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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Showing posts with label GEOGRAPHY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GEOGRAPHY. Show all posts

Friday, June 4, 2021

Soil Conservation - Indian Geography

Soil Conservation - Indian Geography

Looking at the importance of soil resources for a country of over a billion people, judicious utilization and conservation of soil are of paramount importance. 

The farmers of the drier regions of Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Western Madhya Pradesh have successfully protected their fields from soil erosion by planting rows of trees to reduce the velocity of winds which continually erode soil cover. Soil conservation includes a reduction in soil erosion, afforestation, rational utilization of soils, and ways to enhance their sustainability.

Soil Conservation - Indian Geography

Some of the important steps which can go a long way in the conservation of soils are as under:

1. Afforestation:

Tree plantation helps in the reduction of soil erosion. Trees reduce the intensity of runoff and increase the seepage of water to the underground water table. Social forestry can be developed along the banks of rivers, canals, lakes, roads, and railway tracks.

2. Restriction of the Felling of Trees:

Apart from afforestation, it is equally important to check the indiscriminate felling of trees. People's awareness that resulted in the launch of the Chipko Movement can help in achieving this objective.

3. Contour Ploughing and Strip Cultivation:

In the hilly and mountainous areas, plowing should be done according to the contours and not in an up-down direction of the slope. Contour plowing is an effective way of checking soil erosion. Similarly, small strips can be developed on gentle slopes for sowing crops, which help overcome the menace of soil erosion.

4. Control of Floods:

In India, the problem of soil erosion is closely associated with floods. The floods generally occur during the rainy season. Efforts, therefore, need to be made for the storage of floodwater or the diversion of additional rainwater. The inter-connecting of rivers as in the Garland Canal Project or the Ganga-Kaveri Link Canal Project can be an immense help in this direction.

5. Reclamation of Ravine and Badlands:

Reclamation of gullies and ravines is also necessary to overcome the problem of soil erosion. Several such schemes involving plugging of gully mouths, construction of bunds across the gullies, leveling of gullies, afforestation, restriction on grazing are under implementation in the Chambal ravines of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan.

6. Restriction of Shifting Cultivation:

In the states of North-East India and Western and Eastern Ghats, shifting cultivation (slash and burn) is one of the main causes of soil erosion. The shifting cultivators need to be persuaded to stop shifting cultivation and be trained and motivated to adopt terraced farming. A scheme to control shifting cultivation has been launched in the seven states of NE- India. This is a beneficiary-oriented program that aims at the rehabilitation families of the Jhumias (shifting cultivators). There is a need to extend this program to other states of the country and gradually replace this agricultural system with sedentary farming.

7. Restoration of long Fallow:

There are 96 lakh hectares of fallow land. The old fallow land is mainly found in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh. This old fallow land can be brought under cultivation, grazing, and orchards with shall be helpful in the reduction of soil erosion.

8. Reclamation of Saline and Alkaline (Usar) Soil:

The saline and alkaline affected area in the country is more than 80 lakh hectares. It may be seen that the state of Kerala (24.47 lakh hectare) followed by Chattisgarh (23.55 lakh hectare) has soils majorly affected by salinity, alkalinity, and acidity. Application of cow-dung and gypsum are quite helpful in the reclamation of salt-affected soils.

9. Other measures of Soil Conservation:

The government of India has been attempting to check the soil erosion throughout the planning period. 

The following steps can go a long way in reducing the rate of soil erosion:

  • Construction of small dams across the tributaries of rivers in their upper reaches to control floods and soil erosion.
  • Linings of canals to stop seepage of water which leads to waterlogging.
  • Solving the problem of waterlogging by improving the surface and vertical drainage.
  • Formation of windbreak and shelterbelts in arid and semi-arid regions.
  • Increasing use of organic and compost manure.
  • Popularising the application of cow dung and green manure.
  • Scientific rotation of crops.
  • Filling up gullies and forming terraces along the slopes.
  • Leveling of ravines and planting of trees and grasses in the slopes.
  • Promotion of afforestation in the degraded soils.
  • Adopting the techniques of sustainable agriculture.
  • To educate the public about the diverse effects of soil erosion through seminars, conferences, and workshops in the regions of degraded soils.

As per the Ministry of Agriculture report, the Government of India aims to make India's land degradation neutral by 2030. In India, 69% (about 105 million hectares) is dry land and 32% of the land is undergoing desertification. About 1 mm of topsoil is being lost and due to soil erosion, the land being lost is 5334 million tonnes annually. The integrated land-use planning can stop or reverse the certification of the Indian land.

