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Showing posts with label JH-HISTORY-ENGLISH. Show all posts
Showing posts with label JH-HISTORY-ENGLISH. Show all posts

Sunday, June 13, 2021

Chik Baraik Tribes Governance System: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC

Chik Baraik Tribes Governance System

The Chik Baraiks (Badaiks) is the weaver tribe of the Jharkhand. They mainly weave cloth. The tribe is also called the father of handmade clothes.

Native: Ranchi, Khunti, Gumla, Simdega, and Lohardaga districts.

The Chik Baraik tribes are included in Scheduled Tribe (ST) in Jharkhand, Bihar, and West Bengal. They are also known as Chikwa in Chattisgarh, Badaik in Odisha, and included as Scheduled Caste (SC).

Chik Baraik Tribes Governance System: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC

Culture:

The traditional occupation of Chik Baraik is making clothes such as dhoti, saree, gamcha, etc. 

Language: they speak Nagpuri an Indo-Aryan language.

They have several clans among the tribe which is taken from various animals, objects, and places including Boda (Russell's viper), Chand (Moon), Baunkra (Heron), Jamakiar, Kothi, Kouwa (Crow), Kanjyasuri (Kanji Pani), Loha (Iron), Malua, Naurangi, Rajhans (Hamsa), Singhi (Asian stinging catfish), etc.

Their deities are Devi Mai, Surjahi (Sun), and Bar Pahari. They also worship moon, earth, and other deities. Snake is also worshiped as the ancestor of the caste.

Festivals: the traditional festivals are Asari, Nawakhani, Karam, Jitia, Sohrai, Fagun, etc. Their folk dance is Jhumair, Domkach, Fagua, etc.

Governance System:

Chik Baraik does not have its own ethnic governance system. Each of their villages has 15 families there residing. They live in mixed villages. Therefore, their problems are solved by the mixed gram panchayat. Many villages join together to form their in-house council, which is called Raja, Diwan, Panare, etc. are there to help him. All these positions are heredity. All disputes are settled by this council. According to their customs, they have rules and regulations, which are decided by keeping them in mind. Illegal sex, consensual or non-tribal sex is considered a serious offense. They have to face caste-boycott or harsh punishment for such crimes. 

Present Scenario:

At present, the All India Chik-Baraik Welfare Committee has been formed, which is making a significant contribution to the development of Chik Baraik.

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Saturday, June 12, 2021

Chero Tribes Governance System: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC

Chero Tribes Governance System

The Chero is an ancient tribe in Jharkhand, but they are also found in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. They belong to the proto-austroloid family. In Jharkhand, the tribe is primarily concentrated in Palamu, Latehar, and Garhwa district.

Chero Tribes Governance System: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC

History:

The Chero community claims to be the descendants of the Rajput (Kshatriyas), who were a powerful race of Indian warriors whose kingdom existed between the 18th and 19th centuries. The Chero were once the lords of all the provinces surrounding the sacred Ganges River. While other members of the tribe claim to be Nagavanshi

Society:

The community has a traditional caste council that maintains strong social control over the community. They are Hindu but also worship several tribal deities, such as Sairi-Ma, Ganwar Bhabhani, Dulha Deo.

The Chero of Jharkhand has two sub-divisions:

  • Barahazari 
  • Terahazari

These two groups are endogamous and do not inter-marry. They practice clan exogamy and their main clans are the Mawar, Kuanr, Mahato, Rajkumar, Manjhia, Wamwat, Hantiyas. These clans are of unequal status and the Chero practice clan hypergamy. Caste boycott is also done for violating rules. They speak Hindi, Bhojpuri, and Nagpuri.

The Chero of Jharkhand are mainly farmers, with many were substantial landowners. Oxen buffaloes and cows are yoked to plow and carts to help them work in the fields. Goats, fish, and fowl are important components of their diet and are also used as sacrifices in religious ceremonies. 

