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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Tuesday, August 31, 2021

The Coastal Plains: Physiography of India

The Coastal Plains

The Peninsular Plateau of India is flanked by narrow coastal plains of varied width from north to south, known as the West-Coastal Plains and the East-Coastal Plains. These coastal plains differ from each other. They were formed by the depositional action of the rivers and the erosional and depositional actions of the sea waves.

According to geologists, the origin of the western and eastern coasts of India may be attributed to the faulting and subsidence of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal towards the close of the Eocene Period. Considering, the alluvial deposits along these coasts are of very recent origin, ranging from Pliocene to recent times. These coastal plains have evidence of submergence and emergence.

The Coastal Plains: Physiography of India

The Indian coastal plains may be subdivided into the following three (3) divisions;

1. The Gujarat Coastal Plains:

  • The Gujarat plain covers almost the entire state of Gujarat, except the district of Banaskantha and Sabarkantha.
  • It is formed by the alluvial deposits of Sabarmati, Mahi, Luni, and numerous tiny parallel consequent streams.
  • It contains the Gondwana rocks (Umia series), resting over the marine Jurassic rock and capped by Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) beds. The Deccan lava lies over the Umia series.

The eastern section of Gujarat Plain is a projected jet of the Sindhu-Ganga alluvial tract in Peninsular India. This projection is the outcome of extensive Pleistocene sedimentation. Present rivers have further advanced this deposition to the Gulf of Khambat. 

Among the highlands, mention may be made of;

  • Rajpipla Hills (Satpura)-famous for agate quarries
  • Parnera Hills in Bulsar district
  • Sahyadris in the southern side and 
  • Igneous complex of the Girnar Hills (Gorakhnath Peak, 1117 m)
  • Mandav Hills in Kathiwad.

The Rann of Katch is an extensive tact of naked tidal mudflats transected by abandoned and live creeks. The Gulf of Katch separates the Rann of Katch from the Kathiawar Peninsula. The salt in the soil makes this low-lying marshy area almost barren and unproductive. The whitish vertebrae of salts appear as white bony structures of the dried creeks. Live creeks from the dendritic pattern of drainage and there has been accentuation in this pattern due to earthquakes. South of the Rann lies Katch, formerly an island, which is almost surrounded by the Rann except in the south-west.

2. The West Coastal Plains:

  • It lies between the Sahyadris and the Arabian Sea. It is about 1400 km long and 10-80 km wide. 
  • It has an elevation up to 150 m above sea level, reaching more than 300 m at places.
  • The western coastal plain is characterized mainly by sandy beaches, coastal sand-dunes, mud-flats, lagoons, alluvial tracts along rivers, estuary, laterite platforms, and residual hills.
  • The Sahyadris (elevation 750-1225 m) runs parallel to the plain and present their steep face to the low lands with Thalghaat and Borghat (gaps) in the north and the Palghat (Palakkad gap) in the south of the Nilgiri.
  • Southwards is the Karnataka coastal plain which is about 525 km long and 8-25 km wide. It is the narrowest part of the west coastal plain. 
  • The southern part is known as the Malabar coast is found in the valleys of Beypore, the Ponnani (draining through Palghat), the Periyar, and Pamba Achankovil rivers. The coast is characterized by sand dunes. 

Along the coast, there are numerous shallow lagoons and backwaters- Kayaks and Teris. These lagoons are linked together to facilitate navigation through small boats. Here, Vembanad and Asthamudi are important lagoons of the Malabar coast. It is the homeland of aquatic life like crabs, frogs, mudskippers, birds like terns, kingfishers, cormorants, and otters and turtles live alongside the backwaters. 

The backwaters are important tourist spots and are of importance for transportation, fishing, and even agriculture. The region has deposits of Monazite sands which are reddish-brown and rich in phosphate. Monazite is radioactive due to the presence of thorium.

3. The East Coastal Plains: 

  • The eastern coastal plain lies between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal and stretches along the coasts of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. 
  • These plains are formed by the alluvial fillings of the littoral zone comprising some of the largest deltas of the world.
  • The east-coast plain consists mainly of recent and tertiary alluvial deposits. These are gentle, monotonous plains rinsing gently westward to the foot of the Eastern Ghats. The monotony of the topography is broken by the presence of numerous hills. 
  • This coastal plain has a straight shoreline with well-defined beaches of sand shingles. The most famous is Marina Beach (Chennai). 