The non-non-judicious and excessive use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) is deteriorating soil fertility and causing nutrient deficiencies. The use of irrigation water from the canal might lead to secondary salinization that also affects the quality of the soil.

Several schemes and projects have been initiated by the Government of India. 

Some of them are listed below:

  • Centrally Sponsored Scheme: Integrated Watershed Development Programme (IWDP) funded by the Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development, GoI.

  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).

  • Cherrapunjee Ecological Project-Restoration of degraded land under Sohra Plateau.

👉 Previous Page: Major types of Soil - Indian Geography


Major types of Soil - Indian Geography

Major types of Soil - Indian Geography

Several attempts have been made to classify the soils of India during the last century. The first scientific classification of Indian soils was made by Voelker (1893) and Leather (1898). According to them, the Indian soils may be classified into four (4) categories:

  • Alluvial
  • Regur (black-earth)
  • Red soil
  • Lateritic soil
Major types of Soil - Indian Geography

Subsequently, based on texture, structure, color, pH value, and porosity, All India Soil and Land Use Survey Organisation attempted a classification of the soil of India in 1956. 

In 1957, the National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation published a soil map of India in which Indian soils were classified into six (6) major groups and eleven (11) sub-groups.

In 1963, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), under the supervision of S.P. Ray Chaudhary, published a soil map of India in which the soils have been divided into seven (7) groups.

More recently, the ICAR, based on texture, structure, color, pH value, and location porosity and location has identified the following types of soil groups:

  • Alluvial- a.) Khadar, b.) Bangar
  • Red soil
  • Regur (Black-earth) soil
  • Desert soil
  • Laterite soil
  • Mountain soil
  • Red and Black soil
  • Grey and Brwon soil
  • Submontane soil
  • Snowfields

Alluvial Soil:

The alluvial soil covers about 143.1 million sq km accounting for about 43.2% of the total reporting area. These soils are mainly derived from the debris brought down from the Himalayans or from the silt left out by the retreating sea. The solar of the alluvial soil varies from light grey to ash grey and texture is from sandy to silty loam. These soils are both well-drained and poorly drained. In general, they have an immature profile in undulating areas, while in the level areas they have a well-developed and mature profile.

These soils may be divided into:

  • Khadar soil: These are low-lying frequently inundated by floods during the rainy season. Thus, the khadar occupies the flood plains of the rivers and is enriched by fresh silt deposits every year. In the drier areas, it also exhibits stretches of saline and alkaline efflorescence locally known as reh, kallar, or thur.

  • Bangar soil: These are above the flood level. It is generally well-drained but concertion of impure calcium carbonate. The soil texture varies from loamy soil to clayey loam. It is well-drained.

Red Soils:

Red soils occupy the second largest area of about 61 million hectares or 18.5% of the total reporting area. They are found mainly over the area of Penisula from Tamilnadu in the south to Bundelkhand in the north, and Rajmahal in the east to Kathiawad and Kutch in the west. Developed on Archian granite these soils are also known as an omnibus group. Their color is mainly red because of the presence of ferric oxides. In places, where irrigation water is available, they are devoted to wheat, cotton, pulses, tobacco, millets, oilseeds, potato, and orchards.

Black or Regur Soils:

It is also known as cotton soil and internationally a tropical chernozems, is the third-largest soil in India. They sprawl over about 50 million hectares accounting for 15% of the total reporting area of the country. They get their parent material from the weathered rock of Createceous lava. They are mature soils. Over the greater parts of the black earth soil, the average annual rainfall varies between 50 and 70 cm. The soils have a clayey texture. Moreover, these soils have a high retention capacity of water. They are extremely compact and tenacious when wet, and develop wide cracks when dry.

Mountain Soils:

Covering an area of about 18.2 million hectares or about 5.5% of the total reporting area of the country. These soils are found in the valley and hill slopes of the Himalayas between 200 cm and 300 m. These soils are generally immature and are still to be probed systematically. In structure and texture, they vary from silt-loam to loam. Their color is dark brown. These soils can be divided into loamy podzols and high-altitude soils. The high altitude soils, depending on the forest cover, slope, and rainfall are classified as brown earth-type and red-loam. The sub-soil surface of these soils remains frozen under snow. Their soil profile is generally less developed.

