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Friday, July 31, 2020

Santhal Pargana Kashtkari Adhiniyam,1949 Part-1 (संथाल परगना कश्तकारी अधिनियम 1949 Part-1)

Santhal Pargana Kashtkari Adhiniyam,1949 Part-1

संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम, 1949 


💨संथाल परगना जिले का निर्माण 1855 ईसवी में हुआ
💨संथाल परगना के अंतर्गत भागलपुर एवं बीरभूम जिले के हिस्से सम्मिलित किए गए थे
💨संथाल परगना क्षेत्र का पुराना नाम जंगलतरी ट्रैक था
💨जंगलतरी  ट्रैक को ही 'दामिन-कोह' के नाम से जाना जाता है इससे प्राचीन काल में 'नारी खंड' भी कहा जाता था
💨इस क्षेत्र की एक विशेषता यह है कि इसके अंतर्गत आने वाले जागीर या जमीनदारी को राजस्व पंजी  में तौजी नंबर से दर्शाया गया है
💨इस क्षेत्र के पहला रैयती कानून  1872 में बनाया गया था 
💨 इस क्षेत्र में पहला रैयती कानून का नाम 'संथाल परगना  1872' में पारित किया गया
💨संथाल परगना क्षेत्र में यह पहला कश्तकारी कानून 'संथाल परगना सेटलमेंट रेगुलेशन एक्ट, 1872' है
💨मैकफरस ,एल्सन और  गैंजेर का जमीन का सर्वे रिपोर्ट बनाने में महत्वपूर्ण योगदान था 
💨संथाल परगना के भूस्वामियों और रैयतों के हित में पारित किया गया था 

संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम, 1949

💨मिस्टर गैंजेर का रिपोर्ट देखने के बाद तत्कालीन बिहार सरकार ने "संथाल परगना इन्क्वॉयरी कमेटी 1937" गठन किया
💨इस कमिटी के सिफारिश के आधार पर 'संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम, 1949' का निर्माण किया गया 

इस अधिनियम में कुल  8 अध्याय और 72 धाराएं हैं

अध्यायों का संक्षिप्त विवरण:-

अध्याय- 1    इस अध्याय में संक्षिप्त नाम, प्रांरभ और कानून के विस्तार क्षेत्र के बारे में बताया गया है यह समस्त संथाल परगना में लागू होगा,जिसमें दुमका, साहिबगंज, गोड्डा, देवघर, पाकुड़,और जामताड़ा जिला है (धारा-01 से 4 )

अध्याय- 2 अध्याय-2 में ग्राम प्रधान और मूल रैयत का वर्णन है 
💨इसमें  ग्राम प्रधान की नियुक्ति,काबिलियत और अन्य संबंधित प्रावधानों का वर्णन है इसमें (धारा 5 से  11) तक का धारा शामिल किया गया है  

अध्याय- 3  यह अध्याय बहुत ही खास है जिसमें रैयतों का अधिकार, रैयतों की बेदखली,रैयतों के अधिकार का हस्तांतरण, रैयती भूमि विनियम, हस्तांतरण का निबंधन आदि का वर्णन किया गया है इसमें (धारा-12 से 26) तक शामिल किया गया गया है

अध्याय- 4  इस अध्याय में मुख्यता बंजर भूमि और खाली जूतों की बंदोबस्ती का प्रावधान है इसमें(धारा-27 से 42) तक में निहित है

अध्याय- 5  अध्याय 5 में लगान संबंधी प्रावधानों की पुष्टि की गई है इसमें (धारा- 43 से 52) तक शामिल किया गया है

अध्याय- 6  इसमें धारा 53 के अंतर्गत कुछ प्रयोजनों के लिए भू स्वामी द्वारा भूमि अर्जन का प्रावधान है वर्तमान में इस धारा का प्रयोग नहीं होता है, अध्याय-6 में ही (धारा 54 से 63) के अंतर्गत न्यायिक प्रक्रिया का वर्णन किया गया है

अध्याय- 7   इसमें (धारा-64 से 66)  के अंतर्गत परिसीमा के सामान्य नियम का वर्णन किया गया है

अध्याय- 8  इसके अंतर्गत विविध प्रावधान है, दंड, नोटिस, तमिला बकाया वसूली,आदि का प्रावधान है इसमें (धारा- 67  से 72) तक शामिल किया गया है

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Thursday, July 30, 2020

ENGLISH GRAMMAR - SENTENCES & CLAUSES

SentencesClauses

ClauseA group of words that forms a part of a sentence and has a subject and a finite verb of its own is called a clause
The number of finite verbs in a sentence joined by conjunctions determines the number of clauses.