There are some of the important lagoons of India along the Eastern coast, of which, Chilka lake in the southwest of the Mahanadi delta is the biggest lake (area= 65 km X 8 km) in the country. The Kulleru lake lies between the deltas of Godavari and Krishna while the Pulicat lake lies further south on the border of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

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Chotanagpur Kashtkari Adhiniyam 1908 Part-5 (छोटानागपुर काश्तकारी अधिनियम 1908)

Chotanagpur Kashtkari Adhiniyam 1908 Part-5

अध्याय 10 :- भू-स्वामी तथाा काश्तकार केे लिए प्रकीर्ण उपबंध (कोड़कर) (धारा- 64 से 75)

➧ धारा - 64 :- उपायुक्त के आदेश से भूमि के कोड़कर में परिवर्तन

➧ किसी गांव के कृषक या भूमिहीन श्रमिक उपायुक्त की पूर्व अनुमति लेकर सामान्य भूमि को कोड़कर भूमि में बदल सकते हैं
 सामान्यत परती या टांड़ भूमि को रैयत कोड़कर समतल बनाते हैं तथा इस पर धान की खेती करते हैं इस प्रकार से तैयार किया गया खेत शुरू में लगान मुक्त होता है , परंतुु बाद में इस पर उपयुक्त लगान का निर्धारण  कियाा जाता है , लेकिन यह सामान्य लगान दर से हमेशा कम होताा है

➧ धारा - 65  :- कृषक को बेदखल करने या कब्जा बनाये रहने देने की शक्ति

 छोटानागपुर काश्तकारी, 1947 के द्वारा धारा-21 के तहत यह प्रावधान समाप्त कर दिया गया है

➧ धारा - 66  :- कतिपय भूमि को कोड़कर में परिवर्तित करने का प्रतिषेघ (रोक)

 धारा - 67  :- कोड़कर  में अधिभोगाधिकार

 ऐसे रैयत, जो किसी भूमि का जोत धारण करता हो और उसके परिवार के किसी सदस्य ने उस भूमि को कोड़कर में परिवर्तित कर दिया हो, लेकिन वह 12 वर्ष तक उस भूमि पर खेती नहीं किया हो, तो प्रथम व्यक्ति का भूमि पर अधिभोगाधिकार बना रहेगा

➧ धारा - 67 (क) :- कोड़कर  में समपरिवर्तित भूमि के लगान का निर्धारण

➧ अगर कोई व्यक्ति भूमि को कोड़कर में बदला हो तो उस भूमि पर प्रथम कृषि वर्ष की फसल कटाई से 4 वर्ष तक कोई लगान का निर्धारण नहीं किया जाएगा। 4 वर्ष के पश्चात कोड़कर भूमि पर लगान का निर्धारण किया जाएगा, लेकिन वह लगान की  दर गांव के तृतीय वर्ग की धनहर भूमि के लिए प्रचलित दर के आधे से अधिक नहीं होगी।

➧ धारा - 68  :- काश्तकार को बेदखल किया जाना

➧ किसी भी काश्तकार को किसी डिक्री या उपायुक्त के आदेश के सिवाय किसी दूसरे तरीके से उसे जमीन से बेदखल नहीं किया जा सकता है। 

➧ धारा - 69  :- काश्तकार को  राहत पाने का अधिकार

➧ किसी अधिभोगी रैयत ने भूमि का उपयोग रूढ़ि और रीति के अनुसार किया हो और उसके कार्य के कारण भूमि के मूल्य में कोई गिरावट नहीं आया हो तथा भूस्वामी और काश्तकार के बीच हुए संविदा की शर्तों को नहीं तोड़ा हो, तो अधिभोगी रैयत राहत पाने का अधिकारी है

➧ धारा - 70  :- वेदखली का डिक्री या आदेश कब प्रभावी होगा

➧ इस अधिनियम में अधीन पारित आदेश उस कृषि वर्ष के अंत से या ऐसे पूर्ववर्ती तारीख जिसे न्यायालय निर्देशित करें, उसी के अनुसार प्रभावी होगा।

➧ धारा-71(क) :- विधिविरुद्ध अंतरिम भूमि पर अनुसूचित जनजातियों के सदस्य को कब्जा प्रत्यावर्तित करने की शक्ति उपायुक्त में अंतर्निहित रहेगी। 

➧ इस संदर्भ में निम्न विधान है:-

(i) यदि उपायुक्त को यह ज्ञात हो कि कोई व्यक्ति धारा-46 के नियम उल्लंघन कर अनुसूचित जनजाति के रैयत की जमीन कपट या छल पूर्वक प्राप्त किया है।  
➧ तो वह अंतरिति (क्रेता) सफाई देने का अवसर देगा। इसके पश्चात दोषी पाए जाने पर अंतरिति को बिना कोई रकम लौटाई ही उसका जमीन अनुसूचित जनजाति के सदस्य को वापस कर देगा। 

(ii) अंतरक  अर्थात विक्रेता का अगर कोई वारिस बारिश नहीं हो, तो वैसा स्थिति में स्थानीय नियम अनुसार किसी दूसरे अनुसूचित जनजाति के रैयत को उपायुक्त जमीन का पुर्नबंदोबस्त कर देगा। 

(iii) अगर अंतरित (क्रेता) के अंतरण (हस्तांतरण) के तारीख के 30 वर्ष के भीतर उपायुक्त को यह जानकारी मिलती हो, कि अंतरीति ने अनुसूचित जनजाति के सदस्य से प्राप्त जोत पर भवन निर्माण कर लिया हो और अंतरक (विक्रेता) उसका मूल्य चुकाने में रजामंद न हो तो ऐसे में उपायुक्त अंतरिति अर्थात क्रेता के 2 वर्ष के भीतर भवन हटाने का आदेश देगा, अगर क्रेता द्वारा भवन नहीं हटाया गया, तो उपायुक्त खुद हटाएगा। 

