All Jharkhand Competitive Exam JSSC, JPSC, Current Affairs, SSC CGL, K-12, NEET-Medical (Botany+Zoology), CSIR-NET(Life Science)

Monday, July 27, 2020



Tense: A tenses may be defined as that form of a verb which indicates the time and the state of an action or event. In this manner, a verb may refer to,

(A.) Time of Action (Tense):
(a.) He goes to school. (Present time of action)
(b.) He went to school. (Past time of action)
(c.) He will go to school. (Future time of action)
From the above sentences it will be clear that there are three main tenses:
(1.) The Present Tense 
(2.) The Past Tense
(3.) The Future Tense

(B.) State of an Action (Function of Tense):
(a.) I write letters regularly. (Present time, Habitual Function)
(b.) I am writing a letter. (Present Continuous, Progressive Function)
(c.) I have just written a letter. (Present Perfect, Preceding Function)
(d.) I have been writing a letter for some time. (Present Perfect Continuous, Time Expression)

(C.) Time Frame of a Tense:
(i.) Point of Time: Which denotes any specific time/proper time. E.g., in 1947, on Monday, etc.
(ii.) Period of Time: Which denotes a specific duration of time. E.g., from 2001 to 2020, from Monday to Sunday, etc.
(iii.) Expression of Time: Which denotes the combination of both point and period of time. E.g., winter 1947, summer 1950, etc.
1. Present Tense & Their Rules:
(1.) The Present Indefinite Tense (Habitual Action)
(a.) This tense is used to denote habit, custom, practice, repeated, action, permanent activity, general truth, etc. 
(b.) Ideas are expressed by the adverb of frequency such as often, seldom, rarely, usually, never, occasionally, sometimes, normally, always, frequently, daily, etc. Example- 
(i.) The old lady goes for a walk in the morning.
(ii.) Mohan usually believes everybody.
(iii.) Suhani always comes in time.
(c.) It is also used to make a statement in the present showing permanent nature and activity of the subject and eternal principles. Example-
(i.) I know her well.
(ii.) The cow gives milk.
(iii.) Rivers freeze at high altitudes.
(d.) Historical Present:
(i.) Now Netaji enters and addresses the Indian soldiers.
(ii.) Now Arjun shoots arrows at Bhishma.
(e.) Future Arrangement: 
(i.) The Chief Minister arrives from New Delhi tomorrow.
(ii.) She leaves his job next week.

(2.) The Present Continuous Tense (Progressive Action)
(a.) It is used for an action in progress, that is temporary in nature (not for a permanent activity) in the present at the time of speaking. Example-
(i.) She is not working. She is swimming in the river.
(ii.) It is raining outside.
(b.) It also expresses future action or a definite arrangement in the near future. Example-
(i.) I am going to the market tomorrow.
(ii.) She is coming next week.
(c.) Continuous tense + 'always' may express an idea, which is not to the linking of the speaker. Example-
(i.) He is always teaching his children.
(ii.) She is always praising her friends.
(d.) There are some of the verbs which sometimes do not admit of progressive action. Such verbs are called as Non-Progressive (Static verbs). Example-
(i.) Perception Verbs: See, taste, smell, please.
(ii.) Verbs of Thinking Process: Think, know, mind, mean.
(iii.) Verbs of Showing Possession: Own, have, belong, possess, contain.
(iv.) Verbs expressing Feelings or State of Mind: Belief, like, love, want, wish.
(v.) Verbs in General: Look, seem, appear, affect, resemble, cost, stand.

(3.) The Present Perfect Tense (Preceding Action)
(a.) It is a mixture of present & past tense. The action is already complete in the past, when at the time of speaking. It signifies a strong connection with the present though action took place in the past. The following adverbs & conjunctions are used to express the preceding action. (Ever, just, recently, already, yet, till, so far, of late, lately, before, by the time, after) Example-
(i.) I have just seen that film.
(ii.) I have already had my breakfast.
(iii.) 'So far, yet, till = up to now, up to this. (Negative implication)

(b.) (Present Perfect + Point of Time = Simple Past). The point of time in the past indicates that action took place at a point in the past. The point of time is expressed by since, ever since, last, yesterday, the other day, ago, before, back, formerly (any time in the past). Example-
(i.) She has returned three days ago/before. (Incorrect, omit 'has')
(ii.) She returned three days ago/before. (Correct)

 (c.) (Present Indefinite + Time Expression= Present Perfect)This also can be used with since, for, how long, whole, all, throughout, all along, etc. to express time expression. Example-
(i.) She has known me for three years.
(ii.) He has owned this house since 2017.