Sentences:
There are three kinds of sentences:

(I.)Simple Sentences: A sentence that has only one finite verb. It may have non-finite verbs if required. 
Example-
(i.) He is reading.
(ii.) She has written a letter to help her daughter.

(II.)Complex Sentence: It consists of a principal/main clause with one or more subordinate clauses. It means that a complex sentence has more than one finite verb. A subordinate clause is joined by Subordinating co conjunctions.
Example-
(i.) I know that she is a good girl.
(ii.) I know the boy who was here last month.
(iii.) When you do this work, I shall help you.

(III.)Compound Sentences: It consists of two or more principal clauses. These clauses are joined by coordinating conjunctions. e.g., and, but, indeed but, so, therefore, all the same, as well as, however, nevertheless, yet, still, for, while, whereas, or, else, or else, while, etc.
Example-
(i.) He is rich but he is not vain.
(ii.) Speak or you will die.
(iii.) It is cold indeed, but I will go out.
(iv.) I was feeling tired all the same I went to college.
(v.) I was hot outside, however, we went out.

More About Subordinate Clause & Rules:
1. Noun Clause:
(a.) Tense of the noun clause should be in the past if the verb of the main clause is in the past. The tense of universal truth does not change.
(b.) Use the conjunctions i.e, when, where, why, what, whatever, who, whose, whom, which, if, that, etc.
(c.) Noun clause should never be expressed in interrogative form.

2. Adjective Clause:
(a.) It should be placed after the antecedent (noun/pronoun). 'Those' is used for 'They' and 'Then' as an antecedent.
(b.) The verb of the adjective clause should be (singular/plural) in accordance with the antecedent.
(c.) Use of connectives (relative pronouns):

Who, whose, whom

For living beings

 

Which, of which, which

For non-living things & animals

 

 

 

 

‘That’ may be used

 

For ‘who’ & ‘which’

But ‘That’ is usually used if the antecedent is preceded by ‘the same, all, only, nothing, little, few, superlative degree, an interrogative pronoun, same, and any.

 

‘As’ is used

After ‘the same or such’ in place of who or which

 

‘Why’ is used

‘When’ is used

‘Where’ is used

‘How’ is used

 

After 'reason' as an antecedent

After 'time' as an antecedent

After 'place' as an antecedent

After 'manner' as an antecedent

 


Rules of Adjective Clause:-
A. Conjunctions how, when, why, where, used in the clause as relative adverbs.
Example-
(i.) He explained the reason why he had to tell a lie. (for which reason)
(ii.) Has she told you the place where the accident took place? (at which place)
(iii.) He told me the manner how his brother completed the work. (in which manner)
(iv.) I remember the year when she cleared the civil service exam. (in which year)

B. The use of 'As' and 'That' with the 'Same'
(a.) 'That' is used when 'The same' is used with a noun both in the case of qualification & resemblance.
Example-
(i.) I shall buy the same dress that my sister bought.
(ii.) He is the same boy that asked me for cars yesterday.

(b.) 'As' is used when 'The same' is used either without a noun or when the verb is unexpressed in the case of resemblance.
Example-
(i.) I like the same dress as she likes. (resemblance)
(ii.) I shall buy the same car that my friend bought. (resemblance)
(iii.) Just do the same as I do. (resemblance)

3. Adverb Clause: It does the work of an adverb. It modifies some verb, adverb, or adjective in the main clause.
It is classified as follows:

(A.) Adverb Clause of Time:
(i.) This clause is used by conjunctions of time i.e., when, whenever, as soon, as, while, before, after, by the time, until, till, since, ever since, as long as.

(ii.) Preceding action should be expressed in the Perfect Tense.
Example-
(a.) When he will arrive, he will tell us about the experiment. (change 'will arrive' to 'arrives')
       When he arrives, he will tell us about the experiment. (Correct)
(b.) When she completed the letter, she posted it. (Change 'completed' to 'had completed')
       When she had completed the letter, she posted it. (Correct)

(iii.) Avoid the use of 'Not' in the clause beginning with 'Until'.
Example-
(a.) Please do not go until she returns. (Correct)

(iv.) The clause beginning with since, ever since should be in Past Indefinite/Past Perfect and the main clause should be according to the rules of time expression. (Perfect Tense or Perfect Continuous).
Example-
(a.) Since she came to Ranchi, she has not met me.
(b.) Since he returned from Africa, he has been working here.

