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Showing posts with label NEET. Show all posts
Showing posts with label NEET. Show all posts

Wednesday, February 3, 2021

Respiration & Energy Transfer (Aerobic Respiration) - NEET

RESPIRATION & ENERGY TRANSFER

Respiration & Energy Transfer (Aerobic Respiration) 

  • Occurs: in Mitochondria.

  • Aerobic respiration is a biological process in which glucose is complete breakdown into energy in the presence of oxygen (O2).

  • The energy is released by splitting of a glucose molecule with the help of oxygen gas (O2).

  • However, in anaerobic respiration, the breakdown of glucose is incomplete. The end product of anaerobic respiration is lactic acid instead of carbon dioxide & water. This process occurs in oxygen debt. Hence, the amount of oxygen required to oxide lactic acid to carbon dioxide & water is not present. 

  • So, at the end of the chemical reaction, energy, water molecules, and carbon dioxide gas are released as the by-products of the reactions.

  • The 2900 kJ of energy is released during the process of breaking the glucose molecule and in turn, this energy is used to produce ATP- Adenosine triphosphate molecules, which are used by the system for various purposes.

  • The aerobic reaction process takes place in all multicellular organisms and plants.

  • Aerobic respiration produces 38 ATPs whereas, anaerobic respiration produces only 2 ATP molecules.

In-Plant:

  • During the respiration process in plants, the oxygen (O2) gas enters the plant cells through the stomata, which is found in the epidermis of the leaves and stem of a plant. 

  • With the help of the photosynthesis process, all green plant synthesize their food and thus releases energy.



Aerobic Respiration:

  • It involves molecular oxygen as the final electron acceptor which is liberated during the oxidation of glucose.

  • The glucose is completely oxidized in this process which is operated through steps like a.) Glycolysis, b.) Production of acetyl CoA (connecting link reaction), c.) Kreb's cycle, d.) Electron transfer chain (ETC), e.) Terminal oxidation.




Conversion of  Pyruvic Acid to Acetyl CoA:

  • It is an oxidative decarboxylation reaction. This process occurs in the cytoplasm in the case of prokaryotes and in mitochondria in the case of eukaryotes. 

  • The glycolytic product i.e. pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl CoA. It is catalyzed by a multienzyme complex- pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH).

  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex needs thiamin (vitamin B1) as a co-enzyme. It can not function in the absence of Vit. B1. Hence, thiamine deficiency causes pyruvic acidosis and lactic acidosis, life-threatening conditions.

  • Acetyl CoA is an important intermediate in lipid metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis.

  • This enzyme is present in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and cytosol of prokaryotes.

  • This reaction is called the 'connecting link' reaction between Glycolysis & Krebs cycle.




KREBS CYCLE:


  • It is a series of enzymatic reactions that occurs in all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidization of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide (CO2).

  • It involves the oxidative metabolism of acetyl units and serves as the main source of cellular energy.

  • Some intermediates of the TCA cycle are used in synthesizing important biomolecules such as glutamate & aspartate.

Steps involved in Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs cycle):

Step I: Condensation

  • The first step is the condensation step combining the 2-carbon acetyl group (from acetyl CoA) with a 4-carbon oxaloacetate molecule to form a six-carbon molecule of citrate.

  • CoA is bound to a sulfhydryl (-SH) and diffuses away to eventually combine with another acetyl group.

  • This step is irreversible because it is highly exergonic.

  • The rate of this reaction is controlled by negative feedback and the amount of ATP available.

  • If the ATP level increase, the rate of this reaction decreases.

  • If the ATP is short supply, the rate increases.


Step II: Dehydration

  • Citrate loses 1-H2O (one-water molecule) and gains another as citrate is converted into its isomer, isocitrate.


Step III & IV: Oxidative Decarboxylation

  • In step III, isocitrate is oxidized, producing a 5-carbon molecule, alpha-ketoglutarate, together with a molecule of CO2 and 2-electrons, which reduces NAD+ to NADH.

  • This step is also regulated by negative feedback from ATP and NADH and by a positive effect of ADP.

  • Step III product: Alpha-ketoglutarate.

  • Step IV product: Succinyl CoA.

  • The enzymes that catalyze step IV is regulated by feedback inhibition of ATP, succinyl CoA, and NADH.


