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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Showing posts with label HISTORY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HISTORY. Show all posts

Saturday, May 6, 2023

Important Days: 1 September - 10 September 2022

From 1 September - 10 September:

First Week of September: In India, every year is celebrated as National Nutrition Week. The week is observed every year from September 1st-7th.

Purpose: To raise awareness among the general public about the value of healthy eating practices and proper nutrition for uploading a healthy lifestyle. The government launches programs to promote nutrition awareness throughout the week that emphasize good nutrition, and whole nutritious food, which is essential for healthy development and function.

Theme: "World of Flavours"- 2022, "Feeding smart right from start"- 2021.

History: National Nutrition week was established in 1975 by the American Diabetic Association (ADA), now known as the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The center plans various activities to impart education on the importance of nutrition and general health improvement through a good diet. Examples of food: protein-rich diet, grain, cereals, water, fresh fruits, and vegetables. In 1982 this week was the first time introduced in India.

2nd September: World Coconut DayIt is celebrated every year. It is observed on 2nd September to commemorate the formation of the Asia Pacific Coconut Community (APCC) in 1969. Since then, every year under the APCC by the authority of UN-ESCAP (United Nations economic and social commission for the Asia Pacific)The APCC is headquartered in Jakarta (Indonesia) and all major coconut-growing countries including India are members of APCC.

The day is remarked to emphasize and spread knowledge of the value and advantages of coconut. Coconut is a member of the drupe family and it is a fleshy fruit that has been planted in tropical regions. A rich source of electrolytes and lauric acid, coconut contains many antioxidants and is antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral. The coconut palm is often called the 'tree of life' owing to its versatile uses in food, fuel, medicine, cosmetics, building materials, and various other uses. 

Coconuts are produced in more than 80 countries around the world with Indonesia at the top. India holds currently the 3rd largest coconut producer country. The day is celebrated in India with the support of the Coconut Development Board (CDB) across the states such as Kerala, Tamilnadu, Goa, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Odhisa, etc. 

Theme 2022: "Growing coconut for a better future and life".

Theme 2021 was: "Building a safe inclusive resilient and sustainable coconut community amid the Covid-19 pandemic and beyond".

5th September: International Day of CharityThe day was established to sensitize and mobilize people, NGOs, and stakeholders all around the world to help others through volunteer and philanthropic activities.

The date of 5th September was chosen to commemorate the anniversary of the passing away of Mother Teresa of Calcutta, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 "for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitute a threat to peace".

History: Mother Teresa, a renowned nun, and missionary was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in 1910. In 1928, she came to India, where she devoted herself to helping the destitute. In 1948, she became an Indian citizen and in 1950, she established Missionaries of Charity (MCs) in Calcutta (Kolkata), which became noted for its work among the poor and dying in the city. For over 45 years, she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion. Mother Teresa's work has been recognized and acclaimed throughout the world and she has received several awards, recognitions, and distinctions, including the Nobel Peace Prize. Mother Teresa died on 5th September 1997, at 87 years of age.

UN Resolution: In the recognition of the role of charity in mitigating humanitarian crises and human suffering among nations, as well as the efforts of charitable organizations and individuals, including the work of Mother Teresa on September 5, was declared as the International Day of Charity, by the resolution adopted by United Nations, General Assembly (UNGA) on 17 December 2012. The resolution was co-sponsored by 44 UN member nations.

7th September: International Day of Clean Air for Blue Skies- It is observed globally to promote and facilitate actions to improve air quality.

Theme: "The air we share", focuses on the transboundary nature of air pollution, stressing the need for collective accountability and action. It also highlights the need for immediate and strategic international and regional cooperation for more efficient implementation of mitigation policies and actions to tackle air pollution.

A two-fold problem: 

Health Impact: Tiny, invisible particles of pollution penetrate deep into our lungs, bloodstream, and bodies. These pollutants are responsible for about one-third of deaths from stroke, chronic respiratory disease, and lung cancer, as well as one-quarter of death from heart attack. Ground-level ozone is produced from the interaction of many different pollutants in sunlight and is also a cause of asthma and chronic respiratory illness.