Governance:

The Chero caste has its own Panchayat, which works at the village level, region, and Mandal level.

The head of the Panchyat is called "Mukhiya", and at the district level is called as "Chairman".

Function:

  • Village disputes are settled in the panchayat.
  • The guilty are to be punished or fined. The decisions of the panchayat are final.

Like many people in India, the Chero belongs to a particular social class or caste. They are officially classified as landowners and farmers. In general, they are a proud race and have never forgotten that their bloodline is one of royalty.

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Friday, June 11, 2021

Baiga Tribes Governance System: Jharkhand History- JPSC

Baiga Tribes Governance System

The 'Baiga= sorcerer=medicine man' are ethnic groups found in Central India, particularly in Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh.

Baiga tribe is a majority tribe in Jharkhand, which belongs to the proto-austroloid species. They mainly reside in the district of Palamu, Garhwa, Ranchi, Latehar, Hazaribagh.

Baiga Tribes Governance System: Jharkhand History- JPSC

Societal Culture:

  • Language: Most Baigas speak Hindi, Gondi, Marathi, or local languages depending on the region where they live.

  • Tatoo: Tattooing is an integral part of their lifestyle. Women are famous for sporting tattoos of various kinds on almost all parts of their bodies. The women who work as tattooing artists belong to the Ojha, Badni, and Dewar tribes are called "godharins". They are extremely knowledgeable about the different types of tattoos preferred by various tribes.

  • Cuisine: Baiga cuisine primarily consists of coarse grains, such as Kodo millet and kutki, and involves very little flour. Another staple food is pej, a drink that can be made from ground corn (macca) or from the water left from boiling rice. They supplement these diets with food from the forest, including fruits, vegetables. They also hunt fish and small mammals.


Societal governance:

In Baiga, social organization is found at the gotra or village level. Their traditional ethnic panchayat is at the village level. 

  • Head: The head of the village organization is called "Muqaddam". This position is heredity. 
  • Priest: The village also has a religious head or priest, but sometimes or somewhere the authority of the priest is combined with the head. Often the same person holds both positions.
  • Assistant: The assistant of the chief is "Sayana" and "Sikhen". Both of these positions are elected by the villagers. 
  • Messenger: There is also a messenger, is called "Charidars".

The village Panchyat deals with;

  • Village conflicts, inheritance property disputes, sexual offenses, marriage or divorce decisions, witch exorcism 'bisaeen', or theft cases. 
  • Marriage, festivals or extramarital sex, and marriage-related problems outside the caste are also resolved.

Everyone respects the decision of the panchayat and the violator is socially boycotted with the help of the preferred members of the village. In case of an outbreak of epidemic in the village due to the disease or sickness of the farmer, the role of the panchayat becomes clear. Panchayat supports and helps in the worship of village deities and other social works.

With the establishment of a government panchayat in the village, the traditional panchayat's dignity, popularity, and authority have declined.

Belief and Cultivation:

The Baiga tribes practice shifting cultivation in the forest areas. They say they never plowed the Earth because it would be akin to scratching their mother's breast, and they could never ask their mother to produce food from the same patch of earth time and time again- she would have become weakened. For this reason, Baiga used to live a semi-nomadic life and practiced 'Bewar'or 'dahiya' cultivation. These techniques are known as "Swidden agriculture" (Shifting cultivation), rather than being a cause of deforestation, have been shown to effective conservation devices, employed for centuries by tribal peoples.

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Asur Tribes Governance System: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC

Asur Tribes Governance System

Asur is one of the minority primitive tribes of Jharkhand. The Asur is among the nine Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) found in Jharkhand. As per the census, the Asur tribe has a population of around 23,000 in the Latehar and Gumla districts.

Asur Tribes Governance System: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC

In the community, 50% of the population could barely speak in Asur language. They are not fluent in the language. The Asur language figures in the list of UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. Only 7,000 to 8,000 Asur tribals are left in the community who are well conversant in the language. With help from tribal rights activists, Asur Tribal Wisdom Center, and the organization involving Asur tribals, was established at Jobipat village near Netarhat to protect the language and culture of Asur tribals.