Desert Soils:

Sprawling over about 15 million hectares, desert soil accounts for over 4.42% of the total reporting area of the country. These soils are developed under arid and semi-arid conditions and deposited mainly by wind action. The desert soils are sandy to gravelly in texture organic matter, but have low content and low water retention capacity. If irrigated, they give high agricultural returns. The availability of water from the Indira Gandhi Canal has transformed the agricultural landscape of the desert soil of Western Rajasthan.

Laterite Soils:

Their name has been derived from the Latin word Later which means brick. These soils, when wet, are soft as butter, but become quite hard and cloddy on drying. These are the typical soils of the monsoon climate which is characterized by seasonal rainfall. The alternating dry season leads to leaching away of the alkalis and siliceous matter than iron and aluminium of the rock leading to the formation of such soil. Laterite soil hardness rapidly and irreversibly on exposure to the air, a property leads to its use as building bricks. These soils developed mainly in the highland areas of the plate. Though they have low fertility, they respond well to manuring.

Submontane Soils: 

These soils are found in the Tarai region of the sub-montane stretching from Jammu & Kashmir to Assam in the form of a narrow belt. These soils have been formed by the deposition of eroded material from the Shiwaliks and the Lesser Himalayas. The soil is fertile and supports the luxuriant growth of the forest. The clearing of forest for agricultural purposes had made this area highly susceptible to soil erosion.


The areas and snow and glaciers are about 4 million hectares. The soil in these areas is immature generally without soil erosion.

Grey and Brown Soils:

These soils have been formed by the weathering of granite, gneiss, and quartzite. These are loose friable soils. Due to the presence of iron oxide, these soils vary from red to black and brown in color. These soils are found in Gujarat and Rajasthan.

Saline and Alkaline Soils:

The saline soils are characterized by the presence of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. In these soils, the saline and alkaline efflorescence appear on the surface as a layer of white salt through capillary action. These soils are known by different names in different parts of the country. They are called reh, kallar, usar, rakar, thru, karl, and chopan. These soils are found in Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Maharashtra. They are deficient in nitrogen, calcium and have low water-bearing capacity. These soils can be reclaimed by improving drainage by applying gypsum and/or lime and cultivating salt-resistant crops like berseem, and leguminous crops.

Peaty and Marshy Soils:

Peaty soils originate in areas of heavy rainfall where adequate drainage is not available. These are generally submerged during the rainy season and utilized for the cultivation of rice.

Karewa Soils:

These are the flat-topped mounds of lacustrine deposits that border the Kashmir valley and all sides. They are composed of fine silt, clay, sand, and bouldery gravel. They are characterized by fossils of mammals and at places by peat. The karewas of Palampur, Pulwama, and Kulgam are well known for their production of superior quality saffron

👉 Previous Page:Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) - Indian Economy

👉 Next Page:Soil Conservation - Indian Geography



Friday, December 25, 2020

Revolutions in India (Geography)

Revolutions in India 

Revolutions in India




Person Associated with


Black Revolution


Petroleum Production

Dr. Arun Krishnan

Blue Revolution


Dr. Arun Krishnan

Brown Revolution

Leather Production/ Cocoa

Dr. Arun Krishnan

Evergreen Revolution 

Over-all development of Agriculture

Dr. Arun Krishnan

Grey Revolution

Housing development/ Fertilizers

Dr. Arun Krishnan

Golden Revolution

Horticulture, Honey-bee (Apiculture)

Nirpakh Tutej

Golden Fibre Revolution


Nirpakh Tutej

Green Revolution


Norman Borlaug, M.S. Swaminathan, W.Goad Durgesh Patel, Vishal Tiwari

Pink Revolution

Prawns, Onions, Pharmaceutical

Norman Borlaug, M.S. Swaminathan, W.Goad Durgesh Patel, Vishal Tiwari

Red Revolution

Meat & Tomato

Norman Borlaug, M.S. Swaminathan, W.Goad Durgesh Patel

Round Revolution


Indira Gandhi, Vergesh Kurien

Silver Fibre Revolution


Indira Gandhi, Vergesh Kurien

Silver Revolution

Poultry & Eggs

Indira Gandhi

White Revolution

Dairy development

Vergesh Kurien

Yellow Revolution


Sam Pitroda

Protein Revolution

Technology-driven 2nd Green Revolution

Coined by PM Narendra Modi & FM Arun Jaitely


Wednesday, December 23, 2020

आर्थिक भूगोल(Economic Geography)

आर्थिक भूगोल(Economic Geography)

