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Saturday, July 25, 2020



Article: These are very important words in English and so is their knowledge. It is used before only nouns to limit or define their uses in the context of the sentence. They impart effectiveness and accuracy to the nouns. In fact, articles are used as demonstrative and determiners before nouns.

There are two kinds of Articles:
1. Indefinite ArticlesA, An (in the sense of 'one' and 'any')
2. Definite ArticlesThe (in the sense of 'this' and 'that')

There are two kinds of Articles:
1. Rule I: Must note that the choice between 'A' & 'An' is determined primarily by Sound.
(A) 'A' is used before a word beginning.
(1.) With Consonant: a boy, a child, a book, a student.
(2.) With a Vowel giving the sound of a Consonant: a one-eyed man, a European, a uniform, a university student, a unique book, a universal problem.

(B) 'An' is used before a word beginning.
(1.) With a Vowel: an elephant, an apple, an ass, as an umbrella.
(2.) With a mute 'H': an hour, an honorable person, an honorary post, an heir, an honest man, an hourly visit.
(3.) With Consonant pronounced with the sound of a Vowel: an LLB student, an MP, an MLA, an SP, an X-ray, an FIR.

2. Rule II:
(I) Indefinite article 'A'/'An' is used when a thing or a person is indefinite or that is mentioned for the first time. (in the sense of 'one')
(II) The indefinite article is also used to express a class (in the sense of 'any')
(A) Before a singular/countable common noun when it is mentioned for the first time representing no particular person or a thing. Example-
(1.) I need a book.
(2.) Twelve inches make afoot.
(3.) A beggar came to my door.
(4.) Please get me a scooter.
(5.) She gave her a notebook.

(B)Before a singular/countable noun which is used to single out some person/something as a representative of a class of things, animals, and person. Example-
(1.) A cow is a useful animal. 
(2.) A beggar cannot be a chooser.
(3.) A rose is a beautiful flower.
(4.) A son should be obedient.

(C) To make a common noun of a proper noun to express quality. Example-
(1.) He is a Vikramaditya known for his friends.
(2.) Shylock is living in my neighborhood.

(D) In certain expressions of quantity with certain numbers and expressions of Price/rate, speed, ratio. Example
(1.) Rupees ten a kilo.
(2.) A dozen bananas.
(3.) Half a dozen.

(E) When 'A/An' represents a weakened form of the preposition 'in'. Example-
(1.) We should brush our teeth two times a day.
(2.) He earns fifty thousand rupees a year.

(F) In exclamations with 'what' or 'how' before singular countable nouns.
(1.) What a hot day!
(2.) What kind of a teacher.
(3.) What a naughty child!

(G) The position of the indefinite article in the following adverbs. (Rather, very, much, quite, so, too, such, as). Example-
(1.) It is rather a good step.
(2.) He is a much-hated character.
(3.) It is quite an interesting story.
(4.) She is as intelligent a student as her brother is.
(5.) She is too weak a student to pass.

(H) Before the verbs used as nouns. Example-
(1.) For a swim/visit/drive/talk/walk.
(2.) Have a mind/taste/pain.

(I) Before certain phrases. Example-
(1.) A pity.
(2.) In a hurry.
(3.) Make a noise.
(4.) Feel a shame.

(J) Before the words denoting numbers. Example-
(1.) A hundred/dozen/million etc.

(K) Before the adjectives 'little' & 'few' to give the sense of 'some'. Example-
A little - some (quantity)
A few - some (number)
(1.) A has little money to buy a house. (hardly any)
(2.) Please give me a little sugar. (some)
(3.) He has spent the little money that he had. (some but all)
(4.) There are few boys in the class (hardly anyone)
(5) I met a few students at the university. (hardly anyone)
(6) The few students that were in the class were sitting idle. (some nut all)

(L) There is no plural of 'a', & 'an'. 'Some' or 'Any' is the equivalent to the plural. Example-
(1.) A horse - some horses/any horses
(2.) An orange - some oranges/any oranges.

The Use of Definite Article 'The':
3. Rule III
(A) When a particular person or a thing is already under discussion. Example-
(1.) The book (which we mentioned) is not available in the market.
(2.) Let us study the lesson carefully. 

