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Wednesday, February 24, 2021

Jharkhand Pre- History - JPSC/JSSC

Jharkhand Pre- History

Jharkhand Pre- History - JPSC/JSSC

Name: The word 'Jharkhand' is formed by the addition of two words. The first-word being, 'Jhar'= forest, and the second word being 'Khand'= part of the land. Hence, the literal meaning of Jharkhand is the forest land or forest state.

  • The first reference of the Jharkhand region is found in the Aitreya Brahmana where it is referred to as 'Panda' or 'Pundra'.

  • In 'Digvijay Parva' Mahabharata, this region is called 'Pundarile Desh'. In this book, it is called 'Pashu-Bhumi', 'Karkkand' or 'Arkkhand'.

  • Ptolemy has addressed Jharkhand regions with the word 'Mundal'.

  • Huein- Tsang addressed the Rajmahal region as Ke- Lo NA. SU-FA-LA-NA and KARN- SUVARN Rajmahal hills is called as Damin-e-Koh in the Allahabad inscriptions of Samudra Gupta. Jharkhand has been called 'Murund' country.

  • During the East India Company's period (1765- 1834), this region was known by the name Nagpur or Chota Nagpur.

  • After the establishment of the SW Frontier agency in 1883, the headquarter of the agency came to be known by the name 'Wilkins Ganj' or 'Kishunpur'. Later this came to be known as 'Ranchi'. 

  • The reason for Santhal Pargana in the ancient period was known by the name 'Narikhand', and later by the name 'Kankjol'. 

  • In Bhagwat Puran, Jharkhand is known by the name 'Kikkat Pradesh'.

  • In Early medieval Sanskrit literature, Chhota Nagpur has been called 'Kalind Desh'.

  • The earliest reference of the word Jharkhand comes from a 13th-century copper plate inscription.

  • In the Mughal period, the Jharkhand region was known by the name 'Khukra or Kukra'.

  • In Ain-E-Akbari this reason has been called 'Kokra' and Khankarah.

  • In Tuzuk-E-Jahangiri Jharkhand is mentioned as Khokhra.

  • In Abu Fazal's Akbarnama Chota Nagpur region is mentioned as 'Jharkhand'.

  • The reference to the word 'Jharkhand' is found in the writing of Shoms-E-Ajij, Salimullah, and Gulam Hussain.

  • The word Jharkhand has also been referred to in the couplet of Kabir Das Malik Muhammad Jayasi's Padmavat.

  • Chhota Nagpur and Rajmahal have been described by many foreign Travellers such as Yuan Chwang (China), Abdul Latif (Iran), Babahani (Iran), Bishop Heber, etc.


The archaeological excavation of Jharkhand has yielded a large number of stone tools and implements belonging to the early. Middle and later Paleolithic period these prove that prehistoric of Jharkhand.
  • The earliest remains found from Jharkhand belong to the early Paleolithic period. Among these remains, the important is a stone ax, blade, scrapper burin (lithic flake).

  • Sach remains have been found from the excavation in Singhbhum, Ranchi Hazaribagh, Santhal Pargana, Palamu, etc.

  • The remains of the middle paleolithic have been found from Singhbhum, Ranchi, Santhal Pargana. In these very places, the remains of the later Paleolithic period are also found. These are made of small places of stone.

  • The remains of the Mesolithic period have been found from Ranchi, Singhbhum, Palamu. 

  • In places like Barkagaon, Mandu, Rajrappa, etc. in the district of Hazaribagh and Ramgarh, archaeological excavation has yielded stone tools. Important among these are axes, scrapers, blade burin, etc.

  • In the place named 'Isko' in the Hazaribagh district. Painting made by the primitive man, a large open Sun temple (Suraj-Kund), cave, etc. is found. 

  • In the painting gallery of 'Isko', there are many paintings of a spaceship, space-man, constellation, etc. Apart from these, a Labyrinth kind of structure has also been found. 

  • The remains of a Buddhist monastery have been found in the 'Seetagadha' mountain of Hazaribagh. This belongs to the sixth century A.D.

  • Most of the sample of Archaeological importance found from Seetagadha is made of grey sandstone. Among these, a stupa with four images, an image of a Yakshini carved on a stone facade, and an image of the woman made of grey sandstone are of great significance.

  • The 'Asthadal' used as the Emblem of the Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag is a replica of an 'asthadal' made of red sandstone found from Seetagadha.

  • Excavation of various places in the Palamu division has yielded stone tools belonging to the early, middle, and later Paleolithic, as well as the Neolithic period. Among these axes, scrapper, and blade are important. 

  • Near Bhawnathpur in Garhwa district, rare stone painting and natural caves belonging to the Prehistorical period has been found. In this cave, there are paintings of hunting scene animals like their buffalo have been painted.

  • In a place called Barudih in the Singhbhum district pieces of pottery, pots, stone hammer, etc., belonging to the stone age have been found pieces of handmade pottery, ring stone, beads, ax, etc. have been found at a place called Bongara in the Singhbhum district.

  • At Banaghat near Bongara, five stone axes, a ring stone, a pallet of Terracotta, and pieces of black pottery have been found.

  • In Indian archaeology, the word 'Asur' has been used for historical identification of many places in districts of Ranchi, Gumla, and Lohardaga. A cup made of bronze has been found from Lohardaga. At Mandu, a brick wall, mud pot, and copper tools have been found. The four-legged stone platform found at Mandu is currently kept in the Patna museum.

  • A copper Chain and a bronze ring have been found from Murad.

  • Lupangdih has shreds of evidence or early cemetery. Places like Jurdag,  Parsadhik, Jojda, Chipdi, etc. have implement belonging to the lower and upper Paleolithic period. Parsadhik has also yielded implements of the middle Paleolithic period. 

  • Places like Konokol, Saradkel, Bhallaungri, etc have yielded implements of the lower Paleolithic period.

  • From Benusagar in Singhbhum district Jain status belonging to the 17th century AD has been discovered. 

  • At a place called Dudhpani in Hazaribagh district, an inscription of 8th century AD has been found.

  • Archaeological investigations have yielded evidence of habitation of the primitive man in the hill reasons of Jharkhand.

  • A deep underground cave of ice age has been found in Isko village in Hazaribagh.

  • Atwi tribe of Jharkhand was described in the rock inscription of Chandra Gupta Maurya.

  • Chhota Nagpur has been mentioned in the rock inscription of King Ashoka.


Hazaribagh/ Ramgarh

Palamu/ Garhwa




Lota Pahar

Sat Pahar

Amanat Pool



Durgawati Pool






Ranka Kala



Veer Bandh



Chandra Pur






Maila Pur




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