➤अनेक भूगोलवेत्ता आर्थिक भूगोल को मानव भूगोल की एक महत्वपूर्ण आरंभिक शाखा मानते हैं जिसका आज के संदर्भ में भूगोल में अपना एक विशिष्ट अधिकार क्षेत्र है

भूगोल की यह  शाखा मानव की आर्थिक क्रियाओं के स्थानिक प्रारूपों का अध्ययन करती है

इसके अतिरिक्त यह शाखा विभिन्न आर्थिक क्रियाओं के विकास में भौतिक तथ्यों  के प्रभाव एवं भूमिका के अध्ययन तथा प्रादेशिक विशिष्ट करण और आर्थिक क्रियाओं और व्यापार आदि की वृद्धि का अध्ययन भी करती है 

भूगोल की इस शाखा ने कई अन्य उपशाखाओं को जन्म दिया है जिसमें से कुछ उपशाखाऐ  निम्नलिखित हैं  

कृषि भूगोल :- भूगोल की यह शाखा कृषि के विकास में प्राकृतिक एवं भौगोलिक तत्वों के प्रभाव का अध्ययन करती है 

कृषि कार्यकलापों, भूमि उपयोग एवं फसलों के स्थानिक प्रारूपों का अध्ययन भी इस शाखा के अध्ययन क्षेत्र के अंग हैं 

औद्योगिक भूगोल :- कृषि भूगोल के समान ही औद्योगिक भूगोल भी आर्थिक भूगोल की एक शाखा है
जो कि औद्योगिक गतिविधियों के स्थानिक प्रारूपों का अध्ययन करती है

औद्योगिक भूगोल के कार्य क्षेत्र में औद्योगिक अवस्थित के सिद्धांतों को भी सम्मिलित किया जाता है

➤किसी क्षेत्र के उपस्थित परिवहन तंत्रों के अध्ययन के अतिरिक्त परिवहन भूगोलवेत्ता भविष्य के लिए इन तंत्रों के विकास की रूपरेखा भी सुझाते हैं 

संसाधन भूगोल :- यह आर्थिक भूगोल की एक महत्वपूर्ण शाखा है जो की संसाधनों के स्थानिक वितरण के अध्ययन से संबंधित है  

संभावित संसाधनों का आकलन और उनके संरक्षण की आवश्यकता तथा इसके उपाय संसाधन भूगोलवेत्ताओं के आकर्षण एवं रुचि के विषय है 

विकास का भूगोल :- भूगोल की यह नई शाखा आर्थिक विकास के अन्वेषण से संबंधित है 

उक्त के अतिरिक्त अन्य शाखाएं भी है जिसमें ऐतिहासिक भूगोल, सैनिक भूगोल,प्रादेशिक भूगोल, मौलिक भूगोल,चिकित्सा भूगोल, लिंग अध्ययन आदि को शामिल किया जाता है

मानव भूगोल (Human Geography)

मानव भूगोल (Human Geography)

मानव भूगोल

➤मानव भूगोल भी मूल विषय की एक प्रमुख शाखा है

मानव भूगोल, पृथ्वी पर मानवीय क्रियाओं के अध्ययन से संबंधित है 

इसके अंतर्गत मानव समूहों तथा उनकी संस्कृति विशेषताओं के अध्ययन को भी सम्मिलित किया जाता है 

मानव बसाव, मानवीय कार्यकलापों के विकास की प्रक्रिया और मानव के विश्व की विभिन्न भागों को अपने अनुकूल बनाने की प्रक्रिया भी मानव भूगोल के अध्ययन के अंतर्गत आने वाले महत्वपूर्ण विषय है 

भूगोल की इस प्रमुख शाखा की कई शाखाएं हैं जिसमें से कुछ महत्वपूर्ण उप शाखाएं निम्नलिखित है:-

जनसंख्या भूगोल :- जनसंख्या भूगोल का विषय क्षेत्र मानव भूगोल के काफी समान है परंतु इसकी परिभाषा अपेक्षाकृत अधिक सीमित है 

भूगोल की यह शाखा जनसंख्या समूहों, उनकी सामाजिक एवं भाषा संबंधी संरचना के अतिरिक्त जनसंख्या वृद्धि और गतिशीलता के सिद्धांतों एवं नियमों का अध्ययन से संबंधित है 