Climate Impact: short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) are among those pollutants most linked with both health effects and near-term warming of the planet. They persist in the atmosphere for as little as a few days or up to decades, so reducing them can have almost immediate health and climate benefits for those living in places where levels fall. 

The updated WHO global air quality guidelines levels as well as interim targets of pollutants: PM2.5 and PM10, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), and Carbo monoxide (CO).

About: During the 74th session, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted and resolution to hold on 19th December 2019. The resolution also encouraged the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to facilitate the day's observance in collaboration with other relevant stakeholders. In the lead-up to the passing of the resolution, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition collaborated with UNEP and the Republic of Korea to advocate for the day.

UN member States recognize the need to substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and soil pollution and contamination by 2030, as well as to reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention air quality and municipal other waste management by 2030. 

Clean Air and Sustainable Development Goals: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development, outlines a road map to achieving sustainable development, environmental protection, and prosperity for all, and recognizes that air pollution abatement is important to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Important takeaways:

UNEP Headquarters- Nairobi (Kenya)

UNEP was founded- in 1972

UNEP founder- Maurice Strong

UNEP Executive Director- Inger Andersen (Danish economist and environmentalist)

8th September: International Literacy Day (ILD)- The day is celebrated to promote literacy and let people know their rights for social and human development. Literacy is an essential tool to eliminate poverty, lowering child mortality, population control, and attain gender equality. This day is celebrated to encourage people towards getting continuous education. UNESCO has been at the top for the last while promoting overall global literacy and has also helped in promoting International Literacy Day.

Some interesting reasons why literacy can help; Improves health, Promotes lifelong learning and building skills, Improves the economy, Democracy, and peace, Build self-esteem and overall quality of life.

Theme: "Transforming Literacy Learning Spaces and will be an opportunity to rethink the fundamental importance of literacy learning spaces to build resilience and ensure quality, equitable, and inclusive education for all"- 2022, "Literacy for a human-centered recovery: Narrowing the digital divide"- 2021.

About: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), declared this day an opportunity for governments, civil society, and stakeholders to highlight improvements in world literacy rates, and reflect on the world's remaining literacy challenges. The 14th session of UNESCO's General Conference on October 26, 1966, declared 8th September as an International Literacy Day. Since 1967, celebrations have taken place annually around the world on this day to spread awareness about the importance of literacy to individuals, society, and communities.

Important takeaways;

UNESCO was founded: on 16th November 1945 (London, United Kingdom)

UNESCO Headquarters: Paris (France)

UNESCO Director-General: Audrey Azoulay (French Civil Servant)

UNESCO member: 190 countries.

9th September: World Electric Vehicle (EV) Day- It is observed every year to educate people about the need for electric vehicles. 

About: The first world EV day was observed in 2020 and it was an initiative of the Sustainability Media Company Green TV.

Aim: To make people aware of the benefits of switching to electric vehicles. Using EVS can transform the world for the better and save the environment as well as energy. It helps to emphasize the importance of e-mobility and sustainable transport facilities. Air pollution is majorly caused by transportation and EVs are one of the considerable alternatives to decrease air pollution.

Electric Vehicles in India: India has sold more than 3,00,000 units of EVs from 2020 to 2022 and there is a growth of 168% in the performance and sales in India. Tata is the largest leading brand of EVs in India.

9th September: Himalaya Diwas- The day is celebrated every year to preserve the Himalayan ecosystem and region. The National Mission for Clean Ganga organizes Himalaya Diwas on 9 September with the association of the Naula Foundation.

Theme: "The Himalayas will be safe only when the interests of its residents are protected"- 2022, "Contribution of the Himalayas and Our Responsibilities"- 2021.

Problems: This day is celebrated to mark the importance of the Himalayas. The Himalayan hill cities face many challenges due to poor building planning and design, unprecedented felling of trees, and poor infrastructure like roads, water supply, sewage, etc. This results in serious ecological issues. 