(v) यदि उपायुक्त जांच के उपरांत यह पाए कि अंतरिति (क्रेता) ने बिहार अनुसूचित क्षेत्र विनिमय 1969 कानून लागू होने के पहले ही किसी भूमि पर भवन का निर्माण कर लिया है, तो ऐसे में उपायुक्त अर्थात क्रेता को यह आदेश देगा, कि वह अंतर अर्थात विक्रेता को पुनर्वास के लिए समतुल्य भूमि उपलब्ध कराएं।

➧ साथ ही उपायुक्त द्वारा निर्धारित पुनर्वास राशि अंतरक को प्रदान करें। ऐसा करने पर अंतरिति को जमीन से जुड़े अधिकार की मान्यता उपायुक्त दे देगा। 

(vi) जाँच उपरांत अगर उपायुक्त को यह पता चले की अंतरिति अर्थात क्रेता ने कब्ज़ा द्वारा प्राप्त भूमि पर अपना हक़ अर्जित किया है तथा अंतरिती  अर्थात प्राप्त भूमि को लेने के लिए अंतरक तैयार नहीं है। तो ऐसी स्थिति में उपायुक्त उपयुक्त प्रति कर का निर्धारण कर सकता है।  

(vii) इस धारा के तहत आदिवासी जमीनों की पुनर्वापसी के लिए एक विशेष अदातलायी व्यवस्था अनुसूचित क्षेत्र विनिमय न्यायालय (SAR- Scheduled Area Regulation Court) कोर्ट की स्थापना की गई है 

➧ धारा-71(ख) :-  यदि कपट पूर्ण तरीके से कोई भूमि अंतरिति (विक्रय) की जाए, तो जांच उपरांत कपट करने वाले को दंड स्वरूप 3 वर्ष की सजा अथवा ₹1000 जुर्माना या दोनों लगेगा। अपराध जारी रहने की दशा में अपराध की अवधि तक अंतरिती अर्थात (क्रेता) को प्रत्येक दिन अधिकतम ₹50 अतिरिक्त जुर्माना देना होगा।

➧ धारा-72 :-  रैयत द्वारा भूमि का अभ्यर्पण (Slender)

 यदि कोई रैयत किसी करार से न जुड़ा हुआ हो तो वह किसी वर्ष के अंत में उपायुक्त की पूर्व मंजूरी लेकर अपने जोत को सैरेंडर कर सकता है, परंतु इसकी सूचना रैयत द्वारा भूस्वामी को सरेंडर के 4 माह पूर्व देना होगा। यदि वह ऐसे सूचना नहीं देता है, तो सरेंडर के पश्चात अगले कृषि वर्ष के लिए जोत भूमि का लगान का भुगतान भूस्वामी को करना ही होगा।

➧ धारा-73 :-  रैयत द्वारा भूमि का परित्याग

 यदि कोई रैयत भूमि का परित्याग स्वेच्छा से कर दे और लगान देना बंद कर दे तो उसकी भूमि को भूस्वामी किसी दूसरे को पट्टे में दे सकता है 

➧ कोई अधिभोगी रैयत 3 वर्ष के भीतर एवं अनाधिभोगी रैयत 1 वर्ष के भीतर उपरोक्त भूमि पर कब्जा वापस लेने का आवेदन उपायुक्त को दे, और उपायुक्त जांच उपरांत यह पाए के रैयत ने स्वेच्छा से भूमि का परित्याग नहीं किया था, तो वैसी स्थिति में रैयत द्वारा बकाया लगान के भुगतान करने के बाद रैयत को भूमि पर पुन: कब्जा दिलाने का आदेश दे सकता है। 

➧ धारा-74 :- किसी रैयत के अधिभोग का जारी रहना पट्टे की स्थिति पर निर्भर करता है 

➧ धारा-75 :- भूमि का माप

 प्रत्येक भूस्वामी को अपने क्षेत्राधीन भूमि का माप करने का अधिकार होगा। या इससे जुड़े दूसरे संपदा का भी वे सर्वेक्षण कर सकेगा। अधिभोगी रैयत सर्वेक्षण या माप का विरोध करें। तो भू-स्वामी उपायुक्त को आवेदन देकर इस संदर्भ में उचित दिशा-निर्देश प्राप्त कर सकेगा।

अध्याय -11 :-रुढ़ि और संविदा (धारा- 76 से 79)

➧ धारा-76   रूढ़ि की व्यावृति :-  रूढ़ि एवं प्रथा किसी अधिकार को प्रभावित नहीं करेगी। 

➧ धारा-77  सेवा भू धृतियों तथा जोतों के विषय में व्यावृति :- भू -धृति या जोत का प्रभाव अधिकार पर नहीं पड़ेगा। 

