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Showing posts with label ENGLISH-GRAMMAR. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ENGLISH-GRAMMAR. Show all posts

Thursday, July 30, 2020

ENGLISH GRAMMAR - SENTENCES & CLAUSES

SentencesClauses

ClauseA group of words that forms a part of a sentence and has a subject and a finite verb of its own is called a clause
The number of finite verbs in a sentence joined by conjunctions determines the number of clauses.

Sentences:
There are three kinds of sentences:

(I.)Simple Sentences: A sentence that has only one finite verb. It may have non-finite verbs if required. 
Example-
(i.) He is reading.
(ii.) She has written a letter to help her daughter.

(II.)Complex Sentence: It consists of a principal/main clause with one or more subordinate clauses. It means that a complex sentence has more than one finite verb. A subordinate clause is joined by Subordinating co conjunctions.
Example-
(i.) I know that she is a good girl.
(ii.) I know the boy who was here last month.
(iii.) When you do this work, I shall help you.

(III.)Compound Sentences: It consists of two or more principal clauses. These clauses are joined by coordinating conjunctions. e.g., and, but, indeed but, so, therefore, all the same, as well as, however, nevertheless, yet, still, for, while, whereas, or, else, or else, while, etc.
Example-
(i.) He is rich but he is not vain.
(ii.) Speak or you will die.
(iii.) It is cold indeed, but I will go out.
(iv.) I was feeling tired all the same I went to college.
(v.) I was hot outside, however, we went out.

More About Subordinate Clause & Rules:
1. Noun Clause:
(a.) Tense of the noun clause should be in the past if the verb of the main clause is in the past. The tense of universal truth does not change.
(b.) Use the conjunctions i.e, when, where, why, what, whatever, who, whose, whom, which, if, that, etc.
(c.) Noun clause should never be expressed in interrogative form.

2. Adjective Clause:
(a.) It should be placed after the antecedent (noun/pronoun). 'Those' is used for 'They' and 'Then' as an antecedent.
(b.) The verb of the adjective clause should be (singular/plural) in accordance with the antecedent.
(c.) Use of connectives (relative pronouns):

Who, whose, whom

For living beings

 

Which, of which, which

For non-living things & animals

 

 

 

 

‘That’ may be used

 

For ‘who’ & ‘which’

But ‘That’ is usually used if the antecedent is preceded by ‘the same, all, only, nothing, little, few, superlative degree, an interrogative pronoun, same, and any.

 

‘As’ is used

After ‘the same or such’ in place of who or which

 

‘Why’ is used

‘When’ is used

‘Where’ is used

‘How’ is used

 

After 'reason' as an antecedent

After 'time' as an antecedent

After 'place' as an antecedent

After 'manner' as an antecedent

 


Rules of Adjective Clause:-
A. Conjunctions how, when, why, where, used in the clause as relative adverbs.
Example-
(i.) He explained the reason why he had to tell a lie. (for which reason)
(ii.) Has she told you the place where the accident took place? (at which place)
(iii.) He told me the manner how his brother completed the work. (in which manner)
(iv.) I remember the year when she cleared the civil service exam. (in which year)

B. The use of 'As' and 'That' with the 'Same'
(a.) 'That' is used when 'The same' is used with a noun both in the case of qualification & resemblance.
Example-
(i.) I shall buy the same dress that my sister bought.
(ii.) He is the same boy that asked me for cars yesterday.

(b.) 'As' is used when 'The same' is used either without a noun or when the verb is unexpressed in the case of resemblance.
Example-
(i.) I like the same dress as she likes. (resemblance)
(ii.) I shall buy the same car that my friend bought. (resemblance)
(iii.) Just do the same as I do. (resemblance)

3. Adverb Clause: It does the work of an adverb. It modifies some verb, adverb, or adjective in the main clause.
It is classified as follows:

(A.) Adverb Clause of Time:
(i.) This clause is used by conjunctions of time i.e., when, whenever, as soon, as, while, before, after, by the time, until, till, since, ever since, as long as.

(ii.) Preceding action should be expressed in the Perfect Tense.
Example-
(a.) When he will arrive, he will tell us about the experiment. (change 'will arrive' to 'arrives')
       When he arrives, he will tell us about the experiment. (Correct)
(b.) When she completed the letter, she posted it. (Change 'completed' to 'had completed')
       When she had completed the letter, she posted it. (Correct)

(iii.) Avoid the use of 'Not' in the clause beginning with 'Until'.
Example-
(a.) Please do not go until she returns. (Correct)

(iv.) The clause beginning with since, ever since should be in Past Indefinite/Past Perfect and the main clause should be according to the rules of time expression. (Perfect Tense or Perfect Continuous).
Example-
(a.) Since she came to Ranchi, she has not met me.
(b.) Since he returned from Africa, he has been working here.