Significance: The day is observed highlighting that there is an urgent need to develop eco-sensitive hill town plans and designs. The Himalayas are a source of strength and valuable heritage for the entire world. So it needs to be protected. Apart from promoting scientific knowledge, the day helps to raise awareness and community participation.

History: In 2015, 9 September, the day was officially declared Himalaya Diwas by Harish Rawat, then Chief Minister of Uttarakhand. The Himalayas play an important role in saving and maintaining nature and protecting the country from adverse weather conditions. Apart from being rich in biodiversity of flowers and fauna, the Himalayan range is also responsible for bringing rain to the country. The Diwas is also an excellent day to raise awareness among the general public and bring about community participation in conservation activities.

National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG): Then Union Minister Arun Jaitley announced the implementation of Namami Gange on July 10, 2014. 

On 12 August 2011, the NMCG was listed as a society under the Societies Registration Act, of 1860. The consortium acts as the implementation arm of the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA), which was constituted under the provision of the Environment Protection Act (EPA), 1986, and was established to address pollution challenges in the Ganga river.

Aim: The operational area of this project compromises the Ganges Basin and all states through which the river flows, including Delhi. The objective of the NMCG is to reduce pollution and to ensure the rejuvenation of the Ganga river. This can be achieved by promoting intersectoral coordination for comprehensive planning, management, and maintaining minimum ecological flow in the river, to ensure water quality and environmentally sustainable development.

10th September: World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD)- The day is celebrated every year and it is organized by International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP), endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Theme: "Creating hope through action", reflects the need for collective, action to address this urgent public health issue. This has been the triennial theme from 2021 to 2023.

History: It was established in 2003 by IASP with WHO. It draws attention to the problems, reduces stigma, and educates agencies, the government, and the public, with a unique message that suicide can be prevented.

Significance: According to the experts at WHO, the purpose of WSPD is to make people understand that suicide is not the only way to stop their problems. Everyone like family members, friends, co-workers, community members, educators, faith leaders, healthcare professionals, political officials, and governments should show their participation and prevent suicide in their region. 

10th September: World First Aid Day- Every year, people around the world observe this day on the second Saturday in September. In 2022, it was celebrated on September 10. Over 100 Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies host events and ceremonies on that day to raise awareness of the need for first aid.

Purpose: To raise awareness of the value of first aid, which is a crucial fundamental skill, and to highlight how it can save the lives of people in unexpected emergencies. To build public understanding and spread awareness among the people about the value of first aid as a means of empowering individuals and as a foundation for a more comprehensive resiliency strategy.

First Aid: It is a quick and efficient intervention that reduces pain and injury, improving the odds of survival for those who need it. This is about the care patients receive before they seek medical care.

Theme: "Lifelong First Aid"- 2022, "First aid and road safety"- 2021.

Objectives of the World First AidTo take the necessary actions to save the lives of those who are ill or injured, to take care of an injured person's condition by providing first aid and making an effort o prevent infection, and to immediately take the injured person to the hospital.

History: It was launched by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC) societies in 2000. 

Following the Battle of Solferino (on June 24, 1859), Henry Dunant saw the misery that people were experiencing and he decided to start the IFRC. After the incident, he became worried about people's health and authored the book "Memories of Solferino". The book contained details about the group created to give first aid to those in need.

Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.

Previous Page:- British Law in India before 1857 - JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC



Sunday, December 27, 2020

Coins in Ancient & Medieval India: Gupta Age Coin

Coins in Ancient & Medieval India

The word Coin is procured from the Latin word Cuneus. It is believed that the first recorded use of coin was in China & Greece around 700 BC, and in India in the 6th century BC.

The study of coins and medallions = Numismatics.

Coins Issued in Gupta Age:

  • The Gupta age (319 AD-550 AD) marked a period of a great Hindu revival.

  • The Gupta coins were made of gold, although they issued silver and copper coins too.

  • Silver coins were issued only after Chandragupta II overthrew the Western Satraps.

  • On one side of these coins, the king can be found standing and making oblations before an altar, playing the veena, performing Ashvamedha, riding a horse or an elephant, slaying a lion or a tiger or a rhinoceros with a sword or bow, or sitting on a couch.