➧ धारा-78  वासभूमि:-

 धारा-79 :- अधिनियम के अपवर्जन का करार द्वारा प्रतिबंध

 इस अधिनियम के लागू होने के पूर्व या पश्चात कोई भूस्वामी किसी रैयत के साथ संविदा के माध्यम से कोई अधिभोगाधिकार को वर्जित नहीं करेगा और ना ही हटाएगा।

अध्याय-12 :-अधिकार अभिलेख और लगान का निर्धारण (धारा- 80 से 100(क)

➧ धारा-80 :- सर्वेक्षण करने और अधिकार-अभिलेख तैयार करने का आदेश देने की शक्ति

➧ राज्य सरकार राज्य सरकार किसी राज्य स्वराज अधिकारी द्वारा किसी स्थानीय क्षेत्र, भू-धृति या संपदा का सर्वे कराने या उससे जुड़े अधिकार अभिलेख कराने का आदेश दे सकती है

➧ धारा-81  :- अभिलिखित की जाने वाले विशिष्टयां 

 धारा-80 के आदेश अनुसार जो अधिकार अभिलेख तैयार होगा उसमें काश्तकार का नाम, भूमि की सीमा, उसका वर्ग, भूमि की सीमा, भू-स्वामी का नाम, भुगतान होने वाला लगान , लगान निर्धारण की प्रक्रिया जैसे शर्ते वर्णित होगी।

 धारा-82 :- जल के विषय में सर्वेक्षण करने तथा अधिकार-अभिलेख तैयार करने का आदेश देने की शक्ति

 राज्य सरकार किसी ऐसे राजस्व अधिकारी को आदेश निर्गत कर सकती है, जो भू -स्वामी या काश्तकारों के बीच जल के उपयोग एवं उसके बहाव से संबंधित विवाद का निपटारा कर सकें।

➧ धारा-83 :-अधिकार-अभिलेख का प्रारंभिक प्रकाशन, संशोधन और अंतिम प्रकाशन।

➧ धारा-84 :-अधिकार-अभिलेख के अंतिम प्रकाशन और उसकी शुद्धता के बारे उपधारणाएँ।

➧ धारा-85 :- उचित लगान का परिनिर्धारण

 धारा-86 :- लगान परिनिर्धारण में अगर किसी प्रकार का विवाद हो तो ऐसे में राजस्व अधिकारी नए सिरे से तैयार किए गए अधिकार अभिलेख पर विचार करते हुए, धारा 85 के तहत लगान का परिनिर्धारण कर सकेगा।

➧ धारा-87 :-राजस्व अधिकारी के समक्ष संस्थित किया जाना

➧ अधिकार अभिलेख के अंतिम प्रकाशन हो जाने के बाद अगर अलग-अलग पक्षों के बीच कोई विवाद हो तो इसे राजस्व अधिकारी के समक्ष रखा जा सकता है । ऐसे में राजस्व अधिकारी इस वाद/मामले को किसी सक्षम  न्यायालय में सुनवाई हेतु भेज सकता है

➧ धारा-87(क)  :- कतिपय कार्यवाहियो और वादों में उपरैयत को भी पक्षकार बनाया जाना 

➧ धारा-88  :-अगर लगाने या उससे जुड़े किसी दूसरे मामलों पर नए फैसले आते हैं, तो उससे अधिकार अभिलेख में प्रविष्टि किया जायेगा। 

 राज्य सरकार द्वारा नामित राजस्व अधिकारी आवेदन मिलने पर या फिर स्वप्रेरणा से अधिकार अभिलेख के प्रारूप में की गई किसी भी प्रवृष्टि या आदेश को चाहे तो 12 महीने के भीतर पुनरीक्षण कर सकता है

➧ धारा-90  :-अधिकार-अभिलेख की भूलों की राजस्व अधिकारी द्वारा शुद्धि किया जाएगा 

 धारा-91 :-अधिकार-अभिलेख के आदेश को रोका जाना 

 अधिकार अभिलेख की तैयारी के किसी आदेश को अधिकार अभिलेख के अंतिम प्रकाशन के पश्चात् छः माह तक उपायुक्त या सिविल न्यायालय द्वारा रोका नहीं जा सकेगा। 

➧ धारा-92  :-अधिकार-अभिलेख संबंधी विषयों  में न्यायालयों की अधिकारिता का वर्जन 

 अधिकार अभिलेख की तैयारी से जुड़े कोई भी वाद/मुकदमा किसी भी न्यायालय में नहीं लाया जा सकता।
 धारा-93  :-अधिकार-अभिलेख के अंतिम प्रकाशन तक उपायुक्त या सिविल न्यायालय के समक्ष कतिपय कार्यवाहियों पर रोक

 अधिकार अभिलेख के अंतिम प्रकाशन से छः महीने तक सम्बंधित भूमि या उसके किसी कस्तकार को प्रभावित करने से जुड़ा कोई आवेदन न तो सिविल न्यायालय में दायर किया जाएगा और न ही उपायुक्त के समक्ष प्रस्तुत किया जाएगा।

➧ धारा-94  :- जिस कालावधि के लिए अधिकार-अभिलेख में लगान दर्ज किया हो वह अपरिवर्तित रहेगा।

