All Jharkhand Competitive Exam JSSC, JPSC, Current Affairs, SSC CGL, K-12, NEET-Medical (Botany+Zoology), CSIR-NET(Life Science)

Tuesday, August 24, 2021

Urbanization (Section- H): JPSC

Urbanization

The tendency to concentrate in towns and cities is called urbanization. The level of urbanization is measured in terms of the percentage of the urban population to the total population. 31.16% is the urban population in India as per the census 2011. The decennial growth in urban population percentage in 2011 over 2001 was 31.08%. The urban population in the 2001 census was 27.78%.

As per the census 2011, the definition of an urban area is as follows-

1. Statutory town: All places with the municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.

2. Census town: All other places which satisfy the following criteria-

  • A minimum population of 5,000.
  • At least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
  • A density of population of at least 400 persons/(km2)k

Urbanization (Section- H): JPSC


Urban Agglomeration:

It is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths (OGs), or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns.

An Urban Agglomeration must consist of at least a statutory town and its population (i.e. all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 census.


Outgrowth:

An outgrowth (OG) is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block made up of such a village or hamlet and clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. Some of the examples are railway colony, university campus, port area, military campus, etc., which have come up within near a statutory town outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town. While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of wastewater, educational institution, post offices, medical facilities, bank, etc. and physically contiguous with the core team of the urban agglomeration. 


At the census 2011, there are (4041+ 3894= 7935) towns in the country. The number of towns has increased by 2774 since the last census of 2001. Many of the towns are part of an Urban agglomeration and the rest are independent towns. The total number of urban agglomerations/towns which constitute the urban frame is 6,166 in the country.


Based on population, urban centers have been classified in India into six (6) classes:


  • More than 1 Lakh- City/class 1 town.
  • Between 1-5 million- Metropolitan city.
  • More than 5 million- Megacity eg. Greater Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata.

There are 53 cities/urban agglomerations in India that are million-plus cities, as per the census 2011. 

  • 18 new urban agglomerations/towns have been added to this list since the last census of 2001.
  • Goa (62.17%) is the most urbanized state in India as per census 2011.
  • Himachal Pradesh is the least urbanized state/UT in India as per census 2011.

Jharkhand

  • Rank in urbanization in India = 24th (2001) to 27th (2011).
  • Urbanization in Jharkhand = 22.24% (2001) to 24.05% (2011).
  • Largest urban agglomeration city - Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Ranchi.
  • Largest populous city - Ranchi.

As per the functional classification of towns, have been classified into nine (9) classes:

  • Administrative towns- New Delhi, Chandigarh, etc.
  • Industrial towns- Jamshedpur, Bhilai, Hugli, etc.
  • Transport town- Kandla, Kochi, etc.
  • Commercial towns- Kolkata, etc.
  • Mining towns- Jharia, Singrauli, etc.
  • Garrison cantonment towns- Ambala, Jalandhar, etc.
  • Educational towns- Roorkee, Aligarh, etc.
  • Religious & cultural towns- Varanasi, Amritsar, etc.
  • Tourist towns- Nainital, Shimal, etc.

As per the basis of evolution in different time periods:


Urbanization's causes: 

  • Industrialization, Job opportunities, Boundary changes, Natural growth rate.

Impact of Urbanization:

  • Positives: Employment, Education, Social integration, Standard of living, etc.
  • Negatives: Disintegration of joint families, High cost of living, Crime, Pollution, etc.









Share:

0 comments:

Post a Comment

Unordered List

Search This Blog

Powered by Blogger.

About Me

My photo
Education Marks Proper Humanity.

Text Widget

Featured Posts

Popular Posts