Step V: Substrate-level phosphorylation

  • A substrate group is substituted for CoA and a high-energy bond is formed.

  • This energy is used in the substrate-level phosphorylation (during the conversion of the succinyl group into succinate) to form either GTP (guanine triphosphate) or ATP.

  • There are two forms of enzymes, called isoenzymes, depending upon the types of animal tissue in which they are found.

  • One form is found in tissues that use large amounts of ATP, such as the heart and skeletal muscle.

  • The second form of the enzyme is found in tissues that have a large number of anabolic pathways, such as the liver. This form produces GTP.

  • GTP is energetically equivalent to ATP; however, its use is more restricted. In particular, protein synthesis primarily uses GTP. 


Step VI: Dehydrogenation

  • It converts succinate into fumarate.

  • 2-H atoms are transferred to FAD, producing FADH2.

  • The energy contained in the electrons of these atoms is insufficient to reduce NAD+ but adequate to reduce FAD.

  • Unlike NADH, this carrier remains attached to the enzymes and transfers the electrons to the electron transport chain directly.

  • This process is made possible by the localization of the enzyme catalyzing this step inside the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.


Step VII: Hydration

  • Water (H2O) is added to fumarate and malate is formed.

  • The last step of the citric acid cycle regenerates oxaloacetate by oxidizing malate.

  • Another molecule of NADH is produced.




Products of Krebs cycle:

  • 2-Carbon atoms come into the citric acid cycle from each acetyl group, representing 4 out of 6-carbons of one glucose-molecule.

  • 2- Carbon dioxide molecules are released at each turn of the cycle; however, these do not necessarily contain the most recently-added carbon atoms.

  • The 2- acetyl carbon atoms will eventually be released on later turns of the cycle; thus, all six- carbon atoms from the original glucose molecule are eventually incorporated carbon dioxide.


  • These carriers will connect with the last portion of aerobic respiration to produce ATP molecules.

  • 1- GTP/ ATP is also made in each cycle.

  • Several of the intermediate compounds in the citric acid cycle can be used in synthesizing non-essential amino acids; like alpha-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate is used as precursors for the synthesis of fatty acids, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid respectively. Therefore, the cycle is referred to as an 'Amphibolic pathway' i.e. involving catabolism as well as anabolism.















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Monday, February 1, 2021

Respiration & Energy Transfer (Anaerobic Respiration) - NEET

RESPIRATION & ENERGY TRANSFER

Respiration & Energy Transfer (Anaerobic Respiration) 

  • Maintenance of life requires a continuous supply of energy.
  • Respiration fulfills the continuous need for energy.

  • Respiration is a catabolic process wherein complex organic substrate is oxidized to simple components to generate biological energy.


Cellular respiration occurs in two different ways like 1.) anaerobic and 2.) aerobic respiration.

A. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION:
  • It is cellular respiration that does not involve oxygen at all.
  • It is completed through steps like glycolysis and conversion of glycolytic product to any suitable product like lactic acid, ethanol, etc.


A.) GLYCOLYSIS:

  • It involves the breakdown of a glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules.
  • This is a common step in anaerobic as well as aerobic respiration.
  • It is completed in two phases as preparatory phase and the pay-off phase.
  • The overall process of glycolysis is completed in ten steps.

1.) Preparatory phase:

  • The first five steps constitute the preparatory phase through which glucose is phosphorylated twice at the cost of two ATP molecules and a fructose 1,6-biphosphate is formed.

  • This molecule is split to form: 1.) a molecule of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate & 2.) a molecule of dihydroxyacetone phosphate.

  • Both of these molecules are 3-carbon carbohydrates (trioses) and are isomers of each other.

  • Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is isomerized to the second molecule of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

  • Thus, two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate are formed, and here, the preparatory phase of glycolysis ends.

2.) Pay-off phase:

  • Both the molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate are converted to two molecules of 1, 3-biphosphoglycerate by oxidation and phosphorylation.

  • Phosphorylation is brought about with the help of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and not ATP.

  • Both molecules of 1, 3-biphosphoglycerate are converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid through series of reactions accompanied by the release of energy.

  • This released energy is used to produce ATP (4 molecules) by substrate-level phosphorylation.

  • 2 ATP/glucose is the net outcome.