➧ धारा-95 :- इस अध्याय के अधीन कार्यवाहियों के खर्च-अधिकार अभिलेख की तैयारी एवं संपूर्ण प्रक्रिया में खर्च अधिभोगियों के द्वारा चुकाया जाएगा। 

➧ धारा-97 :- वह तारीख, जब से परिनिर्धारित लगान प्रभावी होगा।

➧ नियमानुसार परिनिर्धारित लगान अगले कृषि वर्ष के प्रारंभ से लागू होगा। 

➧ धारा-98  :-राज्य सरकार के आदेशाधीन अधिकार-राज्य सरकार चाहे तो, अपने आदेश के जरिए अभिलेख का पुनरीक्षण एवं  लगान का नया परिनिर्धारण का आदेश जारी कर सकता है।  

➧ धारा-99 :-लगान में वृद्धि

➧ धारा-100 :- इस अधिनियम के प्रारंभ के पूर्व कतिपय अधिकारियों के अभिलेख के लिए दिए गए निर्देशों का विधिमान्यकरण।

➧ इस  अधिनियम के पूर्व बंगाल काशतकारी अधिनियम, 1885 की धारा-101 के अंतर्गत, यदि इस अधिनियम धारा-81 के उपखण्ड (ढ )में अधिकार को अभिलिखित किया जाये, तो विधिमान्य होगा।  

➧ धारा-100(क)  :-चराई,वन-उपज लेने आदि के अधिकारों एवं तत्त्संबंधी भुगतान के सम्बन्ध में कतिपय उपबंधों का लागु होना

➧ चराई, वन-उपज लेने, मत्स्य पालन आदि अधिकार उस व्यक्ति का होगा जो भूमि धारण करता हो। 


Monday, August 30, 2021

Forest Conservation: Geography- JPSC/ JSSC

Forest Conservation

The unity of forests, their social relevance, and climatic importance have been discussed in the proceedings paras. The conservation of forest resources is imperative for our survival. Some of the steps which can go a long way in making forests healthy and sustainable are as under:

Forest Conservation: Geography- JPSC/ JSSC

  • Afforestation: There should be massive afforestation programs with the main emphasis being on the production of fuel-wood, timber, grasses, and small trees to cover up degraded and denuded lands.
  • Plantation and trees along the roads, railway lines, rivers, and canal banks, and along lakes and ponds.
  • Development of Green-belts in the urban areas and plantation of trees on community lands.
  • Villagers should be given loans at easy interest rates to revive degraded forests.
  • Encroachment of agriculture in forests should not be allowed to exceed the carrying capacity of the forests.
  • The development projects including mining and industrial activities should be so planned to cause minimum damage to forest ecosystems.
  • Mining contracts should have an obligatory clause of reforestation when the process of mining is over.
  • Industries should adopt anti-pollution devices and must develop and compensate for the forest loss by new plantations.
  • Shifting cultivation should be gradually replaced by terraced farming and orchards development and silviculture.
  • Scientific methods should be adopted to check and contain forest fires. There should be strict control in issuing licenses for the establishment of industries in forest areas.
  • There should be more research on forestry in agricultural universities, for which facilities and funds should be provided by the Central and State governments. Forestry should be made an important part of the course structures in schools, colleges, and universities. 
  • There should be perfect coordination between the forest department and other departments of the government for effective and judicious utilization of forests and their conservation.
  • People should be encouraged to participate in the Van-Mahotsav and should be made aware of the Chipko Movement.
  • There is a need to change our outlook on forests. A forest should not be treated as a perennial resource and a source of revenue only. The planning and conservation of forests is not only the duty of the government but also all the citizens of the country.
  • There should be special audio-visual programs, demonstrations, seminars, and workshops to develop awareness among the people about the social relevance of forests.

The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) was created in 1987 under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

The following forestry research institutes are working under the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education:

  • Forest Survey of India, Dehra Dun.
  • The Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur.
  • The Institute of Rain and Moist Deciduous Forests, Jorhat.
  • The Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore.
  • The Tropical Forestry Research Institute, Jabalpur.
  • The Himalayan Forest Research Center, Shimla.
  • The Center for Forest Productivity, Ranchi.
  • The Center for Social Forestry and Environment, Allahabad.
  • Institute of Forest Productivity, Hyderabad.
  • Centre for Social Forestry and Eco Rehabilitation, Allahabad.
  • Centre for Forest-based livelihoods and extension, Agartala.
  • Directorate of Forest Education, Dehradun.

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Western Ghats: A World Heritage Site: Geography- JPSC/ JSSC

Western Ghats: A World Heritage Site

The Coorg or Kodagu is a part of the Western Ghats that has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in the meeting of the World Heritage Committee held at St. Petersburg's (Russia) on 1st July 2012.

Western Ghats: A World Heritage Site: Geography- JPSC/ JSSC

The Westen Ghat has outstanding examples of representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, freshwater, coastal, and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals. It is also the most significant natural habitat for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science and conservation. Apart from the World Heritage Site, it is one of the most eight (8) hottest hotspots of biological diversity in the world. The Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) in 56,825 Km2 (2014).