सांस्कृतिक भूगोल :- मानव भूगोल  की यह शाखा समय के साथ परिवर्तनशील  विविध सांस्कृतिक क्रियाओं तथा प्रक्रमों का किसी क्षेत्र के  मानवीय पर्यावरण के संदर्भ में अध्ययन करती है

सांस्कृतिक भूगोलवेत्ताओं  के अनुसार विभिन्न संस्कृतियां मानव तथा उसके पर्यावरण की पारस्परिक अन्त:क्रिया का परिणाम होती है 

अधिवास भूगोल:- मानव अधिवासों का विकास, उनका  अपने पर्यावरण में सहसंबंध और उनके विभिन्न प्रकारों का अध्ययन, भूगोल की इस शाखा का कार्यक्षेत्र है

इसके अतिरिक्त अधिवास भूगोल के अंतर्गत अधिवासों के विवरण के अध्ययन को भी सम्मिलित किया जाता है

➤अधिवासों में  के आंतरिक संगठन के साथ-साथ यह विषय अधिवासों में व्यक्तियों तथा यातायात के प्रवाह का भी अध्ययन करता है

अधिवास भूगोल को सामान्यतया  नगरीय तथा ग्रामीण भूगोल में विभाजित किया जाता है 

राजनैतिक  भूगोल :- यह मानव भूगोल की एक और प्रमुख  शाखा है तथा विभिन्न क्षेत्रों के राजनैतिक संगठन समय के साथ इसमें होने वाले परिवर्तनों तथा राजनीति में भूगोलिक तथ्यों की भूमिका के अध्ययन से संबंधित है 

➤भू -राजनीति इस विषय का एक महत्वपूर्ण अंग है जो भूगोलिक तत्वों के आधार पर विभिन्न क्षेत्रों के राजनैतिक महत्व का निर्धारण व मूल्यांकन करता है 

इस शाखा को चुनावी भूगोल कहा जाता है

भौतिक भूगोल (Physical Geography)

भौतिक भूगोल(Physical Geography)

➤भौतिक भूगोल तथा मानव भूगोल मूल विषय की दो महत्वपूर्ण शाखाएं रही हैं  

भौतिक भूगोल, भौतिक पर्यावरण और उन विविध गतिविधियों से संबंधित है जो कि पृथ्वी के भौतिक भौतिक पर्यावरण में परिवर्तन लाते हैं 

➤इसकी  विविध उपशाखाएं हैं जो कि भौतिक पर्यावरण के विशिष्ट घटकों के अध्ययन से संबंधित है

भू-आकृति विज्ञान :- भू-आकृति विज्ञान को भौतिक भूगोल की उस शाखा के रूप में परिभाषित किया जा सकता है जो कि भूतल की बनावट के अध्ययन से संबंधित है

साधारण शब्दों में इसे स्थलाकृतियों के अध्ययन के रूप में परिभाषित किया जा सकता है

➤चूकि यह विषय स्थलाकृतियों  के निर्माण से भी संबंधित है, इसलिए यह इनक निर्माण करने वाले पदार्थों के अध्ययन से भी संबंधित हैअत: भूपर्पटी में पाए जाने वाले पदार्थों तथा भूपर्पटी को प्रभावित करने वाले अंतजार्त तथा पर बर्हिजात बलों के अध्ययन को भी इसमें सम्मिलित किया जाता है

भौतिक भूगोल की शाखा भू-विज्ञान से काफी निकट रूप से संबंधित है 

जलवायु विज्ञान :-भौतिक भूगोल की यह शाखा वायुमंडल के संघटन,उसकी संरचना,ऊर्जा तथा वायुमंडल में होने वाले परिवर्तनों  का अध्ययन करती है 

भौतिक भूगोल की यह शाखा मौसम विज्ञान के निकट रूप से संबंधित है 

जलवायु विज्ञान मानव जीवन पर जलवायु के प्रभावों तथा संसार के विभिन्न भागों में पाए जाने वाले जलवायु का भी अध्ययन करता है

समुद्र विज्ञान :-समुद्र विज्ञान समुद्रों का अध्ययन करने वाला विषय है

समुद्र विज्ञान न केवल समुद्र तल के स्वरूप के स्वरूप से संबंधित है, बल्कि समुद्री जल के लक्षणों जैसे तापमान, लवणता,घनत्व और समुद्र में होने वाली गतिविधियों का अध्ययन करता है

जैव भूगोल :- जैव भूगोल जीवों एवं वनस्पतियों के उनके पर्यावरण से संबंधों का अध्ययन करता है