(B.) Adverb Clause of Condition: 
(i.) There are 3 types of conditional clauses. Each kind contains a different pair of sequences as follows:

Condition

Conditional Clause

Principal Clause

1.) Present likely condition

 

2.) Present unlikely condition, regret, wish

 

3.) Past condition

 

1.) Present Indefinite

 

2.) Subjunctive mood

 

 

3.) Past Perfect

1.) Shall/will

 

 

2.) Should/would

 

 

 

3.)

(would/should/could/might) + have

 


(1.) Present Likely: 
Example-
(a.) If she runs, she will get here soon.
(b.) He will pass if he works hard. 

(2.) Present unlikely/regret/wish: 
Example-
(a.) If I had a stamp, I would give it to you.
(b.) If he were rich, he would help me.
(c.) I wish I were a politician.
(d.) If I knew her address, I would send her a message.

(3.) Past Condition: 
Example-
(a.) If he had written the letter, he would have got a reply yesterday.
(b.) If she had brought a car, she could have enjoyed the trip.
 
(ii.) Conditional clauses are introduced with the following connectives i.e., unless, I wish, if, if only, I would, suppose, provided, in case, on condition that, etc.
Example-
(a.) If she comes by car, she will take you to the temple.
(b.) I case you don't waste time, you can live here.

(iii.) Sometimes subordinate conjunction 'if' is exclude in adverb clause of condition. ie., 'should', 'were', 'had'.
Example-
(a.) Should you work hard, you will pass. (Present condition)
(b.) Were she intelligent, she would not do it. (Present unlikely condition)
(c.) Had I done it, I would not have repented. (Past condition)

(iv.) Avoid the use of 'Not' in the clause beginning with 'Unless'.
Example-
(a.) You will not pass unless you work hard.

(v.) Would that, I wish, I would & if only, are used to express regret or dissatisfaction with the present. Such expressions are expressed in the subjunctive mood
Example-
(a.) Would that I were intelligent.
(b.) If only I hadn't met her last year.
(c.) I wish I had had money then.

Note: 'Would', should be used when the subjects of the clauses differ. 
Example-
(a.) I wish you would help my sister.

(C.) Adverb Clause of Purpose
It is introduced by the conjunctions i.e., that, so that, in order that, lest.
Example-
(a.) She goes to Patna every month so that she may see his ailing sister.
(b.) He cam in order that he might borrow the house.
(c.) Work hard lest you should fail.

(D.) Adverb Clause of Place
It is introduced by the conjunctions 'where & wherever' but it does not qualify any place given in the main clause.
Example-
(a.) I shall go to Ranchi where my father lives. (It is an adjective clause because it qualifies the noun 'Ranchi')
(b.) I shall follow you where you go. (Adverb clause)
(c.) I don't know where she studies. (Noun clause)

(E.) Adverb Clause of Result
It is expressed by 'that' in the adverb clause preceded by 'so', 'such' in the main clause.
Example-
(a.) She was so late that she had to miss lunch.
(b.) She is such an intelligent girl that she can easily pass.

(F.) Adverb Clause of Reason
It is introduced by 'because, since, as, that, now that.
Example-
(a.) I did it because my father told me to do it.
(b.) Since he came late, she was fined.
(c.) He is happy that I am successful. ('That' means because)
Note: 'So' and 'therefore' should be avoided in the main clause.

(G.) Adverb Clause of Concession/Contrast
It is introduced by 'although, though, even if, however, whatever no matter what, no matter how, no matter where, no matter that, notwithstanding that admitting that, whether, even though, much as, as, come what may, say what you will, etc.
Example-
(a.) Though he is rich, he is unhappy.
(b.) Rich as he is, he is not happy.
(c.) Even it is rain, I shall go.
(d.) Though she was intelligent she failed.
(e.) No matter what I say, no one listens to me.
(f.) I shall do it whether you like it or not.

(H.) Adverb Clause of Manner
It is introduced by 'as, as if, as though'. These are used to express as contrary to fact statement. The subjunctive mood is used in this kind of statement.
Example-
(a.) He talks as if he were the policeman.
(b.) He talks as if he had belonged to a very rich family before his wedding.
(c.) She looks as if she is my sister. (Resemblance)
(d.) He did it as if he was advised.