  • Energy is also converted by the formation of 2-NADH molecules.



B.) Lactic Acid Fermentation (In Muscle):

  • In muscles, the NADH+H ion produced during glycolysis is reoxidized to NAD+ by donating one proton and two electrons to pyruvic acid which yields lactic acid. 

 

  • In this reaction pyruvate is converted into a 3-carbon molecule called lactic acid.

 

  •  No production of carbon dioxide (CO2).

 

  • The only benefit is serves is that it allows glycolysis to continue with the small gain of ATP generated. 

 

  • Skeletal muscles usually derive their energy by anaerobic respiration. 

 

  •  After vigorous exercise lactic acid accumulates, leading to muscle fatigue. 

 

  • During rest, however, the lactic acid is reconvereted to pyruvic acid and is channeled back into the aerobic respiration pathway.


C.) Alcoholic Fermentation (In Yeast):

  • In yeast, the pyruvate is decarboxylated to acetaldehyde.

 

  • The acetaldehyde is then reduced by NADH+H ion to ethanol.

 

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is also produced in this process.

 

  • Accumulation of ethanol by fermentation in a culture of yeast may stop further multiplication and lead to the death of cells.

 

  • In the presence of oxygen (O2) however, yeast can respire aerobically.

 

  • Examples of food produced are alcoholic drinks, bread, cakes, etc.


 

 

 

 

 



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Thursday, October 1, 2020

Class Chondrichthyans - NEET - Biology

Class Chondrichthyans

Fig: Rhinocodon

  • They have a skeleton that is composed predominantly of cartilage, often impregnated with calcium.

Important characteristics:

  • Marine animals having cartilaginous endoskeleton.
  • The notochord is persistent throughout life.
  • Gill slits are separate & operculum (gill cover) is not present.
  • The skin is tough, containing minute placoid scales.
  • The stomach is J-shaped.
  • The swim bladder & lungs are absent and the liver is filled with oil to provide buoyancy to the body while swimming.
  • Due to the absence of an air bladder (fish maw), they have to swim constantly to avoid sinking. If they stop swimming, they will sink (fall) like a stone.
  • The heart is two-chambered (one auricle & one ventricle).
  • Kidneys opisthonephric. Excretion ureotelic. Cloaca present.
  • Fertilization is external. Sexes are separate.
  • The pectoral fins of the shark are called claspers & used for copulation.
There are three ways in which sharks reproduce;
  • Oviparous= in which the female lays eggs which takes a few months to develop.
  • Ovoviviparous= where the eggs are hatched in the oviduct & the embryo develops in the uterus.
  • Viviparous= in which the gestation period of the embryo is about one year.
Examples: Rhinocodon (whale shark), Carcharodon (great white shark), Trygon (stingrays), Torpedo (electric rays), Scoliodon (dogfish), Pristis (sawfish).
Fig: Stingrays





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Class Reptilia- NEET-Biology

 Class Reptilia

Fig: Sphenodon (Tuatara)

  • Reptilia= Creeping or crawling mode of locomotion.
  • It is considered the first animal on the land with the ability to live & multiply on land, with the help of their amniotic eggs.
  • Most of them are tetrapods, with four-legs or like-like appendages.

Important characteristics:

  • The skin is covered with scutes or scales & it has a high level of keratin, which prevents water loss through the skin.
  • Glands are usually absent.
  • Snakes & lizards shed their scales as skin cast (sloughing) routinely.
  • They are considered tetrapods with sets of paired limbs. In some reptiles, like snakes, worm lizards, the legs are absent, but it is believed that these animals evolve from some tetrapod ancestor.
  • Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not pass through an embryonic stage with gills. These animals breathe with well-developed lungs, right from birth. Most of them have two lungs, except for some snakes, which posses only a single lung.
  • All reptiles have three-chambered hearts, except crocodiles, which have four-chambered (2 atria, 2 ventricles), like mammals & birds. The three chambers in reptiles consist of two atria to receive blood & one partially divided ventricle for pumping blood.
  • Reptiles do not have external ear openings. The tympanum represents the ear.
  • Most of the reptiles lay eggs, but some of them give birth to young ones, by hatching the eggs inside the body of the mother.
  • Their characteristics also include internal fertilization, in this process sperm gets deposited into the reproductive tract of the female directly.
  • Being cold-blooded, the body temperature of the reptiles vary with the surrounding atmosphere.
  • Sexes are separate. Fertilization is internal.
  • They are oviparous & development is direct.
  • Example: Sphenodon (Tuatara), Varanus (Komodo dragon), Draco (Flying lizard), Ophiophagus (King cobra), Hydrophis (Sea snake), Crocodylus (Indian freshwater crocodile).
Fig: Ophiophagus (King cobra)


