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Tuesday, September 1, 2020

Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement

KHILAFAT & NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT:




1919-22: KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

  • The First World-War (WWI) ended with the "Treaty of Versailles".
  • Victorious British dethroned the Sultan of Turkey who was regarded as the "Khalifa or Caliph".
  • Indian Muslims organize the Khalifa Movement.
Aim of Khalifa Movement:
  • The Khalifa's position should be restored.
  • The Khalifa's control over the Muslim sacred places should be retained.
  • In territorial adjustments after the war, Khalifa should be left with sufficient territories.

1919 (Bombay): KHILAFAT COMMITTEE

  • Dr. Harsat Mohani made a call for a boycott of British goods & non-cooperation with the British government.


1920: ALLIANCE WITH CONGRESS

  • Gandhi appointed as the President of the All India Khilafat Committee.
  • Till May 1920, Gandhi was still moderate but afterward hardened with the publication of the terms of the treaty with Turkey & the Hunter Committee Report on Punjab disturbances.

1920 June (Allahabad): CENTRAL KHILAFAT COMMITTEE MEET

  • Attended by both Congress & Khilafat Leaders.
  • Ultimatum gave to the government-unless the Khilafat & Punjab wrongs were undone, the movement shall be launched from 1st August 1920.
  • Tikal proposed Hindu-Muslim alliances over a religious question.

1920, 1st Aug.: NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT

  • Non-Cooperation movement launched.
  • Tilak passes away.

1920, 20th Dec. (Nagpur): NAGPUR CONGRESS SESSION

  • President C.Vijayraghavachariar.
  • CR Das turns from a critic to Gandhi's supporter & moves the main resolution on Non-Cooperation Resolution of Non-Violent Non-Cooperation endorsed with the triple purpose of Non-Cooperation as the follows:
  • A satisfactory resolution to the Khilafat question.
  • Redressal of the Punjab wrongs, and
  • Attainment of Swaraj.
  • A detailed program of Non-Cooperation was suggested, to be put into force at a time decided by the Congress.
  • A new constitution of the Congress Party (handwork of Gandhi himself) was adopted.
  • Gandhi gave the slogan, "Swaraj in one year".
  • Mohammad Ali Jinnah, GS Khaparde, Bipin Chandra Pal & Annie Besant left the Congress, they still believed in the lawful methods of the agitation.

1921 Jan.-March: FIRST PHASE OF NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT

  • Emphasis was on the boycott of schools, colleges, law courts & promotion of Charkha.
  • CR Das played a key role in encouraging a boycott. 
  • Subhas Chandra Bose became the Principal of the National College in Calcutta.
  • Many leading lawyers gave up their remunerative legal practices. Lawyers were Motilal Nehru, CR Das, MR Jayakar, Saifuddin Kitchlew, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, C.Rajagopalachari, T.Prakasam & Asif Ali.

1921 April-June: SECOND PHASE

  • The main focus on raising One Crore Rupees for Tilak Swaraj Fund.

1921 Jul. onwards: THIRD PHASE

  • The main emphasis was on the boycott of the visit of the Prince of Wals in November & boycott of foreign cloth.
  • Congress Volunteer Corps acted as parallel police.

1921 May: GANDHI-READING TALKS

  • Viceroy Reading tried to persuade Gandhi to ask the Ali brothers to withdraw their speeches suggesting violence but the talks failed.

1921 Dec.: GOVERNMENT REPRESSION

  • Congress & Khilafat Volunteer Corps were declared unlawful.

21 Dec.: AHMEDABAD CONGRESS SESSION

  • Presided over by CR Das while still in jail, Hakim Ajmal Khan was the acting President.

1922, 1st Feb.: GANDHI SENDS ULTIMATUM TO VICEROY

  • Gandhi threatens with the mass civil-disobedience unless the government repression was abandoned & political prisoners were released.
  • The Viceroy was unmoved.
  • Gandhi decided to begin mass civil-disobedience & no-tax campaign from Bardoli taluka of Surat district.
  • 5th February was fixed as the date of the launch.

1922, 5th Feb.: CHAURI-CHAURA VIOLENCE

  • At Chauri-Chaura (Gorakhpur district, UP), a mob of angry peasants attacked a local police station & set it on fire, killing 22 policemen.
  • Shocked by this incidence of violence, Gandhi withdrew the movement calling it a "Himalayan Blunder".
  • Subhas Bose, in his autobiography "the Indian Struggle", called it a "National Calamity".

1922, 12th Feb.(Bardoli): CWC MEETING

  • CWC endorses the withdrawal of the civil-disobedience movement, known as Bardoli Resolution.

1922, 10th March: GANDHI ARRESTED

  • The trial was held before Mr. Broomfield.
  • While passing the sentences the judge followed the precedent of the case of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, under the same section.
  • Gandhi sentenced to 6 year's imprisonment & was lodged in Yerwada Jail, Poona.

1922, Nov.: END OF KHILAFAT ISSUE

  • Mustafa Kamal Pasha declared Turkey as a secular state & later abolished the Caliphate itself (1924).
  • Thus, ended the issue of the Khilafat the world over.







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