(I.) Adverb Clause of Comparison
It is introduced by 'that & as'. The comparison should be made between the same cases of pronouns or between two persons/things being compared.
Example-
(a.) He is good as she is. (Affirmative)
(b.) He is not so active as they are. (Negative)
(c.) He is as intelligent as his father.
(d.) She is wiser than me. (Use 'I' in place of 'Me')
       She is wiser than I. (Correct)
(e.) The price of my dress is less than that of your dress.
(f.) I found her smaller than he. (Use 'him' in place of 'he')
       I found her smaller than him. (Correct).


















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Wednesday, July 29, 2020

ENGLISH GRAMMAR - MODALS

MODALS  

There are two classes of Verbs:
                                             

Auxiliary Verbs are of two kinds:


Modal Auxiliary: A verb is used to express the mood (mode) or attitude of a speaker is called Modal Auxiliary.
Example-
(i.) You should regularly go to a dance class.
(ii.) They must attend tomorrow's ceremony.
(iii.) May I use your bottle, please?
(iv.) You can park the motor in front of my house.
(v.) You may take these dresses home.
(vi.) Could you open the room, please?

Most Commonly Used Modals:
Example- 
(1.) can                           (2.) could 
(3.) may                         (4.) might 
(5.) should                    (6.) would
(7.) must                       (8.) ought to
(9.) used to                  (10.) dare
(11.) need                      (12.) have/had to 
(13.) shall/ will            (14.) am/was to
All these Modals Suggest the following:
(A.) Permission           (B.) Ability
(C.) Possibility             (D.) Suggestion, Advice
(E.) Promise                 (F.) Intention
(G.) Request                (H.) Necessity, Compulsion
(I.) Prohibition            (J.) Wish or Prayer
(K.) Duty, Obligation          

Different Uses of Modals:
1. May & Might - these are used to expressing
(A.) Possibility:
Example-
(a.) It may/might rain.
(b.) He may/might go to Ranchi tomorrow.
(c.) You may fall.
(d.) Rahul said that he might go there.

(B.) Permission:
Example-
(i.) May I go?
(ii.) Yes, you may go.

(C.) Prayer or Wish:
Example-
(i.) May you enjoy wedding happiness!
(ii.) May God bless you!

(D.) Purpose:
Example-
(i.) He works hard so that he may pass.
(ii.) They came so that they might see me.

(E.) Remote Possibility: 'Might' is used in place of 'may' to express remote possibility. 
Example-
(i.) It might rain.
(ii.) He might be reading now.
Note: 
1.) Both 'May & Might' can be used to express the possibility of the present and future.
2.) 'Might' is used when the reporting verb is in the past.
3.) 'May/Might have' give the opposite sense of the action.

(F.) May/Might + Have: They are used to express possibility/desirability creating to the past action. 
Example-
(i.) He may/might have left yesterday.
(ii.) He might have failed. 
(iii.) Better, you might not have revealed the secret.

2. Can & Could (Able to) - these are used to expressing
(A.) Ability: (Present, Past & Future)
Example-
(i.) She can write French well.
(ii.) Reena could play at cards.
(iii.) She will be able to help me.
(iv.) I have been able to do it.

(B.) Polite Request:
Example-
(i.) Could you please do it for me? ('would' is also used for the polite request)
(ii.) Could you please give me a pen?


(C.) Permission/Order:
Example-
(i.) Yes, you can go now.
(ii.) You can take my book. ('can' is an alternative to 'may')


(D.) Polite Request:
Example-
(i.) You cannot go outside. (Prohibition)
(ii.) Can I get some chocolates? (Offer)
(iii.) Can I help you? (Offer)


(E.) Possibility:
Example-
(i.) Who is she with him?
      She could be his wife.
(ii) How old is she?
     She could be thirty.


(F.) Could + Have: This form is used for past ability while indicating that the action did not take place.
Example-
(i.) I could have revealed the secret. (but I did not)
(ii.) You could have borrowed money. (but you did not)
(iii.) The police could have arrested him. (but they did not)

3. Should - these are used to expressing
(A.) Duty/Obligation: 
Example-
(i.) You should stand by your brother.
(ii.) I should leave now.
(iii.) The promise should be kept.
(iv.) She should be present here.

(B.) Future in the Past: 
Example-
(i.) I told her that I should go there.
(ii.) Did I not tell you that I should qualify?

(C.) Purpose: 
Example-
(i.) Walk carefully lets you should fall.

(D.) Condition: 
Example-
(i.) Should you work hard, you will get success. ('should' is used in the sense of 'it')

(E.) Should + Have: This form is used to express obligation in the past. It may imply the non-performance of the action.
Example-
(i.) You should have stood by your brother.
(ii.) He should have left a message.
(iii.) She should have been present at the function.
(iv.) My sister should have replied politely.