  • On the other side was the Goddess Lakshmi seated on a throne or a lotus seal, or the figure of the queen herself.

  • The inscriptions on the coins were all in Sanskrit (Brahmi script) for the first time in the history of coins.

  • Gupta rulers issued coins depicting the emperors not only in martial activities like hunting lions/tigers, posing with weapons, etc. but also in leisurely activities like playing the Veena, with the reverse side of the coin having images of Goddesses Lakshmi, Durga, Ganga, Garuda, and Kartikeya.
Fig: King & Goddess Lakshmi


Coins in Ancient & Medieval India: Indo-Greek Coins

Coins in Ancient & Medieval India

The word Coin is procured from the Latin word Cuneus. It is believed that the first recorded use of coin was in China & Greece around 700 BC, and in India in the 6th century BC.

The study of coins and medallions = Numismatics.

Indo-Greek Coins:

  • Indo-Greeks introduced the fashion of showing the head of the ruler on the coins.

  • The legends on their Indian coins were mentioned in two languages- in Greek on one side and in Kharosthi on the other side of the coin.

  • The Greek gods & goddesses commonly shown on the Indo-Greek coins were Zeus, Hercules, Apollo, and Pallas Athene.

These coins are significant because;
  • They carried detailed information about the issuing monarch, the year of issue, and sometimes an image of the reigning king.

  • Coins were made of silver, copper, nickel, and lead

  • The coins of the Greek kings in India were bilingual, i.e., written in Greek on the front side and in Pali language (in Kharosthi script) on the back.

Later, Indo-Greek Kushan kings introduced the Greek custom of engraving portrait heads on the coins. Kushan coins were adorned with a helmeted bust of the king on one side, and the king's favorite deity on the reverse. The coins issued by Kanishka employed only Greek characters.

The substantial coinage of the Kushan Empire also influenced a large number of tribes, dynasties, and kingdoms, which began issuing their own coins.

Fig: Kushan Period Coin


Coins in Ancient & Medieval India: Punch Marked Coins

Coins in Ancient & Medieval India

The word Coin is procured from the Latin word Cuneus. It is believed that the first recorded use of coin was in China & Greece around 700 BC, and in India in the 6th century BC.

The study of coins and medallions = Numismatics.

Punch Marked Coins:

  • One of the five marks or symbols incused on a single side and were termed as 'Punch Marked' coins. 

  • Panini's Ashtadhyayi cites that to make punch-marked coins, metallic pieces were stamped with symbols. Each unit was called 'Ratti' weighing 0.11 gram.

  • The first trace of this coin was available between the 6th & 2nd century BC.

The following two classifications are available:

Punch marked coins issued by various Mahajanapadas:

  • The first Indian punch-marked coins called Puranas, Krishnapadas, or Pana were minted in the 6th century BC by the various Janapadas and Mahajanapadas of the Gangetic Plain.

  • These coins had irregular shapes, standard weight and were made up of silver with different markings like Saurashtra had a humped bull, Dakshin Panchala had a Swastika and Magadha had generally five symbols.

  • Magadhan punch-marked coins became the most transmitted coins in South Asia.

  • They were mentioned in the Manusmriti and Buddhist Jataka stories and lasted three centuries longer in the South than in the North.
Fig: Magadha coin (five symbols)

Punch marked coins during Mauryan Period (322-185 BC):

  • Chanakya, Prime Minister to the first Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentioned the minting of punch-marked coins such as Rupyarupa (silver), Suvarnarupa (gold), Tamrarupa (copper), and Sisarupa (lead) in his Arthashstra treaties.

  • The coin contained an average of 50-54 grains of silver and 32 rattis in weight and was termed as Karshapanas.
Fig: Mauryan Karshapana


Saturday, December 26, 2020

Festivals of North-East India

Festivals of North-East India


Saga Dawa (Triple Blessed Festival):

  • It is substantially celebrated in the Buddhist communities existing in the state of Sikkim.

  • It is celebrated on the full moon day that descends in the middle of the Tibetan lunar month called the Saga Dawa.