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Phylum - Porifera - NEET-Biology

 Phylum Porifera

Fig: Phylum Porifera = Pore Bearing

Important Characteristics:

  • Sponges are primitive multicellular animals with a cellular grade of organization. 
  • They have no fixed body shape & no plane of symmetry. 
  • Whole sponges can be regenerated from a few separated cells.
  • Sponges are free-living aquatic (mostly marine) & having neither nerves nor muscles.
  • Body wall with two layers of loosely arranged cells and mesenchyme in between (diploblastic).
  • Reproduction occurs by asexual (external & internal buds) or sexual methods.
  • The body-wall encloses a large cavity, the spongocoel & in most cases also contain numerous small canals. 
  • The ceaseless beating of flagella maintains s steady current of water through the canals to bring in food & oxygen & remove waters.
  • Almost all sponges possess an internal skeleton. It may consist of tiny siliceous spicules or of fine spongin fibers or of both.
  • Example: Sycon (Scypha), Spongilla (Freshwater sponge), Euspongia (Bath sponge)


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Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) - NEET-Biology

 Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)

Important Characteristics:

  • Acoelomate, triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical organisms.
  • Digestive, skeletal, circulatory & respiratory systems are absent, parenchymal gland serves as hydroskeleton.
  • The body is soft & dorso-ventrally flattened. It may be leaf-like ribbon-like. It is without segmentation.
  • Possess the organ-system level of organization.
  • The organ-system level of organization.
  • The nervous system is ladder-like. It comprises the brain & two main longitudinal nerve-chords connected at intervals by transverse commissures.
  • The excretory system includes characteristics of flame-cells leading into tubules that open out by one or more excretory pores.
  •  Hermaphroditic, often with elaborate precautions for minimizing self-fertilization.
  • Fertilization is internal. Life history often includes larval stages.
  • Asexual reproduction by transverse fission occurs in some forms.
  • Example- Taenia (Tapeworm), Fasciola (Liver fluke)


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Wednesday, September 30, 2020

Phylum Annelida - NEET-Biology

 Phylum Annelida


Fig: Leech (Hirudinaria)


Characteristics:

  • Triploblastic, coelomate, bilaterally symmetrical & metamorphically segmented animals.
  • During muscular contraction, the body wall pushes against each compartment wall. This allows separate regions to contract independently & elongate during locomotion.
  • The body is elongated, cylindrical, or flattened.
  • The segmented worms are triploblastic, i.e. they develop from the three germ layers.
  • The body-cavity is a true coelom, as it is lined by a mesodermal epithelium.
  • It is divided by vertical septa into compartments.
  • A closed circulatory system present.
  • Segmented nephridia for excretion & osmoregulation.
  • Typically, there is a trochophore larva during development.
  • Example: Nereis, Pheretima (Earthworm), & Hirudinaria (Bloodsucking leech).
Fig: Earthworm (Pheretima)




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Phylum Mollusca - NEET-Biology

 Phylum Mollusca

Fig: Apple snail (Pila)
Characteristics:

  • Mollusca is the second-largest animal phylum & includes snails, slugs, oysters, cuttlefish, octopuses, and many other familiar animals.
  • Bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic & coelomate animals.
  • The body is covered by a calcareous shell and is unsegmented with a distinct head, muscular foot & visceral hump.
  • Except for cephalopods, all mollusks have such as open circulatory system.
  • Nitrogenous wastes are removed from the body by the nephridium.
  • Mostly dioecious.
  • Fertilization is both external & internal, oviparous with indirect development.
  • Embryo developed into a free-swimming larva called a trochophore.
  • Examples: Pila (Apple snail), Pinctada (Pearl oyster), Sepia (Cuttlefish), Loligo (Squid), Octopus (Devilfish), Aplysia, Dentalium (Tusk shell), Chaetopleura (Chiton)
Fig: Octopus (Devilfish)



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Phylum Hemichordata - NEET-Biology

 Phylum Hemichordata

Fig: Acorn worm (Hemichordate)

  • Hemichordate = half chordate.
  • These are not classified as true chordates, although they are closely related.
  • Some DNA-based studies evolution suggest that hemichordates are actually closer to echinoderms than to true chordates.
  • It was earlier considered as a sub-phylum under the phylum Chordata. 
  • But, now it is placed under a separate phylum under non-chordates.

