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Thursday, July 23, 2020



Adjective: An adjective is a word that tells us about or add to the meaning of a noun.
E.g. (a.) She is a kind lady.                      (b.) I like this pen.
        (c.) She lives in a large house.        (d.) He is a strong player.

There are following two classes of adjectives: (A.) Descriptive   (B.) Determiner

Position of Adjectives: 
(A.) Descriptive adjectives, are used both attributively and predicatively. It denotes the quality, size, colour, shape, etc. of a noun. (Ugly, heavy, dry, red, good.)
E.g. (a.) She is an honest girl. (Attributive use)
        (b.) The girl is honest. (Predicative use)

(B.) Determiner adjectives, are used only before the noun.
        Kind of Determiner Adjectives:
(1.) Demonstrative Adjectives: This, that, these, those.
(2.) Distributive Adjectives: Each, every, either, neither.
(3.) Quantitative Adjectives: Some, any, no, little.
(4.) Numerical Adjectives: Few, many, all, several, one, first.
(5.) Interrogative Adjectives: Which, what, whose.
(6.) Possessive Adjectives: My, our, your's, his, her, their, it's.
(7.) Relative Adjectives: who, which, what.
(8.) Emphatic Adjectives: Own, such, same, very.
(9.) Proper Adjectives: Indian, Asian, American.
(10.) Exclamatory Adjectives: What, which, how.
(11.) Present/Past Participle Adjectives: A wounded driver, a moving bus, a burnt man. 

(C.) Articles as Determines: A, An, The.

Distinction between Adjectives and Pronouns:
a.) Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns:
E.g. (1.) Please get the that book. (Adjective)
        (2.) That is my book. (Pronoun)

b.) Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns:
E.g. (1.) This is my book.   (Adjective)
        (2.) This book is mine. (Pronoun)
        (3.) It is her vanity box. (Adjective)
        (4.) This vanity box is hers. (Pronoun)

c.) Distributive Adjectives and Distributive Pronouns:
E.g. (1.) Either boy has stolen my book. (Adjective)
        (2.) Neither book will serve my purpose. (Adjective)
        (3.) I do not like either of the sisters. (Pronoun)
        (4.) We bought neither of the bikes. (Pronoun)

d.) Every, is only an adjective and it can't be used as determiner.
But Each, can be used both as adjective and pronoun.   
E.g. (1.) Every boy was present. (Adjective)
        (2.) Each boy was present. ((Adjective)
        (3.) Each of the boys will come. (Pronoun)
        (4.) Everyone of them is wasting money. (Pronoun)   
Rules of Adjectives: 
(1.) Rule I: Generally speaking adjective is used when the quality of a noun and pronoun rather than the action of a verb is expressed.
E.g. (1.) She is skilful dancer. (quality)
        (2.) She dances skilfully. (action)
        (3.) Sonu's act was thoughtful. (quality)
        (4.) Sonu acted thoughtfully. (action)

(2.) Rule II: The verb given are linking verbs. Some verbs are not modified by adverbs. (Be, become, seem, appear, taste, smell, sound, feel, turn, get, grow, keep, look, make , prove, etc.)
E.g. (1.) She appears sad.
        (2.) I feel sick.
        (3.) She has grown wise.
        (4.) She looked calm and quiet.  
        (5.) The mangoes taste sweetly. (Incorrect, use sweet)
       (6.) The mangoes taste sweet. 
       (7.) She talks sweetly. 

(3.) Rule III: There are some adjectives which don't admit of any comparative and superlative degree. Such adjectives denote absolute position. (Perfect, unique, ideal, chief, universal, extreme, complete, entire, excellent, impossible, absolute, etc.). Example-
(1.) I have never seen a more complete book on Science. (Incorrect, drop 'more')
(2.) I have never seen a complete book on Science. (Correct)
(3.) Happiness is the chiefest aim of mankind. (Incorrect, use 'chief')
(4.) Happiness is the chief aim of mankind. (Correct)
(5.) How can divided India become the most supreme power? ( Remove 'the most')
(6.) How can divided India become supreme power? (Correct)