4. Must - these are used to expressing
(A.) Necessity or Obligation: (in place of 'should'
Example-
(i.) You must follow the rules.
(ii.) She must leave now.

(B.) Order of the Speaker: 
Example-
(i.) You must not leave now.
(ii.) They must not play here.

(C.) Strong Possibility: (in place of 'may'
Example-
(i.) It is nine. The student must be in the class.
(ii.) She must be working in college now.

(D.) Determination: 
Example-
(i.) I must help him.

(E.) Deduction, Inference: 
Example-
(i.) She has a big house. She must be rich.
(ii.) He reads a lot. He must be learned.

(F.) Must + Have: This form is used for a past action or situations to indicating the non-performance of the action. 
Example-
(i.) You must have followed guidelines.
(ii.) You must have left them.
(iii.) I must have helped her.


5. Ought To - these are used to expressing
(A.) Duty or Moral Obligation: It is used for 'should & must' when there is a strong sense of moral duty, advice, or indication of correct action.
Example-
(i.) You ought to serve your motherland.
(ii.) You ought not to take junk food.
(iii.) You ought to take food before leaving.

(B.) Ought to + Have: It is used in relation to past acts of duty that was not fulfilled or an action that was neglected in the past.
Example-
(i.) You ought to have taken care of your family.
(ii.) You ought to have served your parents.
(iii.) She ought to have been present at the wedding of her friend.
(iv.) He ought not to have smoked in the car.

6. To Be + Infinitive - these are used to expressing
(A.) Express Plan: 
Example-
(i.) She is to leave for college after marriage.
(ii) I am to make a speech tomorrow.


(B.) Express Order: 
Example-
(i.) Students are to wait outside.
(ii.) The maid is to remain in the house till we return.


(C.) Obligation/Duty: 
Example-
(i.) I am to help my ailing sister.
(ii.) My friend was to send fruits to his sister.

(D.) Express Plan: This expression is used to express an action that could not take place according to the plan.
Example-
(i.) She was to have attended the ceremony but fell ill.
(ii.) Kareena was to have appeared at the examination but she gave up the plan.

(7.) To have+Infinitive: This expression is used to express compulsion as is expressed with 'Must'. It also expresses Obligation (In the Present, Past, Future).
 Example-
(i.) I have to leave for Kolkata today.
(ii.) I have not to meet him now.
(iii.) I will have to get up early in the morning.

8. Used To - Would these are used to expressing
(A.) To Denote Habitual Action or the Past Routine of the Subject: 
Example-
(i.) She used to go to Ranchi by car.
(ii.) She did not use to go to Patna.
(iii.) Mohan would study at noon.
(iv.) He would go out with me in the evening.


(B.) To Denote Discontinued Action: 
Example-
(i.) He used to play basketball. (now he has stopped)
(ii.) She used to work in a mall before marriage. (not now)

(C.) 'Used To' also used as an Adjective (be used to). It is equal to 'accustomed to' as
Example-
(i.) He is used to getting up early.
(ii.) I was used to driving through crowded.
(iii.) We are used to hot moons in the plains.

9. Would - It is used in the following cases-
(i.) Would you please help my sister? (polite request)
(ii.) She told me that she would give me a dress. (future in the past)
(iii.) I would/should like to read now. (wish)
(iv.) Who is he? He would be his brother. (possibly he is)
(v.) She would go to Pune by car.

10. Need & Not Need - 'Need' can be used as an auxiliary or as an ordinary verb
As an auxiliary verb - it is used mainly in the negative and the interrogative forms with a direct infinitive. It has No Past tense.
(A.) Need Not: It is used for an action that is not necessary.
Example-
(i.) He needs to work hard. (Ordinary verb)
(ii.) Need I write to her? (Auxiliary verb)
(iii.) She need not go there again. (Auxiliary verb)
(iv.) You do not need to work now. (Ordinary verb)

(B.) Need Not + Have: It is used for an action that is not necessary but was performed.
Example-
(i.) You need not have gone there.
(ii.) Rahul need not have called yesterday.

11. Dare - 'Dare' can be used as an auxiliary or as an ordinary verb
As an auxiliary verbit is used mainly in the negative and the interrogative forms with a direct infinitive.
Example-
(i.) She dared her sister to touch her. (Challenge, Ordinary verb)
(ii.) I dare to go outside now. (To have courage, Ordinary verb)
(iii.) Dare you go outside now? (Auxiliary verb)
(iv.) I dare say he will cheat you. (I suppose)
(v.) I dare say she will pass. (it is likely)
Note: '-s' is not used with dare & need as auxiliary verbs. 
















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