(B) Before proper nouns (unique objects) when they refer to the names of historical buildings, mountain ranges, planets, rivers, oceans, gulfs, groups of islands, holy books, ordinals, descriptive name of countries, states, newspapers, magazines, deserts, superlative degree, name of trains, hotels, shops, trains, etc. Example-
(1.) The Persian Gulf
(2.) The Taj Mahal
(3.) The Rajdhani Express
(4.) The Times of India
(5.) The Himalayas 

(C.) When a Singular noun has expressed a class of animals or things. But, 'The' is avoided with their Plural forms and persons to express a class. Example-
(1.) The dog is a faithful animal.
(2.) The cow is economically useful.
(3.) The cows are economically useful. (Delete 'The')
(4.) The son should be obedient. (Delete 'The', use 'A'. 'The' before a person doesn't express a class of persons)

(D) Before an adjective when it represents a class of persons. Example-
(1.) The old are respected by the young.
(2.) The rich should help the poor.

(E) Before musical instruments. Example-
(1.) He can play the flute.
(2.) She is fond of playing the harmonium.

(F) As an adverb with a comparative sense. (Double comparison). Example-
(1.) The sooner, the better.
(2.) The higher you go, the colder it is.

(G) Before comparison degree in the case of a choice. Example-
(1.) She is the weaker of the two sisters.
(2.) Which is the more beautiful of the two sisters?

(H) Before proper noun for the sake of comparison. Example-
(1.) Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.
(2.) Surdas is the Milton of India.

(I) Before sports cups and trophies. Example-
(1.) India won the World Cup last year.
(2.) A number of teams are taking part in the World Cup.

(J) Before physical position. Example-
(1.) The top of the mountain.
(2.) The back of the house.

(K) With the cardinal points. Example-
(1.) The Sun rises in the East.
(2.) The Himalayas are to the North of India.

(L) Before a unit of measurement. Example-
(1.) The cloth is sold by the meter.
(2.) Eggs are sold by the dozen.

(M) Before caste & communities. Example-
(1.) The Rajputs are brave people.
(2.) The Marathas are hard working.

(N) Before the adjectives 'same & whole' and after the adjective 'all & both' used with plural nouns. Example-
(1.) This is the same book that you gave me.
(2.) The whole class was absent.
(3.) Both the brothers were honest.

(O) In certain idiomatic phrases. Example-
(1.) In the wrong.
(2.) On the contrary.
(3.) In the air.
(4.) Speak the truth.

(P.) Before a common noun to give it the force of a superlative. Example-
(1.) She is a woman. 
(2.) He is the man for this job.
(3.) Nehru was a leader.

(Q) Before a common noun to give it the sense of an abstract noun (feelings, qualities, etc) Example-
(1.) The judge in him. (sense of justice)
(2.) The mother in her. (feelings of a mother)
(3.) The beast in him. (cruelty of beast)

The Omission of Articles: The article 'A/An, The'.
4. Rule IV
(A) Before proper nouns. Example-
(1.) Shakespeare was the greatest dramatist.
(2.) Delhi is the capital of India.

(B) Before the names of materials. Example-
(1.) Silver is a useful metal.
(2.) The tea of Assam is very famous.
(3.) The water of the Ganga is sacred.

(C.) Before abstract nouns as qualities, feelings, and states used in the general sense. Example-
(1.) Truth is a noble quality.
(2.) Love is a natural feeling.
(3.) Honesty is the best policy.

(D) Before noun complement (appoint, make, elect, select) Example-
(1.) The committee appointed him Captain.
(2.) They elected him President.

(E) Before regular meals except when preceded by an adjective. For example-
(1.) I take breakfast at 8 a.m
(2.) You should take dinner early.
(3.) They gave us a good breakfast.
(4.) A good breakfast is necessary.

(F) Before little, few. (in a negative sense) Example-
(1.) Little sugar (hardly any)
(2.) Few students (hardly anyone)

5. Rule V
(A) When two or more connected nouns refer to the same person or thing, the article should be used before the first noun. However, the article is used before each noun if they refer to two different persons or objects. Example-
(1.) The Prime Minister and the President are visiting the town today. (Two different persons holding two different posts.)
(2.) The Prime Minister and President of the party is on a visit to the town today. (One person holding two posts)

 (B) Similarly, one article before the first adjective is used when two or more adjectives qualify the same noun. Example-
(1.) She is wearing black and white saree.

(C.) If there are two articles before ordinals, use a singular noun. In the case of an article before one ordinal, the noun should be used in plural form. Example-
(1.) The first and second chapters are very difficult.
(2.) The first and second chapters are very difficult.





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