Of the 32 tribes recorded in the State, only four to five tribes, including Santhali, Ho, and Kurukh, recorded their language scripts.


About Asur Tribes:

Asur tribes are worshipers of their ancestor named Mahisasura, who was born from the womb of a buffalo, and according to the Hindu mythological, he was killed by Goddess Durga. They stay in the forest and also they worship the plants and animals. They are very fond of music and their own culture.  


Governance:

Asur village itself is a political entity. Asur society is governed by traditional practice. There are Asur Panchayat in the village, whose officials are Mahto, Baiga, Pujar, Godait, etc. In Panchayat, senior citizens of at least five villages live as Panch. All adult males participate in the panchayat. 

Functions of Panchayat:

  • It resolves all kinds of disputes related to the village.
  • Social exclusion is punished only under special circumstances.

After the establishment of modern government panchayats, the active role of traditional panchayats is weakening. Yet, these panchayats appear to be performing most of the functions.

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Wednesday, May 5, 2021

Tana Bhagat Movement (1914-1919)- JPSC/JSSC

Tana Bhagat Movement (1914-1919)

  • Tana Bhagat movement was a tribal uprising of a section of the Tana Bhagats and Oraon tribes under the leadership of Jatra Oraon occurring during the late colonial period in the Chotanagpur region of Jharkhand (then Bihar). 

Tana Bhagat Movement (1914-1919)
  • This movement originated along with the Birsa Movement. It was a multi-dimensional movement, as its leaders came forward on the issues of their social identity, religious traditions, and human rights. 

  • Tana Bhagat was not an individual, but a branch of the Oraon tribe, who had adopted the Kudukh religion. They opposed the taxes imposed on them by the British and they staged a Satyagraha (Civil disobedience movement) even before Gandhi's Satyagraha movement. They opposed the Zamindars, the moneylenders, the missionaries, the Muslims, and the British. Tana Bhagats are a follower of Mahatma Gandhi and believes in Ahimsa (Non-violence).

A Course of Movement:


  • The young man Jatra Oraon (Bhagat) was recognized as the hero of this movement, who lived supernatural beliefs. On the basis of Janushruti, this man was given a vision by an Oraon diety 'Dharmesh', and gave him some instructions and ordered him to start this movement.

  • Jatra Bhagat, after getting the order from 'Dharmesh' diety, gave up the work of ghosts and became immortal. He refused to believe in the superstition of the people and gave the message of bringing sattvikta in the conduct. He also ordered forced labor or low-wage laborers not to do such work. He soon became very popular among the people and they started discussing everything with him. 

  • This made the British nervous and they arrested Jatra Bhagat. Fury spread among the people of this place. The British also started arresting all the people related to this movement. As a result of this, violence erupted and a social revival spread. The British brutally suppressed this movement, yet this movement was successful in awakening social consciousness.

  • Thus, the tribal revolts against the British government, to some extent, played an important role in bringing their rights to the oppressed people of Jharkhand. 

  • In these movements, all the elements such as aggression, vandalism, resentment, power organization, and policy reasons were present which gave rise to rebellion. The erstwhile situation in Jharkhand was pathetic and ironically, outsiders who had come to exploit this naturally endowed region had almost disposed of the original tribes. 

  • Far from education and deprived of facilities, these tribal societies were living its life peacefully. They were all happy in their own festivals, customs, and their own social fabric. Even after being in the shadow for almost 300 years of instability, anarchy, exploitation, oppression, humiliation, and poverty, these tribes kept their existence and their livelihood. 

  • The people of Jharkhand performed their duties towards the country. These people made an incomparable contribution to India's freedom struggle, which cannot be forgetten.

