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Tuesday, July 28, 2020



Voice: A verb may tell about what a person or thing does. Therefore, a verb is said to be an action on the part of a doer/subject. Example-
(a.) They will do the work.
(b.) The teacher has punished the girl.
Transitive Verb: The verb 'do, punish' are transitive. The actions of the subject 'They, The teacher' passes over to the objects 'work, the boy'. The verb may also tell what is done to a person or a thing. Example-
(a.) The work will be done by them. (Passive Voice)
(b.) The boy has been punished by the teacher. (Passive Voice)

Intransitive VerbThe verbs do not have objects. The effect of the action does not pass over to any object. Since they are not used with objects. They do not admit of Passive.

How to Define a Voice?
(1.) Active Voice = a sentence begins with a subject. Example-
(a.) They will do the work.
(b.) The teacher has punished the girl.

(b.) Passive Voice = a sentence begins with an object. Example-
(a.) The work will be done by them. 
(b.) The boy has been punished by the teacher.

How to make a Passive Voice?
(1.) The passive of an active voice is formed by using the verb "to be". The active verb must be converted into Past Participle.
(2.) The object may be placed before the verb in passive expression.
Example: the forms of "Be".
(a.) (i.) Subject + Transitive verb + Object (Active)
      (ii.) Subject + Intransitive verb (Active)
(b.) Object + To be + Past Participle of Transitive Verb + Subject (Passive Voice)
The Verb "To Be": It has two uses
(1.) As an auxiliary verb: it is used with other verbs both in the active and passive voice.
(2.) As an ordinary/regular verb: it is used in 'No verb' sentences.

The Forms of 'To be'


The forms of Verb in the passive voice

 No Verb


 is, are, was, were been, being

Infinitive, Modals, Future Indefinite, Present Indefinite, Past Indefinite, Perfect (Present, Past, Future), Continous (Present, Past), Past/Gerund  

Past Participle (PP) of Transitive Verb





The use of 'To be" in passive sentences:
Object + to (be + PP of Transitive Verb) + by Subject
(A.) Infinitive
(B.) Modals
(C.) Future Indefinite
(i.) He doesn't like to be punished.
(ii.) The young persons should be taught good manners.
(iii.) He will be punished for his misbehavior.

(D.) Present Indefinite - is, am, are.
(a.) Active: Subject + (Verb)1/(Verb)5 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) She is taught English daily by her class teacher.
(ii.) I am often invited to attend the party with my friends.
(iii.) Elections are held every five years.

(E.) Past Indefinite - was, were.
(a.) ActiveSubject + (Verb)2 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) + was/were + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) I was punished for her negligence.
(ii.) Both the friends were selected for the senior basketball team

(F.) Perfect (Present, Past, Future) - been.
(a.) ActiveSubject + has/have + (Verb)3 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  has/have + been + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(c.) Active: Subject + had + (Verb)3 + Object
(d.)Passive: Subject (Objective case) + had + been + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(e.) ActiveSubject + will/shall + have + (Verb)3 + Object
(f.)Passive: Subject (Objective case) + will/shall + have been + by + (Verb)3 + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) He has just been elected as President of the company.
(ii.) She had already been admitted to the hospital.
(iii.) My friend will have been married by now.

(G.) Continuous (Present, Past) - being.
(a.) Active: Subject + is/am/are + (Verb) + ing + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  is/am/are + being + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(c.) Active: Subject + was/were + (Verb) + ing + Object
(d.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  was/were + being + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) The match is being telecast now.
(ii.) The match was being telecast yesterday.

(H.) Participle/Gerund - being.
(i.) Nobody likes being cheated.
(ii.) The murderer escaped being hanged.
(iii.) I saw her being taken to the hospital.

Note: Future Continous and Perfect Continuous tenses do not admit of passive voice expressions.

Some Hints/Rules on Making Passive Verbs:
(1.) The Use of Interrogative Pronoun while changing Active to Passive Voice.
(a.) Active - What are you writing?
Passive - What is being written by you?
(b.) Active - What makes you angry?
Passive - By what are you made angry?
(c.) Active - By whom are you taught French?
Passive - By whom are you taught French? 
or, Who are you taught French by?
(d.) Active - Whom are you teaching?
Passive - Who is being taught by you?

(2.) (a.) When the Subjects are indefinite/unclear pronouns or understood noun, it is not necessary to use them in Passive voice as "by somebody".
(i.) Somebody has picked my pocket.
      My pocket has been picked.
(ii.) They will clear the result soon.
      The result will be cleared soo.