Important characteristics:

  • Exclusively marine.
  • The body is cylindrical & is composed of an anterior proboscis, a collar & a long trunk.
  • Notochord present which allows & endodermal in origin (termed stomochord).
  • Notochord occurs only in the anterior end of the body. It is called the buccal diverticulum.
  • Open circulatory system.
  • Perform sexual reproduction.
  • Sexes are separate.
  • Fertilization is external.
  • Development is indirect.
  • Example: Balanglossus (Tongue worm), Ptychodera & Saccoglossus.
Fig: Balanoglossus (Tongue worm)


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Class Aves - NEET-Biology

 Class Aves

Fig: Pigeon (Columba livia domestica)

Aves is the name of the class to which birds belong in taxonomy.

Important characteristics:

  • Skin is dry without glands except the oil or preen gland at the base of the tail.
  • Many of the characters of the birds are adaptations that facilitate flight.
  • A bird's most obvious adaptations for flight are its wings & feathers.
  • The forelimbs are modified into wings. Epidermis covered with feathers.
  • The presence of feathers is the most characteristics feature of aves.
  • Fully ossified endoskeleton & the long bones are hollow with air cavities (pneumatic).
  • They are warm-blooded animals, i.e. they are able to maintain constant body temperature.
  • The excretory system included metanephric kidneys; ureters open into cloaca; no urinary bladder; uric acid main nitrogenous waste.
  • Sexes separate; females have left ovary & oviduct only; copulatory organ (penis) only in ducks, geese, paleognaths & a few others.
  • Sexes are separate. Fertilization is internal.
  • They are oviparous & development is direct. Amniotic eggs with much yolk & hard, calcareous shells; embryonic membranes are present in the egg during development.
  • Example: Corvus (crow), Columba (pigeon), Psittacula (Parrot), Struthio (Ostrich), Pavo (Peacock), Neophron (Vulture).
  • Flightless birds: Struthio camelus (African ostrich), Rhea americana (South America ostrich), Dromaius novaehollandiae (Australian emu).
Fig: Dromaius novaehollandiae 


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Phylum Echinodermata - NEET-Biology

 Phylum Echinodermata

Fig: Sea urchin (Echinodermata)

Important characteristics:

  • Exclusively marine & benthic i.e. found at the bottom of the sea.
  • Spiny skinned free swimming, triploblastic & coelomate animals.
  • Adult echinoderms are radially symmetrical but larvae are bilaterally symmetrical.
  • Lack of head and do not show segmentation.
  • The digestive system is complete with the mouth on the ventral side & anus on the dorsal side.
  • The most characteristic feature in Echinodermata is the presence of the water vascular (or ambulacral) system. Tube feet are contractile appendages of the water vascular system; serve for locomotion, food capture, respiration & attachment of the body to the substratum. They constitute glands & filtering devices.
  • Perform sexual reproduction. Sexes are separate. Fertilization is usually external. Development is indirect with free-swimming larva.
The phylum Echinodermata is divided into two subphyla:
  • Pelmatozoa: It has a single living class Crinoidea represented by sea lilies or feather stars like Antedon, Rhizocrinus, etc.
  • Eleutherozoa: It has four living classes: Asteroidea (Asterias), Ophiothrix, Echinoidea (sea urchin), Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers).
Fig: Sea cucumber (Holothuroidea)







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Tuesday, September 29, 2020

Class Osteichthyes - NEET-Biology

Class Osteichthyes

Fig: Catla fish 

  • The vast majority of vertebrates belong to a superclass of gnathostomes called Osteichthyes.
  • Unlike chondrichthyans, nearly all living osteichthyans have an ossified (bony) endoskeleton with a hard matrix of calcium phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2].