                       👉Next Page:Nagvanshi Governance System - JPSC/JSSC

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Wednesday, February 24, 2021

Jharkhand Pre- History - JPSC/JSSC

Jharkhand Pre- History

Jharkhand Pre- History - JPSC/JSSC

Name: The word 'Jharkhand' is formed by the addition of two words. The first-word being, 'Jhar'= forest, and the second word being 'Khand'= part of the land. Hence, the literal meaning of Jharkhand is the forest land or forest state.

  • The first reference of the Jharkhand region is found in the Aitreya Brahmana where it is referred to as 'Panda' or 'Pundra'.

  • In 'Digvijay Parva' Mahabharata, this region is called 'Pundarile Desh'. In this book, it is called 'Pashu-Bhumi', 'Karkkand' or 'Arkkhand'.

  • Ptolemy has addressed Jharkhand regions with the word 'Mundal'.


  • Huein- Tsang addressed the Rajmahal region as Ke- Lo NA. SU-FA-LA-NA and KARN- SUVARN Rajmahal hills is called as Damin-e-Koh in the Allahabad inscriptions of Samudra Gupta. Jharkhand has been called 'Murund' country.

  • During the East India Company's period (1765- 1834), this region was known by the name Nagpur or Chota Nagpur.

  • After the establishment of the SW Frontier agency in 1883, the headquarter of the agency came to be known by the name 'Wilkins Ganj' or 'Kishunpur'. Later this came to be known as 'Ranchi'. 

  • The reason for Santhal Pargana in the ancient period was known by the name 'Narikhand', and later by the name 'Kankjol'. 

  • In Bhagwat Puran, Jharkhand is known by the name 'Kikkat Pradesh'.

  • In Early medieval Sanskrit literature, Chhota Nagpur has been called 'Kalind Desh'.

  • The earliest reference of the word Jharkhand comes from a 13th-century copper plate inscription.

  • In the Mughal period, the Jharkhand region was known by the name 'Khukra or Kukra'.

  • In Ain-E-Akbari this reason has been called 'Kokra' and Khankarah.

  • In Tuzuk-E-Jahangiri Jharkhand is mentioned as Khokhra.

  • In Abu Fazal's Akbarnama Chota Nagpur region is mentioned as 'Jharkhand'.

  • The reference to the word 'Jharkhand' is found in the writing of Shoms-E-Ajij, Salimullah, and Gulam Hussain.

  • The word Jharkhand has also been referred to in the couplet of Kabir Das Malik Muhammad Jayasi's Padmavat.

  • Chhota Nagpur and Rajmahal have been described by many foreign Travellers such as Yuan Chwang (China), Abdul Latif (Iran), Babahani (Iran), Bishop Heber, etc.

ARCHEOLOGY

The archaeological excavation of Jharkhand has yielded a large number of stone tools and implements belonging to the early. Middle and later Paleolithic period these prove that prehistoric of Jharkhand.
  • The earliest remains found from Jharkhand belong to the early Paleolithic period. Among these remains, the important is a stone ax, blade, scrapper burin (lithic flake).

  • Sach remains have been found from the excavation in Singhbhum, Ranchi Hazaribagh, Santhal Pargana, Palamu, etc.

  • The remains of the middle paleolithic have been found from Singhbhum, Ranchi, Santhal Pargana. In these very places, the remains of the later Paleolithic period are also found. These are made of small places of stone.

  • The remains of the Mesolithic period have been found from Ranchi, Singhbhum, Palamu. 

  • In places like Barkagaon, Mandu, Rajrappa, etc. in the district of Hazaribagh and Ramgarh, archaeological excavation has yielded stone tools. Important among these are axes, scrapers, blade burin, etc.

  • In the place named 'Isko' in the Hazaribagh district. Painting made by the primitive man, a large open Sun temple (Suraj-Kund), cave, etc. is found. 

  • In the painting gallery of 'Isko', there are many paintings of a spaceship, space-man, constellation, etc. Apart from these, a Labyrinth kind of structure has also been found. 