इस प्रकार इसमें पौधों तथा जंतुओं का अध्ययन शामिल है 

जैव भूगोल से संबंधित  क्षेत्र जैवमंडल कहलाता है

जैवमंडल वह क्षेत्र है जिसमें जीवन संभव है

इस क्षेत्र का विस्तार पृथ्वी के आंतरिक भाग से वायुमंडल तक है 

जैवमंडल में जलमंडल, स्थलमंडल और वायुमंडल को सम्मिलित किया जाता है

जैवमंडल  को विभिन्न शाखाओं में बांटा जा सकता है जैसे :- कि पौधों और उनके पर्यावरण का अध्ययन पादप भूगोल के नाम से तथा जंतुओं और उनके पर्यावरण के अध्ययन को जंतु भूगोल के नाम से जाना जाता है 

➤भूगोल की इस शाखा को पारिस्थितिकी भी कहा जाता है


Monday, July 20, 2020

NCERT Chapter Summary and Solutions For Class 6 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 - Major Landforms of the Earth



MajorLandforms of the Earth - The landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or the planetary body.
  • The Major type of landform is - 1. Mountains, 2. Hills, 3. Plateau, 4. Plains
  •  The Minor type of landform is - 1. Buttes, 2. Canyons, 3. Valleys, 4. Basins

The Landforms are results of 2 processes:- 1. Internal process, 2. External process

  • Internal Process - It is a type of continuous movement within the earth that lead to the upliftment and sinking of the earth's surface at several places. The earth beneath the feet is continuously moving and it is driven by the heat (in the form of energy) in the earth's interior. E.g. Convection, Tectonic plate movement, Rock formation, Earthquake, Volcanic eruptions, etc.

  • External Process - It is the continuous wearing off and rebuilding of the land surface. They are powered by solar energy. E.g. Soil erosion, deposition, etc.
Fig. Landforms

ErosionThe wearing off the earth's surface. It is being lowered by the external process.            

  Fig. Soil Erosion

DepositionWhen the river loses its energy, it drops any of the material it has been carrying. The surface is being rebuilt by the external process.            
Fig. The force of moving river water - Erosion & Deposition 

The major type of landform (Depending on Elevation & Slope):-

A. Mountains: 

  • Mountains are natural elevations of the earth's surface. They vary in shape and size.
  • They are higher than in the surrounding area. Some of them are even higher than the clouds.
  • Glaciers, a permanently frozen river of ice. 
  • Rivers have their sources in the mountains and it is used for irrigation and the generation of hydro-electricity.
  • The climate of the mountain is harsh, which makes them less suitable for human habitation.
  • The river valley and terraces are ideal for crop cultivation, though some mountains have steep slopes. Hence, farming is quite difficult there.
  • Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. Fuel, food, fodder, shelter, timber, and other products like gum, raisins, etc. can easily get from mountain and forest.
  • Mountain provides an idyllic scene and their scenic beauty for tourists. They can enjoy recreational activities like paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting, and skiing.
  • The mountain may be arranged in a series of parallel extending over hundreds of kilometers known as, Range. E.g. the Himalayas (in Asia), the Alps (in Europe), the Andes (in South America).

There are 3 types of Mountains: 1. Fold mountain, 2. Block mountain, 3. Volcanic mountain

  1. Fold Mountain: It is created by where two or more of Earth's tectonic plates are pushed together. As this colliding, compressing boundaries of rocks, and debris are wrapped and folded into rocky outcrops, hills, mountains, and the entire mountain ranges.
  2. It is divided into 3 types of fold mountains.
  3. Young fold mountain: Age- 10 to 25 million years old. They have rugged relief and high conical peaks. E.g. The Himalaya mountain (in Asia) and the Alps mountain (in Europe), the Rocky (in North America)
  4. Old mountain: Age- 200 million years old. They do not have pointed high peaks due to erosional activities of exogenic forces. E.g. The Aravali range (in India), The Appalachians (in North America), Ural mountain (in Russia).

Fig. Young Fold Mountain                                                                     Fig. Old Fold Mountain 

2. Block Mountain: These are created when a block of bedrock is broken and split into vertically by tectonic activity. It is also called Fault block mountains.

  1. The upliftment blocks are - horsts.
  2. The lower blocks are - graben.
  3. Example: Satpura= seven mountain, and Vindhya range= group of the discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, plateau escarpment, highland, hill ranges (in India), The Great American rift valley (graben, valley floor)Vosges mountain in Europe (horst).