The Western Ghat or the Sahyadri is a mountain range of Peninsular India. It separates the Deccan Plateau from the narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea.

The Western Ghats starts south of the Tapi river in Gujarat and runs about 1600 km through the six (6) states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala ending at the Kanyakumari at the southern tip of India.

The main peaks of the Western Ghats are:

  • Anaimudi (2695 m)
  • Doddabetta (2636 m)
  • Mukurthi (2554 m)
  • Kodaikanal (2133 m)
  • Bababudangiri (1895 m)
  • Kudremukh (1894 m)
  • Agasthymalai (1866 m)
  • Pushpagiri (1712 m)
  • Kalsubai (1646 m)
  • Salher (1567 m)

The important hill stations are located in the Western Ghats:

  • Ooty (2500 m)
  • Kodaikanal (2285 m)

The area has 5000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, and 179 amphibian species. According to one estimate 325, globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.

The Western Ghats are covered with tropical and subtropical forests that provide food and natural habitats for the native tribal people. The area is ecologically sensitive to development.

The Government of India has established many protected areas including 2 biosphere reserves (BRs), 13 National Parks, and several wildlife sanctuaries to protect specific endangered species. 

  • Nilgiri Biosphere Reserves (5500 Km2) of the evergreen forests of Nagarhole.
  • Bandipur National Parks are covered with deciduous forest.
  • Mukurthi National Parks in the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu are the protected areas.

Moreover, there are Mudumalai (Coimbatore), Anamalai (Nilgiri District), and Munda Thurai (Tirunelveli and Kanniyakumari districts) tiger reserves in the southern parts of the Western Ghats.

Judicious use of resources and conservation practices can improve the resilience characteristics of the ecosystems of this important world heritage site.

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Dharwar System (Proterozoic Formations): Geological Structure of India

Dharwar System (Proterozoic Formations)

The geologic time extends from 2500 million years ago to 1800 million years ago. These are the first metamorphosed sedimentary rock systems known as the Dharwar System in the Indian Geological Time Scale, as they were studied for the first time in the Dharwar district of Karnataka. 

They are composed largely of igneous debris, schists, and gneisses. 

Dharwar System (Proterozoic Formations): Geological Structure of India

The Dharwar rocks occur in scattered patches in;

  • Dharwar and Bellary districts of Karnataka and extends up to Nilgiris and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu.
  • The Aravallis, Rialo (Delhi series) from Delhi to the South of Alwar and the Himalayan region.

The Dharwar rocks are rich in minerals like iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, gold, silver, dolomite, mica, copper, tungsten, nickel, precious stones, and building materials.

Some of the important series of the Dharwar System are:

Name of the series of Dharwar System

Distribution in India

Significant Features

Champion Series

1. NE of Mysore city to the east of Bangalore.

2. It stretches in the Kolar and Raichur districts of Karnataka.

1. One of the deepest gold mines in the world.

2. Depth= >3.5 Km.

3. Gold content= 5.5 per tonne of the ore.

4. Headquarters of the National Institute of Miner's Health is located here.

Champaner Series

1. Lies in the outlier of the Aravalli system in the vicinity of Vadodara.

1. Minerals: Quartzites, conglomerates, phyllites, slates, limestones, and marbles.

2. Popular for the green variety of marble.

Chilpi Series

1. Occupies parts of Balaghat, Jabalpur, and Chindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh.

1. Minerals: grit, phyllite, quartzites, green stones, magniferous rocks.

Closepet Series

1. Distributed in Balaghat and Chhindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh.

1. It is the Dharwaian formation.

2. Minerals found: quartzite, copper pyrite, magniferous rocks.

3. Ore supplied to the Malanjhand Copper plant.

Iron Ore Series

1. Distributed in Singhbhum, Bonai, Mayubhanj, Keonjhar in the form of a range.1. It is about 65 km in length has reserves of about 3000 million tonnes of iron ore.

2. Iron ore is supplied to Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Rourkela, and Bokaro Steel plants.
Khondolite Series

1. Occupies large area in the eastern Ghats from the northern extremity to Krishna valley.

1. Principal rock types: khondlites, kodurites, charnockites, gneisses.

Rialo Series (Delhi Series)

1. Extends from Delhi (Majnu ka Tila) to Alwar (Rajsthan in the northeast to southwest direction).

1. Rich in limestone and Makrana marbles.

2. Makrana and Bhagwanpur are known for their high quality of marbles.

Sakoli Series 

1. Stretches over Jabalpur and Rewa districts

1. Series belongs to the Dharwian formation.

2. Rich in mica, dolomite, schist, and marble (Superiormost quality). 

Sausar Series 

1. Series spreads over Nagpur and Bhandara districts of Maharashtra and Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh.