  • The remains of a Buddhist monastery have been found in the 'Seetagadha' mountain of Hazaribagh. This belongs to the sixth century A.D.


  • Most of the sample of Archaeological importance found from Seetagadha is made of grey sandstone. Among these, a stupa with four images, an image of a Yakshini carved on a stone facade, and an image of the woman made of grey sandstone are of great significance.

  • The 'Asthadal' used as the Emblem of the Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag is a replica of an 'asthadal' made of red sandstone found from Seetagadha.

  • Excavation of various places in the Palamu division has yielded stone tools belonging to the early, middle, and later Paleolithic, as well as the Neolithic period. Among these axes, scrapper, and blade are important. 

  • Near Bhawnathpur in Garhwa district, rare stone painting and natural caves belonging to the Prehistorical period has been found. In this cave, there are paintings of hunting scene animals like their buffalo have been painted.

  • In a place called Barudih in the Singhbhum district pieces of pottery, pots, stone hammer, etc., belonging to the stone age have been found pieces of handmade pottery, ring stone, beads, ax, etc. have been found at a place called Bongara in the Singhbhum district.

  • At Banaghat near Bongara, five stone axes, a ring stone, a pallet of Terracotta, and pieces of black pottery have been found.

  • In Indian archaeology, the word 'Asur' has been used for historical identification of many places in districts of Ranchi, Gumla, and Lohardaga. A cup made of bronze has been found from Lohardaga. At Mandu, a brick wall, mud pot, and copper tools have been found. The four-legged stone platform found at Mandu is currently kept in the Patna museum.

  • A copper Chain and a bronze ring have been found from Murad.

  • Lupangdih has shreds of evidence or early cemetery. Places like Jurdag,  Parsadhik, Jojda, Chipdi, etc. have implement belonging to the lower and upper Paleolithic period. Parsadhik has also yielded implements of the middle Paleolithic period. 

  • Places like Konokol, Saradkel, Bhallaungri, etc have yielded implements of the lower Paleolithic period.

  • From Benusagar in Singhbhum district Jain status belonging to the 17th century AD has been discovered. 

  • At a place called Dudhpani in Hazaribagh district, an inscription of 8th century AD has been found.

  • Archaeological investigations have yielded evidence of habitation of the primitive man in the hill reasons of Jharkhand.

  • A deep underground cave of ice age has been found in Isko village in Hazaribagh.

  • Atwi tribe of Jharkhand was described in the rock inscription of Chandra Gupta Maurya.

  • Chhota Nagpur has been mentioned in the rock inscription of King Ashoka.

IMPORTANT ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES OF JHARKHAND

Hazaribagh/ Ramgarh

Palamu/ Garhwa

Singhbhum

Isko

Shahpur

Lota Pahar

Sat Pahar

Amanat Pool

Chakradharpur

Saraiya

Durgawati Pool

Tebo

Raham

Bagna

Isadih

Loga

Ranka Kala

Barudh

Kusumgardh

Veer Bandh

Purnapani

Badkagaon

Chandra Pur

Dungdugi

Baansgardh

Jhabar

Soranga

Rajrappa

Maila Pur

Neemdih

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Santhal Rebellion (1855- 56): Jharkhand History- JPSC

SANTHAL REBELLION

Main Slogan: "Do or die, British leave our soil"

  • The Santhal persecuted (victimized) by the Zamindar of Birbhum, Dhalbhum, Singhbhum, and Bankura started settling in in the Santhal-Pargana region, known as DAMIN-E-KOH, from 1790 AD

  • This rebellion by the Santhal became one of the most talked-about in the history of Jharkhand, as it had imposed a large number of casualties (fatality) on the company and its loyal landlords, servants, and officials. Thus, peasant oppression was a leading cause of the rebellion.

  • The Santhal tribes also dependent on agriculture and forest, but the zamindari system started ejecting them from their land.