  • This descends between May and June and this month is called Saga Dawa or the 'Month of merits'.

  • The festival is celebrated to memorialize the birth, enlightenment, and death (parinirvana) of Buddha.

  • People also spread the Gompas of the monastery and chant mantras, recite the religious texts and turn the prayer wheels.

Around the month of Saga Dawa, the community of Buddhists has to follow three teachings of Buddhism:
  • Generosity (dana)
  • Morality (sila)
  • Meditation or good feelings (bhavana)
Fig: Saga Dawa

Losoong Festival:

  • It is solemnized all across Sikkim during December every year. 

  • The paramount profession in the State of Sikkim is agriculture and it is the celebration of the harvest season by the farmers and other occupational communities.

  • Traditionally, it is regarded to be the festival of the Bhutia tribe but nowadays even the Lepchas celebrate it with alike stamina and delight.

  • The idiosyncratic point of the festival is that people drink the locally brewed wine, called Chaang, as part of the celebration.

  • They also get together to accomplish traditional dances like the Cham dance, and the Black hat dance at the monasteries.

  • The spirit also reviews the warrior sentiments (opinions) of the Sikkimese community through the archery festivals, etc. 
Fig: Losoong Festival


Bihu Festival:

  • Rangoli or Bohang Bihu (falls on Assamese New Year in April),
  • Kongali or Kati Bihu remarked in October, and 
  • Bhogali or Magh Bihu was remarked in January. 

Rangoli Bihu is the cardinal among the three and it coincides with Assamese New Year. Songs and dances are the main charismata during Bihu.

Bohang Bihu is one of the most admired festivals of Assam. Although the Assamese honor Bihu thrice a year, the Bohnag Bihu is the most predicted one.

The festival of Bihu is traditionally secured to the changing seasons and harvests

The celebrations range from one week to almost a month depending on the communities and tribe's commitment (decision).
  • On the First Day of the festival, cows, and bulls that are the backbone of the community are bathed and fed. The decorum (ceremony) is called the 'Gora Bihu'.

  • The Second Day is the main day of the celebrations that Initiate Bihu, as people greet one another and they exchange Gamosa (a handwoven cotton towel) with their relatives.

  •  All the houses make ready Pitha or a traditional dish made of rice powder, flour, sesame, coconut, and jaggery.

  • They also arrange stages where men and women from all communities come together to perform the Bihu dance. 
Fig: Bihu

Ambubachi Mela:

  • It is confined at the Kamakhya temple of the Guwahati in the State of Assam.

  • The celebration falls in June and is one of the outstanding festivals in North-East India, so much so that it has been categorized as the 'Mahakumbh of the East'.

  • The festival has been kindred with richness rituals and many devotees come to seek the blessing of a child from the Goddess.

  • The temple has chased controversy because of the alleged tantric activities conducted during this mela.

  • During the festival, the patron Goddess Kamakhya is said to be undergoing her annual menstrual cycle. Hence, the temple remains closed for three days.
Fig: Ambubachi Mela

Majuli Festival:

  • This is one of the contemporary festivals held at Majuli in the State of Assam.

  • The festival is arranged in November, as it is the best time considering the rotating climatic conditions in Assam.

  • The Department for Culture of Assam organizes numerous events during the festival like seminars that pinnacle the traditional history and eminence of Assam.

  • The festival is organized on a huge scale in an open area or Namghar. The tribal dishes of Majuli and Assam are exhibited and put on sale.

  • Some famous artists are also invited to showcase their art and public collaborations.

  • The local patron deity is also invoked during the opening and closing etiquettes (ceremony).

  • Various dances and singing competitions are organized for the entertainment of the gala.
Fig: Majuli Festival


Hornbill Festival:

  • It is one of the notable festivals celebrated in Nagaland.

  • It is a 10 days festival that launches on 1st December every year.

  • All the major Naga tribes attend this festival and assemble at the Kisma Heritage Village.

  • All the tribes showcase their talent and cultural vividness through costumes, weapons, bows & arrows, and headgears of the clans.