1. It belongs to the Dharwarian group.

2. Minerals found: mica schist, quartzite, marble, and magniferous rocks.

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Tuesday, August 24, 2021

Urbanization (Section- H): JPSC


The tendency to concentrate in towns and cities is called urbanization. The level of urbanization is measured in terms of the percentage of the urban population to the total population. 31.16% is the urban population in India as per the census 2011. The decennial growth in urban population percentage in 2011 over 2001 was 31.08%. The urban population in the 2001 census was 27.78%.

As per the census 2011, the definition of an urban area is as follows-

1. Statutory town: All places with the municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.

2. Census town: All other places which satisfy the following criteria-

  • A minimum population of 5,000.
  • At least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
  • A density of population of at least 400 persons/(km2)k

Urbanization (Section- H): JPSC

Urban Agglomeration:

It is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths (OGs), or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns.

An Urban Agglomeration must consist of at least a statutory town and its population (i.e. all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 census.


An outgrowth (OG) is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block made up of such a village or hamlet and clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. Some of the examples are railway colony, university campus, port area, military campus, etc., which have come up within near a statutory town outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town. While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of wastewater, educational institution, post offices, medical facilities, bank, etc. and physically contiguous with the core team of the urban agglomeration. 

At the census 2011, there are (4041+ 3894= 7935) towns in the country. The number of towns has increased by 2774 since the last census of 2001. Many of the towns are part of an Urban agglomeration and the rest are independent towns. The total number of urban agglomerations/towns which constitute the urban frame is 6,166 in the country.

Based on population, urban centers have been classified in India into six (6) classes:

  • More than 1 Lakh- City/class 1 town.
  • Between 1-5 million- Metropolitan city.
  • More than 5 million- Megacity eg. Greater Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata.

There are 53 cities/urban agglomerations in India that are million-plus cities, as per the census 2011. 

  • 18 new urban agglomerations/towns have been added to this list since the last census of 2001.
  • Goa (62.17%) is the most urbanized state in India as per census 2011.
  • Himachal Pradesh is the least urbanized state/UT in India as per census 2011.


  • Rank in urbanization in India = 24th (2001) to 27th (2011).
  • Urbanization in Jharkhand = 22.24% (2001) to 24.05% (2011).
  • Largest urban agglomeration city - Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Ranchi.
  • Largest populous city - Ranchi.

As per the functional classification of towns, have been classified into nine (9) classes:

  • Administrative towns- New Delhi, Chandigarh, etc.
  • Industrial towns- Jamshedpur, Bhilai, Hugli, etc.
  • Transport town- Kandla, Kochi, etc.
  • Commercial towns- Kolkata, etc.
  • Mining towns- Jharia, Singrauli, etc.
  • Garrison cantonment towns- Ambala, Jalandhar, etc.
  • Educational towns- Roorkee, Aligarh, etc.
  • Religious & cultural towns- Varanasi, Amritsar, etc.
  • Tourist towns- Nainital, Shimal, etc.

As per the basis of evolution in different time periods:

Urbanization's causes: 

  • Industrialization, Job opportunities, Boundary changes, Natural growth rate.

Impact of Urbanization:

  • Positives: Employment, Education, Social integration, Standard of living, etc.
  • Negatives: Disintegration of joint families, High cost of living, Crime, Pollution, etc.


Sunday, August 22, 2021

Physical Geography (Part-11): Islands & Coral Reefs

Islands and Coral Reefs

An island is a piece of land surrounded on all sides by water. It may occur individually or in a group, in open oceans or seas. Smaller ones of only local significance are found even in lakes and rivers. 

Physical Geography (Part-11): Islands & Coral Reefs

All Islands may be grouped under the following types:

1.) Continental Islands: These islands were formerly part of the mainland and are now detached from the continent. They may be separated by a shallow lagoon or a deep channel. Their separation could be due to subsidence of some part of the land or to a rise in sea level so that the lowland links are submerged by the sea. Their former connection with the neighbouring mainland can be traced from the similar physical structure, flora and fauna that exist on both sides of the channel. Over time, modification by men and other natural forces may give rise to different surface features. But even then, the basic structural features will remain the same. Continental islands may appear as:

  • Individual Island: These lie just outside the continent, very much associated with the characteristics features of the mainland of which they were once part. Example- Newfoundland, separated from the mainland by the Strait of Belle Isle, Madagascar, by the Mozambique Channel, Ceylon by the Palk Strait, Tasmania by the Bass Strait and Formosa by the Formosa Strait.

  • Archipelagoes or Island groups: These comprise groups of islands of varying sizes and shapes. Eg. the British Isles, the Balearic Islands of the Mediterranean and also those of the Aegean Sea.

  • Festoons or Island arc: The islands form an archipelago in the shape of a loop around the edge of the mainland, marking the continuation of mountain ranges that can be traced in the continent. Eg. the East Indies, the Aleutian Island, Ryukyu Islands, Kurile Islands and other arcs of the Pacific coasts. 

2.) Oceanic Islands: These islands are normally small and are located in the midst of oceans. They have no connection with the mainland which may be hundreds or thousands of miles away. They have a flora and fauna unrelated to those of the continents. The Galapagos Islands have many unique species of animals. Due to their remoteness from the major trading centres of the world, most of the oceanic islands are very sparsely populated. Some of them provide usefully stops for aeroplanes and ocean streams that ply between continents across vast stretches of water.