(b.) A sentence beginning with negative indefinite pronouns is converted into negative.
(i.) Nobody can change destiny.
      Destiny cannot be changed.
(ii.) None saw her in the school.
      She was not seen in the school.

(3.) When the Principle clause is followed by the Noun clause as object the passive voice is made as follows. Some Noun clauses as an object are- consider, belief, understand, suspect, report, say, claim, expect, know, allege, find, learn, require, suppose, seem, appear, etc.  
(i.) People consider that he is honest.
      It is considered that he is honest.
(ii.) We hope that he will pass.
      It is hoped that he will pass. 

(4.) Verbs with Two Objects: Sometimes are verbs are used with two objects in active sentences. Passive Voice can be made with either of the objects. 
(i.) He gave me a book.
      (a.) I was given a book by him.
or, (b.) A book was given to me by him.
(ii.) They made him a leader.
      (a.) He was made a leader.

(5.) "By" is not used with certain verbs when making a Passive Voice, Instead we use at, with, in, to, etc.
(i.) I know her.
      She is known to me.
(ii.) His sudden arrival surprised everyone.
       Everybody was surprised at his sudden arrival.

(6.) Infinitives:
(i.) My brother has to buy a new car.
      A new car has to be bought by my brother.
(ii.) There is nothing to lose.
       There is nothing to be lost.
(iii.) I would like someone to help me.
       I would like to be helped.
(iv.) I am not to blame for the loss.
      I am not to be blamed for the loss.

(7.) Participles/Gerund: 
(i.) I remember my sister taking me to the doctor.
      I remember being taken to the doctor by my sister.
(ii.) I found his friends laughing at him.
      I found him being laughed at by his friends.

(8.) If a Preposition or an Adverb is used with a Verb to convey specific meaning, it should not be removed while making a Passive Voice.
(i.) Mothers look after their children.
   Children are looked after by their mother.
(ii.) You should not look down upon the rich.
   The rich should not be looked down upon.

(9.) The Verbs - let, bid, make, help, feel, see, watch, hear, are used with Direct Infinitive (without to) in the Active Voice.
In Passive Voice, these given verbs are used with Infinitive (To + Verb). 
Exception, Let - it is followed by Direct Infinitive both in Active & Passive Voice sentences.
(i.) I bade him go.
      He was bidden to go.
(ii.) I have made her sing a song.
      She has been made to sing a song.
(iii.) She let me go.
      I was let go of her.

(10.) Imperative Sentences:
(A.) Command & Order
(B.) Permission, Request, Advice

(A.) Command & Order: 
(i.)Passive- When Object is given, use Let + Object + be + Past Participle.
     (a.) Bring a book.
           Let a book be brought.
(ii.)Passive- When No Object is given, begin in the sentence with You are ordered/commanded to + .....
     (a.) Go out at once.
            You are ordered to go out at once.
     (b.) Don't stay here.
            You are ordered not to stay here.      

(B.) Permission, Request, Advice
(i.) Passive - When Object is given, make Passive with Object.
      Object + Should + Past Particle (PP)
(i.) Obey parents.
      Parents should be obeyed.
(ii.) Listen to me.
      I should be listened to.
(iii.) Prepare for war.
      You should be prepared for war.
Or, Be prepared for war.

(ii.)Passive- When No Object is given, begin in the sentence with You are ordered/requested/advised to + ..... 
(i.) Please come soon.
      You are requested to come soon.
(ii.) Please don't talk loudly.
      You are requested not to talk loudly.

(11.) Sentences Beginning with Let: (Permission, Suggestion)
(i.) Passive - When Object is given, make Passive Voice.
(i.) Let me play here. (Permission)
      I may be allowed to play here.
(ii.) Let us help him. (Suggestion)
      He should be helped.

(iI.)Passive - When Object is given, begin, the sentence, with - It is suggested___
(i.) Let us stay here. (Suggestion)
      It is suggested that we should stay here.
(ii.) Let us sleep here.
      It is suggested that we should sleep here.
(12.) 'To be' is often allowed in the sense of 'have' in Passive Voice sentences of the following Verbs- Rise, fall, come, arrive, go, lose, etc.
(i.) Summer is come. (Incorrect)
       Summer has come.
(ii.) The book is lost. (Incorrect)
       The book has been lost.
(iii.) The Sun is risen. (Incorrect)
       The Sun has risen.
(iv.) Golden days are gone. (Incorrect)
       Golden days have gone.





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