Important characteristics:

  • It includes both marine & freshwater fishes with a bony endoskeleton.
  • They have four pairs of gills that are covered by an operculum on each side.
  • The heart is two-chambered (one auricle & one ventricle).
  • Most fishes can control their buoyancy with an air bladder known as the swim bladder. 
  • Adult kidneys are mesonephric. Excretion is chiefly ammonetelic.
  • They are cold-blooded animals.
  • Sexes are separate. Fertilization is usually external.
  • Mostly oviparous, rarely ovoviviparous or viviparous.
  • Development direct, rarely with metamorphosis.
  • Examples: Latimeria (Lobe-finned fish), Dipnoi (Lung-fish), Hippocampus (Sea-horse), Exocoetus (Flying fish), Echeneis or Remoro (Suckerfish), Anguilla (eel), Anabas (Climbing perch), Catla-Catla (Catla), Pterophyllum (Angelfish), Betta (Fighting fish).
Fig: Dipnoi (Lung-fish)


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Saturday, September 26, 2020

Class Amphibia- NEET-Biology

 Class Amphibia

Class: Amphibia

  • Amphibians are vertebrates, that can live in both aquatic (water) as well as terrestrial (land) environments.
  • The first amphibian came into existence in the Devonian period.

Important characteristics:

  • Soft, moist (without scales) & glandular skin.
  • Endoskeleton mostly bony.
  • Notochord does not persist.
  • The eyes have eyelids.
  • A tympanum represents the ear.
  • Respiration is by gills, lungs, and through the skin.
  • Larvae with external gills which may persist in some aquatic adults (like salamanders).
  • The heart is three-chambered (two auricles & one ventricle).
  • The alimentary canal, urinary & reproduction tracts open into a common chamber called cloaca which opens to the exterior.
  • Kidneys are mesonephric.
  • Excretion is ureotelic.
  • They are cold-blooded animals.
  • Sexes are separate. Fertilization is external.
  • They are oviparous & development is direct or indirect.
  • Example: Ichthyophis (blind-worm), Ambystoma (American salamander), Hyla (tree frog), Necturus (Mudpuppy), Alytes (Midwife toad), Bufo (Toad), Rana tigrina (Indian Bullfrog)
Fig: Rana tigrina


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Sunday, August 16, 2020

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT SOME METALS - CHEMISTRY (SCIENCE)

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT METALS (SCIENCE):

Alkali Metals: Group 1st element are called alkali metals because its hydroxides are alkaline.
Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2nd elements are called alkaline earth metals.
Actinides Series: Radio-active elements.
Transition Metals: Generally transition metals & their compounds are colored. 

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'A':

  • Aluminum hydroxide (AlOH3):  used to make waterproof & Stainless cloth.
  • Auric chloride (AuCl3)used to make antivenom needle.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'B':

  • Babbitt metal/ Non-Ferrous Alloy: It contains [Tin(Sn)- 89%, Antimony(Sb)- 9%, & Copper(Cu)- 2%] = used in engine to support moving mechanical parts & protects them from frictional degradation.
  • Barium (Ba): In fireworks, green color is due to Barium.
  • Barium Sulphate (BaSO4)used in X-ray of the abdomen as barium-meal.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'C':

  • Calcium Hydride/Hydrolith (CaH2): used as dry alcohol. It is used to prepare fire-proof & waterproof clothes.
  • Calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO2)Bleaching powder, used for water treatment.
  • Cadmium rod: used in the Nuclear reactor to slow down the speed of the neutron.
  • Chromium trioxide(CrO3)/Chromic Acid: used for chrome plating on a metal object.
  • Cobalt-60 (Co-60): used in Cancer treatment.
  • Cytochrome: In cytochrome Iron (Fe) is present.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'F':

  • Ferric oxide (Fe2O3): the reaction with Aluminium (Al) is used to fill up the cracks of railway tracks & machine parts = Thermite reaction.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'G':

  • Gun powder: contains [ Pottasium nitrate(KNO3)- 75%, Sulphar- 10%, Charcoal- 15%].
  • Galvanised Iron (Fe) is coated with Zinc - to prevent rusting.
  • Gallium (Ga) metal: liquid at room temperature.
  • Gold (Au): Pure gold is 24 carat. To harden the gold, copper (Cu) is mixed.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'I':