 (4.) Rule IV: The comparative adjective such as 'prior, junior, senior, superior, prefer (verb), preferable, elder, etc. are followed by 'to' instead of 'them'. Example-
(1.) He is senior than me in service. (Incorrect, use 'to' in place of 'than')
(2.) He is senior to me in service. (Correct)
(3.) My sister is elder than me by two years. (Incorrect, Use 'to' in place of 'than')
(4.) My sister is elder to me by two years. (Correct)
(5.) She is comparatively smarter than her husband. (Incorrect, Use 'smart')
(6.) She is comparatively smart than her husband. (Correct)
(7.) Milk is more preferable to milk. (Incorrect, Remove 'more')
(8.) Milk is preferable to milk. (Correct) 
 (5.) Rule V: Note carefully the distinction among the following adjectives. Example-
(1.) Little : It is used for quantity. (Little, less, least).
It means hardly any. (Negative sense)
A little means not much or some. (Affirmative meaning)
The little means not much but all.
(2.) Few : It is used for number. (Few, fewer, fewest)
 It means hardly anyone/anything. (Negative sense)
 A few means not many or some (Affirmative meaning)
 The few means not many but all.  
(3.) Some : It is used for affirmative and while making request.
(4.) Any : It is used for negative and interrogative sentences
(5.) Later : It is opposite of earlier. (Refers to time)
(6.) Latter : It is opposite of former. (Refers to position)   
(7.) Other : It means the second of the two.
(8.) Another : It means additional one. (More) 
(9.) Somewhat : It is used as an adverb.
(10.) Farther : It means more distant. (Far, farther, farthest)
(11.) Further : It means additional.

(6.) Rule VI: When two adjectives qualify the same noun, both the adjectives should be expressed in the same degree. Examples-
(1.) She is most active and energetic social worker in our club. (Use 'most' before energetic).
(2.) She is most active and most energetic social worker in our club. (Correct)

(7.) Rule VII: Ordinal is placed before numerical adjective. Example-
(1.) You must study the two first chapters of the book. (Use, 'the first two')
(2.) You must study the first two chapters of the book. (Correct)
(3.) The two or last three lessons of your book are worth reading. (Use, 'the last two or three')
(4.) The last two or three lessons of your book are worth reading. (Correct)

(8.) Rule VIII: The comparative adjectives ending in '-er' (e.g. cleverer) should be used as 'more clever' while comparing the two qualities of one and the same thing or a person. Example-
(1.) She is cleverer than honest. (Incorrect, Use 'more cleaver')
(2.) She is more cleverer than honest. (Correct)
(3.) She is more clever than her sister. (Incorrect, Use 'cleverer' in place of 'more cleverer')
(4.) She is cleverer than her sister. (Correct, As we comparing between two)

(9.) Rule IX: The expression 'these' and 'those' should not be used with the singular nouns 'kind', 'type', and 'sort'. Example-
(1.) I will not do these kind/sort of acts. (Incorrect, Use, this kind/sort', for 'these kind/sort')
(2.) I will not do this kind/sort of acts. (Correct)
(3.) This type of articles are not allowed into the hall. (Incorrect, use 'is' for 'are')
(4.) This type of articles is not allowed into the hall. (Correct)

(10.) Rule X: Note- Carefully the use of 'others' & 'else; in comparative and superlative degrees. Example-
(1.) The Ganga is more sacred than any river of India. (Incorrect, Use 'other' after 'any')
(2.) The Ganga is more sacred than any other river of India.
(3.) My brother is the smartest player of all others in the team. (Incorrect, Remove 'others')
(4.) My brother is the smartest player of all in the team. (Correct).

(11.) Rule XI: The use of 'all, both, & whole' as adjectives.
(A)Place 'the' after 'all' & 'both' when used as adjectives for the plural nouns. But 'the' is used before 'whole'. For example-
(a.) All the students were present. (Correct)
(b.) Both the boys left soon. (Correct)
(c.) Whole country is suffering from drought. (Incorrect, say 'The whole')
(d.) The whole country is suffering from drought. (Correct) 

(12.) Rule XII: Either, neither, only, both, even, but,  and also should be placed immediately before the words they emphasise (quality, modify). Example-
(1.) Neither she is intelligent nor honest. (Incorrect, Use 'neither' before intelligent)
(2.) She is neither intelligent nor honest. (Correct)
(3.) Not only he likes to take coffee but also tea. (Incorrect, Use 'Not only' before 'coffee')
(4.) He likes to take not only coffee but also tea. (Correct) 

(13.) Rule XIII: 'As' is used in positive degree to denote equality while 'than' is used in the comparative degree. 'As' & 'than' are required to be used when a sentence contains adjectives in positive and comparative forms. Example-
(1.) She is honest, if not more honest than her brother. (Incorrect)
(2.) She is as honest as, if not more honest than her brother. (Correct)
(3.) I am as strong or even stronger than my foe. (Incorrect)
(4.) I am as strong as or even stronger than my foe. (Correct)

(14.) Rule XIV: The order of adjectives qualifying a noun. (SSACNM)
Size---> Shape ---> Age ---> Colour ---> Nationality ---> Material ---> Noun. 
(1.) Twenty years old black American Negro.
(2.) A big round black Indian plastic table.
(3.) A spacious dark cell.
(4.) A large glass room.





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