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Wednesday, September 30, 2020

Fundamental Duties - NCERT Solution-Political

Fundamental Duties


  • Incorporated in Part IV-A, article 51-A of the constitution of India.
  • Inserted by the Constitution 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.
  • It was part of a large number of changes brought about during the internal emergency (1975 - 77).
  • But after the end of the Emergency, when the new Parliament reviewed the whole position & in most cases restored the pre-emergency position, article 51-A was one emerged unscathed because it was considered by all parties to be an unexceptionable charter of principles which citizens could usefully absorb & practice.
  • The inclusion of Fundamental Duties in our Constitution also brings it in line with Article 29 (1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which says: "Everyone has the duties to the community in which alone the free & full development of the personality is possible."
  • The exercise of fundamental rights entails duties to the community which ensures the free and full development of human personality.
  • Added on the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee. These are based on the Japanese model.

List of Fundamental Duties:

According to Article 51-A, it shall be the duty of every citizen of India:
  • To abide by the Constitution & respect its ideals & institutions, the National Flag & the National Anthem;
  • To cherish & follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom;
  • To defend the country & render national service when called upon to do so;
  • To promote harmony & the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic & regional, or sectional diversities & to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  • To value & preserve the rich heritage of the country's composite culture;
  • To protect & improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers & wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures;
  • To develop scientific temper, humanism & the spirit of inquiry & reform;
  • To safeguard public property & to abjure violence;
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual & collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor & achievements;
  • To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of 6 - 14 years. This duty was added by the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002.

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