  • This is also a good community to escort all the tribes together and for the younger generation.
Fig: Hornbill Festival

Moatsu Mong Festival:

  • It is celebrated by the Ao tribe of Nagaland in the first week of May after sowing is done.

  • The festival furnishes them a period of amusement and refreshment after the stressful work of clearing fields, burning jungles, sowing seeds, etc.

  • It is pronounced by songs and dances. A part of the commemoration is Sangpangtu where a big fire is lit and women and men sit around it.
Fig: Moatsu Mong Festival 

Yemshe Festival:

  • It is a harvest festival celebrated predominantly by the Pochuri tribe.

  • Catching of frogs is prohibited during this festival. It is acknowledged in September.
Fig: Yemshe Festival

Lui-Ngai-Ni Festival:

  • Almost all the branches of the Naga tribes celebrate this festival.

  • It is celebrated all over Nagaland and in some of the Naga populated parts of Manipur State too.

  • It has delighted as the mark for the seed-sowing season.

  • The festival escorts the agricultural branches of Naga tribes closer to the non-agricultural based communities of Nagas.

  • The festival is glared by a huge amount of celebration and pomp (rituals) & show.

  • It is a festival to bring communities closer and escalate the message of peace & harmony.
Fig: Lui-Ngai-Ni Festival


Cheiraoba Festival:

  • This festival is celebrated all across the State of Manipur, as it is the New Year according to the Manipuri tribes.

  • It is celebrated in April (it means the first day of the month Sajibu).

  • The festival is also correlated to the domestic deity called Sanamahi worshipped by the Meitei tribe.

  • The festival is usually administered in the temple of Sanamahi but every household cleans, buys new utensils, and new clothes for the family members.
Fig: Cheiraoba Foods

Kang Chingba (Rath Yatra):

  • The festival of Kang Chingba is one of the biggest Hindu festivals celebrated in the State of Manipur.

  • It is similar to the 'Jagannath Puri Rath Yatra' and draws many antecedents from the same.

  • It is a 10 days long festival that is celebrated in July every year.

  • The Yatra begins from the very famous holy temple of Sri Govindjee situated in Imphal.

  • The idols carved of wood and laboriously decorated are carted around in massive chariots that are called 'Kang'

  • These deities are then carried to another temple and people dance through the night to celebrate the journey.
Fig: Kang Chingba (Rath Yatra)


Kharchi Puja:

  • While it began as a festival of the royal family of Tripura, currently even the common household celebrate this festival.

  • It is celebrated for over a week and takes place in July.

  • The festival is celebrated in the honor of Earth and to worship 14 other deities.

  • Each year thousands of people trek to this temple in Agartala so that can pay adoration to the deities.
Fig: Kharchi Puja


Wangala Festival (The 100 Drums Festival):

  • The dominant of Garo Tribe primarily is Meghalaya.

  • The festival indicates the beginning of winter and is celebrated as a nod to the post-harvest season.

  • The festival is celebrated in the honor of 'Saljong', a local deity who is considered to be generous. He is supposed to be the force behind the good things that happen to the community. This festival is a thanksgiving for him.

  • Drums, flutes, and other orchestras instruments are played to create a festive ambiance. 

  • It is also known as the '100 Drums Wangala Festival' as loud drum noises herald the beginning of the festival.

  • The day is also set apart by the wonderful costumes worn by the participants.

  • An extraordinary feature is the feathered head-gear that is worn by everyone celebrating the festival and also reflects their clan's color.
Fig: Wangala Festival


Apatani Tribe:

  • The Apatani tribe that reside in Arunachal Pradesh primarily celebrate the festival.

  • Currently, more and more tribes have started observing the rituals of the Dree festival

  • It is one of the biggest celebrations held in the Ziro valley.

  • During the festival, people offer prayers and offerings to four main Gods: Tamu, Metti, Medvr, Danyi, and Mepin.

  • These offerings are given to pray for a good and plentiful harvest.

  • People gather around the valley and perform traditional dances.

  • One of the most unique points of this festival is that cucumber is distributed to all the attendees as a symbol of a good harvest.
Fig: Apatani Festival 

Losar Festival:

  • It falls on the first day of the lunar calendar and is quite popular in Arunachal Pradesh.