Generally, oceanic islands fall into one of the following groups:

  • Volcanic Islands: Many of the islands in the oceans are in the fact the topmost part of the cones of volcanoes that rise from the ocean bed. Most of them are extinct, but there are also some active ones. The best known volcanic peak of the Pacific Ocean is Muana Loa in Hawaii, which is 13,680 feet above sea level. Mauna Loa is found to have been built up from the water surface! Other volcanic islands have emerged from the submarine ridges of the oceans. The volcanic islands are scattered in most of the earth's oceans. In the Pacific Ocean, they occur in several groups such as Hawaii, the Galapagos Island and the South Sea islands. In the Atlantic are the Azores, Ascension, St. Helena, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Those of the Indian Ocean are Mauritius and Reunion. In the Antarctic Ocean are the South Sandwich Islands, Bouvet Island and many others.

  • Coral Island: The coral islands are very much lower and emerge just above the water surface. These islands, built up by coral animals of various species, are found both near the shores of the mainland and in the midst of oceans. Coral islands include the Marshall Islands, Gilbert and Ellice Islands of the Pacific, Bermuda in the Atlantic and the Laccadives and Maldives of the Indian Ocean.

Coral Reefs:

In tropical seas, many kinds of coral animals and marine organisms such as coral polyps, calcareous algae, shell-forming creatures and lime-secreting plants live in large colonies. Though they are very tiny creatures, their ability to secrete calcium carbonate within tiny cells has given rise to a particular type of marine landform. They exist in numerous species of my forms, colours and shapes. Under favourable conditions, they grow in great profusion just below the water level. Taking coral animals as a whole, the polyps are the most abundant and also the most important. Each polyp resides in a tiny cup of coral and helps to form coral reefs. When they die, their limy skeletons are connected to coastline limestones. There are also non-reef-building species such as the 'precious corals' of the pacific ocean and the 'red coral' of the Mediterranean which may survive in the colder and even the deeper waters. As a rule, they thrive well only in the warmer tropical seas.

The reef-building corals survive best under the following conditions:

  • The water temperature must not fall below 68° F (20°C). This virtually limits the areal distribution of coral s to the tropical, and subtropical zones. Again they will not flourish where there are cold currents because of the upwelling of the cold water from the depths that cools the warm surface water. This explains why coral reefs are generally absent on the western coasts of continents. On the other hand of the warming effect of the warm currents eg. the Gulf stream, means that corals are found to the north of the West Indies in the Atlantic Ocean. The pacific and the Indian oceans, however, have the most numerous coral reefs.

  • The depth of the water should not exceed 30 fathoms or 180 feet, because beyond this depth sunlight is too faint for photosynthesis to take place. This is essential for the survival of the microscopic algae, on which the coral polyps depend. The shallow water of fewer than 100 feet is ideal. But there should always be plenty of water as polyps cannot survive for too long out of water.

  • The water should be saltish and free from sediment. Corals, therefore, survive best in the moving ocean water well away from the silty coasts or muddy mouths of streams. The corals are best developed on the seaward side of the reef, where constantly moving waves, tides and currents maintain an abundant supply of clear, oxygenated water. They also bring an adequate supply of food in the form of microscopic organisms.

Types of Coral Reefs:

There are three (3) main types of coral reefs:

1.) Fringing reefs: A fringing reef is a coralline platform lying close to the shore extending outwards from the mainland. It is sometimes separated from the shore by a shallow lagoon. It is widest when fringing a protruding headland but completely absent when facing the mouth of the stream. The outer edge grows rapidly because of the splashing waves that continuously renew the supply of fresh food. The reefs may be about a mile wide, lying just above the level of low water and sloping steeply downwards on the seaward side to a depth of about 100 feet.

2.) Barrier reef: A barrier reef is separated from the coast by a much wider and deeper channel or lagoon. The reef is partially submerged. where it lies above the water level and sand can accumulate on it, a little vegetation is possible. The barrier reefs have narrow gaps at several places to allow the water from the enclosed lagoon to return to the open ocean. Such gaps are very useful for shipping and provide the only entrances for ships to enter or leave the lagoon. Eg. the Great Barrier reef off the coast of Queensland (Australia). It is 1,200 miles long, separated from the coast by a channel 100 miles wide in places and over 200 feet deep.

3.) Atolls: Atolls are similar to barrier reefs except that they are circular in shape, enclosing a shallow lagoon without any land in the centre. The encircling ring is usually broken in a few places to allow the free flow of water. On the inside of the reefs, sand and limestone debris collect and palm trees like coconuts may grow. Such palm trees thrive well in the brackish water of the lagoon. The nuts fall into the water and are distributed widely by floating from one coral island to another. The calm waters are useful for fishing and canoeing. Some of the large atolls eg. Suvadiva (Maldives), west of Ceylon, have a lagoon over 40 miles across. A number of them provide essential air bases for trans-Pacific aircraft. 

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