  •  The British-backed zamindars were completely exploiting the zamindars and at the same time, the company had increased agricultural taxes so much that the Santhals were unable to pay it.

  • Apart from this, the movement of outsiders had forced and restricted these Santhals to their own land. The Santhals were caught in the exploitation cycle of moneylenders and landlords of livelihood. 

  • These people used to give loans at a high-interest rate and then used to do mental and physical exploitation in the name of recovery. This led to the practice of bonded labor in intuitions. The bonded-labor was also called 'Kamiya' or 'Kamyoti'


  • These people were competing for suicide as the exit route from this harassment trap as there was no option available to the Santhals.

  • In such a difficult situation, ordinary people wished only for the incarnation of God. Even God did not ignore the call of such people and two young men named Sidhu-Kanhu came to protest against such gross harassment of the Santhals. Both of them dared to revolt for the Santhals' day night and encouraged them to unite.

  •  In 1855, thousands of Santhals held a meeting under the leadership of Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand, and Bhairava, the four sons of Chunnu Manjhi of Bhognadih (Sahibganj), in which they took an oath to fight a fierce battle against their oppressors.

  • Sidhu and Kanhu added new energy and enthusiasm to the oppressed people. They unitedly warmed the dikus to live their lands. The British and their loyal employees, officers, and landlords were the 'dikus'

  • Declarations were made of disobedience to the government, to establish their own government in the DAMIN-E-KOH region and not to pay rent.

  • Meanwhile, ferocious Daroga Maheshlal Dutt of the Dighi thana was killed and most of his armed musketeers were hacked to death by  Sidhu & Kanhu Panchketia. Soon, they assassinated the daroga of Kurhurrea thana.

  • Two days after the warning, the Santhals selectively started killing their exploiters. The rebels plundered the mahajanas of the prosperous Barhet Bazar. The mansion of the zamindars of Amber was burnt. The rebels attempted to capture the Maheshpur Rajmahal. Officers and zamindars were their main targets, the houses and shops of those who were outsiders were demolished. Kanhu cut down with his own sword a naib sazawal or collector of revenue named Khan Sahib.

  • It was an open-armed rebellion, which spread from Kahalgaon to Rajmahal. This rebellion also spread to Birbhum, Bankura, and Hazaribagh in 1856.

  • Seeing this, the company became worried and attempts were made to hold peace talks with the Santhals through negotiations. But the anger of Santhals had crossed the limits of patience and they were not ready to hear anything. 

  • The Santhals had taken an oath to exterminate or eliminate the British and their supporters from their lands. The British officers were being killed. Whenever an Englishman appeared, he would be piled there. The Santhals had become revengeful. Incidentally, they also killed British women and children.

  • The uproar of Santhal stirred the English administration. The company ordered the army to suppress the rebellion by giving it a free hand. The British also showed great cruelty towards the Santhal and their villages. The English army began to unite day and night against the leaders of the Santhal and it was successful in this. 

  • Most of the Rebel leaders were either killed or imprisoned. Chand and Bhairav were killed by bullets. Sidhu and Kanhu were caught, they were hanged in Barhet (Sahibganj)

  • This rebellion nevertheless had some success, as the Santhals either killed or drove away most of the British and their supporters from their region.  Those remaining were living under the shadow of terror for a long time.

  • The father of this rebellion Sidhu and Kanhu became revered by the people of Jharkhand and are still remembered as the Jan-Nayak of Jharkhand. The stories of Sidhu and Kanhu are still an inspiration for the people of Jharkhand for honor and power. 

  • The Santhal rebellion in the Santhal Pargana region was suppressed till January 1856 AD, but the government accepted the bravery of the Santhal. The government hard to accept the conditions laid in administrative changes. 

  • As a result of this Santhal rebellion on 30 November 1856 AD, the Santhal Pargana district was duly established and Ashley Eden was made the first Collector

  • Every year in the state in memory of this rebellion 'Hul'= Santhal 'Viplava Day' is celebrated on 30 June.

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