2. Past Tense & Their Rules:
(1.) The Past Indefinite Tense (Habitual Action)
(a.) It is used for a past habit, indicated by often, seldom, usually, frequently, rarely, daily, used to, would, etc. Example-
(i.) They never drank juice.
(ii.) She always carried an umbrella.
(iii.) I used to go to Mumbai by train.
(b.) It is also used for a single act completed in the past. A definite point of time is denoted by since, ever since, earlier, ago, back, last, yesterday, the other day (any point of time in the past). Example-
(i.) I have ever met your brother yesterday. (Incorrect, remove 'have')
      I ever met your brother yesterday. (Correct)
(ii.) She has bought a car two years ago. (Incorrect, remove 'has')
       She bought a car two years ago.

(2.) The Past Continuous Tense (Progressive Action)
(a.) It is used for past action in progress. Example-
(i.) It was still raining when I reached there. 
(ii.) She was busy packing last evening.
(b.) It is also used for a definite arrangement for the future in the past. Example-
(i.) She was leaving that night.
(ii.) I asked him what he was doing on Sunday.
(c.) While, still, at that moment, then these words also help to express action in the past.

(3.) The Past Perfect Tense (Past Preceding Action)
(a.) It is used when out of two actions. It is necessary to highlight the preceding action was completely finished before the succeeding action started. Example-
(i.) I had gone to Mumbai last week before my mother came. (Correct)
(ii.) I had gone to Mumbai last week. (Incorrect, as preceding action is not implied here)

(b.) Sometimes preceding action is implied and is indicated by the use of ever, just, recently, already, yet, so far, till (time), by the time, before, by, after, etc. Example-
(i.) I had already taken breakfast.
(ii.) I had finished the book before he came.
(iii.) I had retired from college just then.
(iv.) She finished the book after she had returned from college.

(c.) It is also used as time expression with since, for, how long, whole, all, throughout, all along, etc. Example-
(i.) She has known him for five years.
(ii.) She had owned this house for three years.

(d.) It is also used with verbs such as want, hope, expect, think, suppose, mean, intend, these indicate that the cation mentioned did not take place. Example-
(i.) I had wanted to help my sister (but could not help)
(ii.) I had expected to pass. (but did not pass)   
(iii.) My sister had hoped that I would send her money. (unfulfilled hope)

3.  Future Tense & Their Rules:
(1.) The Future Indefinite Tense (Future Action)
(a.) It expresses an action that is to take place in the future. Soon, shortly, in a few, tomorrow, presently (soon), next year/month/week, indicates the future action. Example-
(i.) They will come tomorrow. 
(ii.) The teacher will take an examination next week.
(b.) It is expressed in the present continuous tense. But it is more definite action than the action expressed in the future indefinite. Example-
(i.) They are coming tomorrow. (certain to come)
(ii.) She is marrying soon. (certain to marry)
(c.) It is expressed in the future continuous. Example-
(i.) Mohan will be arriving soon. (He will arrive)
(ii.) I shall be going tomorrow. (I shall go)
(d.) It is expressed in the present indefinite tense. Example-
(i.) She arrives from the India next month. (will arrive)
(ii.) The Prime Minister leaves for Kanpur tomorrow. (will leave)

(2.) The Future Continuous Tense (Future Progressive)
(a.) It is used to express an action that will be in progress with a point of time in the future. Example-
(i.) She will be waiting for me when I reach her home.
(ii.) What will he be doing when you visit him?
(iii.) Get home at once. Your mother will be wondering where you are.
(iv.) Probably, it will be raining when you reach Ranchi.
(b.) It is also used to express the future indefinite tense or definite future arrangement. Example-
(i.) She will be going to Patna by car today.
(ii.) He will be arriving tomorrow to meet his wife.

(3.) The Future Perfect Tense (Future Preceding)
(a.) It is used when out of two actions it is necessary to highlight the preceding action will be completely finished before the succeeding action starts in the future. It is indicated by the use of ever, just, already, recently, yet, so far, till (time), before, by the time, after. Example-
(i.) She will have already prepared food when I reach home.
(ii.) He will have rung up his wife before he arrives.
(iii.) I think the news will not have been published so far.
(iv.) My assistant will have typed letters by lunch today.

(b.) It is also used to express time expression. Since, for, how long, whole, all, throughout, all long, denote the action started sometime in the past and is continuing into the present. Example-
(i.) He will have known her for three years next month.
(ii.) She will have suffered a lot by now since her birth.

4. Perfect Continuous: Present, Past, Future (Time Expression)
(a.) Perfect Continuous tense (Present, Past, Future) denotes an action continuing from the past into the present. It implies the duration of action (past to present). The time expression is indicated by since, for, how long, whole, all, throughout, all along.

(b.) Time expression can be used with both continuous & definite tenses as follows-
(i.) Continuous + Time Expression = Perfect Continuous (Action is not yet complete)
(ii.) Indefinite + Time Expression = Perfect (Action is complete)
(i.) She goes to the temple every Tuesday. (Point of time)
(ii.) She has completed two letters since last night. (Time Expression)
(iii.) She had been playing Ludo the whole day yesterday. (Time Expression)





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