  • Iron & Mercury (Fe & Hg): produces more resistance in comparison to other during the flow of electricity.
  • Iron Pyrites (FeS2)known as Fool's gold.
  • Iron(Fe): wrought Iron is the purest form of Iron.
  • Iron Cast: percentage of Carbon in cast iron = 2.5 - 5%, wrought iron = 01 - 0.2%
  • Iron (Ferric) oxide (Fe2O3): the reaction with Aluminium (Al) is used to fill up the cracks of railway tracks & machine parts = Thermite reaction.
  • Iron(Fe): Anemia is caused due to deficiency of Iron in the body while excess iron in the body may cause siderosis.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'L':

  • Lead (Pb): used to write on paper as it is a 'stable element'. Combustion of petrol in automobiles pollutes the air by producing the lead.
  • Lead arsenic (PbHASO4): is an alloy used to make bullets.
  • Lead Carbon: used to make an artificial part of the body. 
  • Lead Oxide(PbO)/Litharage: used in rubber industries in the manufacturing of storage batteries & flint glass.
  • Lead-pipe: is not used for drinking water because it forms poisonous lead hydroxide Pb(OH2).
  • Lithium (Li): the highest & the most reductant element.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'M':

  • Mercury (Hg): known as 'Quick Silver'. It is kept in Iron (Fe) pot because it doesn't form the amalgam with Iron.
  • Mercury & Argon: vapor of mercury(Hg) & argon(Ar) is used in tubelight.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'M':

  • Nitrogen (N2) gas: In flash-bulb, Magnesium (Mg) wire is kept in an atmosphere of Nitrogen gas.
  • Nichrome (NiFeCr): wire used in the electrical heater.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'O':

  • Oxides of metals are alkaline.
  • Osmium (Os): heaviest metal.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'P':

  • Platinum (Pt): hardest metal.
  • Palladium (Pd) metal: used in an airplane.
  • Potassium (K): Onion & Garlic have an odor due to Potassium.
  • Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)Known as "Pearl Ash"- used in making soap & glass.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'R':

  • Radium (Ra): extracted from pitchblende (Uraninite).
  • Rusting of Iron(Fe2O3): = Chemical changes that increase the weight of Iron.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'S':

  • Selenium (Se): used in the photoelectric cells.
  • Silver & Copper (Ag & Cu): best conductor of electricity.
  • Silver & Gold (Ag & Au): most malleable metal.
  • Silver Chloride (AgCl): used in photochromatic glass.
  • Silver Iodide (AgI): used in artificial rain.
  • Silver Nitrate (AgNO2)used as Marker during an election. It is kept in a colored bottle to avoid decomposition.
  • Silver Sulfide(Ag2S)Silver spoon is not used in egg food because it forms black Silver sulfide.   
  • Sodium Peroxide (Na2O2)used in submarine & also to purify closed air in the hospital.
  • Stannous Sulphide (SnS2): called 'Mosaic gold'. It is used as paint. Sn shows the allotropy.
  • Strontium (Sr): In fireworks, crimson red color is due to the presence of Sr.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'T':

  • Titanium (Ti): Strategic metal, it is lighter than Iron (Fe).
  • Tetra-ethyl lead (C8H20Pb): used as an anti-knocking compound.
  • Tungsten (W): melting point= 3500 degrees C. To prevent oxidation of tungsten, the air is removed from the electric bulb.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'U':

  • Uranium (U): a heavy radioactive metal & it belongs to actinide group. It is used in the manufacture atom bomb.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'W':

  • Wilson Disease: Excess of copper (Cu) in the human body or copper poisoning, causes inherited disorder.
  • World-famous Eiffel Tower has a steel & cement base. 

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'Z':

  • Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2): used for killing rats.
  • Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2): It is coated with wooden furniture to prevent termites. 
  • Zinc Oxide (ZnO): known as 'Flower of Zinc'. It is also known as Chinese white & used as white paint.
  • Zeolite: made up of metal ions of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium & Silicon. It is used to remove the hardness of the water.
  • Zirconium (Zr): metal burns in oxygen as well as in nitrogen.
  • Zirconium (Zr), Cadmium (Cd), Boron (B): To capability to absorb neutrons & used in a nuclear reactor.

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