(B.) Adverb Clause of Condition: 
(i.) There are 3 types of conditional clauses. Each kind contains a different pair of sequences as follows:

Condition

Conditional Clause

Principal Clause

1.) Present likely condition

 

2.) Present unlikely condition, regret, wish

 

3.) Past condition

 

1.) Present Indefinite

 

2.) Subjunctive mood

 

 

3.) Past Perfect

1.) Shall/will

 

 

2.) Should/would

 

 

 

3.)

(would/should/could/might) + have

 


(1.) Present Likely: 
Example-
(a.) If she runs, she will get here soon.
(b.) He will pass if he works hard. 

(2.) Present unlikely/regret/wish: 
Example-
(a.) If I had a stamp, I would give it to you.
(b.) If he were rich, he would help me.
(c.) I wish I were a politician.
(d.) If I knew her address, I would send her a message.

(3.) Past Condition: 
Example-
(a.) If he had written the letter, he would have got a reply yesterday.
(b.) If she had brought a car, she could have enjoyed the trip.
 
(ii.) Conditional clauses are introduced with the following connectives i.e., unless, I wish, if, if only, I would, suppose, provided, in case, on condition that, etc.
Example-
(a.) If she comes by car, she will take you to the temple.
(b.) I case you don't waste time, you can live here.

(iii.) Sometimes subordinate conjunction 'if' is exclude in adverb clause of condition. ie., 'should', 'were', 'had'.
Example-
(a.) Should you work hard, you will pass. (Present condition)
(b.) Were she intelligent, she would not do it. (Present unlikely condition)
(c.) Had I done it, I would not have repented. (Past condition)

(iv.) Avoid the use of 'Not' in the clause beginning with 'Unless'.
Example-
(a.) You will not pass unless you work hard.

(v.) Would that, I wish, I would & if only, are used to express regret or dissatisfaction with the present. Such expressions are expressed in the subjunctive mood
Example-
(a.) Would that I were intelligent.
(b.) If only I hadn't met her last year.
(c.) I wish I had had money then.

Note: 'Would', should be used when the subjects of the clauses differ. 
Example-
(a.) I wish you would help my sister.

(C.) Adverb Clause of Purpose
It is introduced by the conjunctions i.e., that, so that, in order that, lest.
Example-
(a.) She goes to Patna every month so that she may see his ailing sister.
(b.) He cam in order that he might borrow the house.
(c.) Work hard lest you should fail.

(D.) Adverb Clause of Place
It is introduced by the conjunctions 'where & wherever' but it does not qualify any place given in the main clause.
Example-
(a.) I shall go to Ranchi where my father lives. (It is an adjective clause because it qualifies the noun 'Ranchi')
(b.) I shall follow you where you go. (Adverb clause)
(c.) I don't know where she studies. (Noun clause)

(E.) Adverb Clause of Result
It is expressed by 'that' in the adverb clause preceded by 'so', 'such' in the main clause.
Example-
(a.) She was so late that she had to miss lunch.
(b.) She is such an intelligent girl that she can easily pass.

(F.) Adverb Clause of Reason
It is introduced by 'because, since, as, that, now that.
Example-
(a.) I did it because my father told me to do it.
(b.) Since he came late, she was fined.
(c.) He is happy that I am successful. ('That' means because)
Note: 'So' and 'therefore' should be avoided in the main clause.

(G.) Adverb Clause of Concession/Contrast
It is introduced by 'although, though, even if, however, whatever no matter what, no matter how, no matter where, no matter that, notwithstanding that admitting that, whether, even though, much as, as, come what may, say what you will, etc.
Example-
(a.) Though he is rich, he is unhappy.
(b.) Rich as he is, he is not happy.
(c.) Even it is rain, I shall go.
(d.) Though she was intelligent she failed.
(e.) No matter what I say, no one listens to me.
(f.) I shall do it whether you like it or not.

(H.) Adverb Clause of Manner
It is introduced by 'as, as if, as though'. These are used to express as contrary to fact statement. The subjunctive mood is used in this kind of statement.
Example-
(a.) He talks as if he were the policeman.
(b.) He talks as if he had belonged to a very rich family before his wedding.
(c.) She looks as if she is my sister. (Resemblance)
(d.) He did it as if he was advised.

(I.) Adverb Clause of Comparison
It is introduced by 'that & as'. The comparison should be made between the same cases of pronouns or between two persons/things being compared.
Example-
(a.) He is good as she is. (Affirmative)
(b.) He is not so active as they are. (Negative)
(c.) He is as intelligent as his father.
(d.) She is wiser than me. (Use 'I' in place of 'Me')
       She is wiser than I. (Correct)
(e.) The price of my dress is less than that of your dress.
(f.) I found her smaller than he. (Use 'him' in place of 'he')
       I found her smaller than him. (Correct).


















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