  • It is mainly celebrated by the Monpa tribe who practice agriculture and animal husbandry and follow Buddism.

  • Losar is a three-day festival and is celebrated with great pomp and show at Tawang.
Fig: Losar Festival

Khan Festival:

  • It is a religious festival celebrated by the Miji tribe of Arunachal Pradesh.

  • The festival is significant because it brings together people from every background irrespective of their caste and faith to celebrate it.

  • During this, the priest ties a piece of wool in the neck of all the participants, and the thread is considered sacred.
Fig: Miji Tribes


Thursday, December 24, 2020

Indian Classical Dance Form- Sattriya

Sattriya Dance

Sattriya dance in modern-form was established by the Vaishnava Saint Sankaradeva in the 15th century AD in Assam

The art form derives its name from the Vaishnava monasteries known as 'Sattara', where it was primarily practiced. It finds mention in the ancient text 'Natya Shashtra' of sage Bharat Muni. It is inspired by the Bhakti Movement.

Some of the hallmarks of the Sattriya dance include:

  • The dance form was an amalgamation of various dance forms prevalent in Assam, mainly Ojapali and Devdasi.

  • The focus of the Sattriya recitals is to own the devotional outlook of dance and narrates mythological stories of Vishnu.

  • The dance is generally performed in the group by male monks known as 'Bhoktas' as part of their daily rituals or even on festivals.

  • Khol (drum), Cymbals (Manjira), and Flute from the major escorting Implements of this dance form. The songs are the composition by Shankaradeva known as 'Borgeets'.

  • Costumes are worn by male dancers- 'Dhoti' and 'Paguri = turban'. While females wear traditional Assamese jewelry, 'Ghuri' and 'Chador' made in Pat Silk. Waistline cloth is worn by both men and women.

  • In modern times, Sattriya dance has matured into two separate streams- the Gayan-Bhayanar Nach and the Kharmanar Nach.

  • Ankia Naat: It is a type of Sattriya, it involves play or musical-drama. It was originally written in an Assamese-Maithili mix language called Brajavali. Another related form is 'Bhaona', which is based on stories of Lord Krishna.
Fig: Sattriya dance


Indian Classical Dance Form- Kathak

Kathak Dance

Finding its origins from the Ras Leela of Brajbhoomi, Kathak is the traditional dance form of Uttar Pradesh. 

Kathak procured its name from the 'Kathika' or the story-tellers who recited verses from the folk tales, with gestures and music.

During the Mughal era, the dance degenerated into a lascivious style and branched off into court dance. It was also determined by Persian costumes and styles of dancing. The classical style of Kathak was resuscitated by Lady Leela Sokhey in the 20th century.

Some of the hallmarks of Kathak are:

An important attribute of Kathak is the development of different gharanas as it is based on the Hindustani style of music:

  • Lucknow: Reached its pinnacle under the rule of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. It puts more importance on expression and grace.

  • Jaipur: Initiated by Bhanuji, it emphasized fluency, speed, and long rhythmic patterns.

  • Raigarh: It developed under the encouragement of Raja Chakradhar Singh. It is idiosyncratic in its emphasis on percussion music.

  • Banaras: It developed under Janakiprasad. It sees greater use of floor and lays special emphasis on symmetry.

Kathak dance form is characterized by the use of serpentine footwork and pirouettes.

The element of a Kathak recital are:

  • Ananda or the introductory item through which the dancer set to foot into the stage.

  • Todas and Rukdas are small pieces of fast rhythm.

  • Jugalbandi is the main charisma of the Kathak recital which shows a competitive play between the dancer and the tabla player.

  •  Padhant is a special feature in which the dancer recites complicated bols and Illustrates them.

  • Tarana is similar to thillana, which comprises of pure rhythmic movements.

  • Gat bhaav is a dance without any music or chanting (chorus). This is used to outline different mythological episodes.

Kathak is generally accompanied by dhrupad music. Tarana, thumris, and ghazals were also introduced during the Mughal period.

Fig: Kathak Dance


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