted by the National Development Council in January 1958. The council did not insist on a single rigid pattern and left it to the states to evolve their own patterns suitable to local conditions. Bit the basic principles and broad fundamentals should be identical throughout the country.


Evolution of Panchayati Raj:

Rajasthan was the first state to establish Panchayat Raj. The scheme was integrated by the then Prime Minister on October 2, 1959, in Nagaur district.

Andhra Pradesh followed Rajsthan and adopted the system in 1959. Thereafter, most of the states adopted the system.

Though most of the states created Panchayati Raj institutions by the mid-1960s, there were differences from one state to another state with regard to the number of tiers, the relative position of Samiti and Parishad, their tenure, composition, functions, finances, and so on.

  • Rajsthan adopted the three-tier system.
  • Tamilnadu adopted the two-tier system.
  • West Bengal adopted the four-tier system.

Further, in the Rajsthan-Andhra Pradesh pattern, Panchayat Samiti was powerful as the block was the unit of planning and development, while in the Maharashtra-Gujarat pattern, Zila Parishad was powerful as the district was the planning and development.

Some states also established Nayaya Panchayats, that is, judicial panchayats to try petty civil and criminal cases.

👉 Previous Page:L.M. Singhvi Committee (1986) - Panchayati Raj (Rural Economics)

👉 Next Page:Ashok Mehta Committee  (1978) - Panchyati Raj (Rural Economics)

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L.M. Singhvi Committee (1986) - Panchayati Raj (Rural Economics)

L.M. Singhvi Committee-Panchayati Raj 

In 1986, the Rajiv Gandhi government appointed a committee to prepare a concept paper on "Revitalization of Panchayati Raj Institutions for Democracy and Development" under the chairmanship of L.M.Singhvi.

L.M. Singhvi Committee (1986)

Recommendations by Singhvi Committee:

  • The Panchayati Raj institutions should be constitutionally recognized, protected, and preserved. For this purpose, a new chapter should be added to the Constitution of India. This will make their identity and integrity reasonably and substantially inviolate. It also suggested constitutional provisions to ensure regular, free, and fair elections to the Panchayat Raj bodies.


  • The villages should be recognized to make Gram Panchayats more viable. It also emphasized the importance of the Gram Sabha and called it the embodiment of direct democracy.


  • The judicial tribunals should be established in each state to adjudicate controversies about the election to the Panchayati Raj institutions, their dissolution, and other matter related to their functioning.

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Wednesday, September 30, 2020

Fundamental Duties - NCERT Solution-Political

Fundamental Duties


  • Incorporated in Part IV-A, article 51-A of the constitution of India.
  • Inserted by the Constitution 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.
  • It was part of a large number of changes brought about during the internal emergency (1975 - 77).
  • But after the end of the Emergency, when the new Parliament reviewed the whole position & in most cases restored the pre-emergency position, article 51-A was one emerged unscathed because it was considered by all parties to be an unexceptionable charter of principles which citizens could usefully absorb & practice.
  • The inclusion of Fundamental Duties in our Constitution also brings it in line with Article 29 (1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which says: "Everyone has the duties to the community in which alone the free & full development of the personality is possible."
  • The exercise of fundamental rights entails duties to the community which ensures the free and full development of human personality.
  • Added on the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee. These are based on the Japanese model.

List of Fundamental Duties:

According to Article 51-A, it shall be the duty of every citizen of India:
  • To abide by the Constitution & respect its ideals & institutions, the National Flag & the National Anthem;
  • To cherish & follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom;
  • To defend the country & render national service when called upon to do so;
  • To promote harmony & the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic & regional, or sectional diversities & to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  • To value & preserve the rich heritage of the country's composite culture;
  • To protect & improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers & wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures;
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism & the spirit of inquiry & reform;
  • To safeguard public property & to abjure violence;
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual & collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor & achievements;
  • To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of 6 - 14 years. This duty was added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002.

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