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Monday, September 7, 2020

Indian Sculpture

INDIAN SCULPTURE:

Three prominent schools of sculpture developed in this period at three different regions of India- centered at Gandhara, Mathura, and Amravati.

Basis

Gandhara School (Kushana rulers)

Mathura School (Kushana rulers)

Amravati School (Satvahana rulers)

1. External Influence

Heavy influence of Greek or Hellenistic sculpture, so it is also known as Indo-Greek art.

It was developed indigenously & not influenced by external cultures.

It was developed indigenously & not influenced by external cultures.

2. Ingredients Used

Early Gandhara School used bluish-grey sandstone while the later period saw the use of mud & stucco.

The sculptures of Mathura School were made using spotted red sandstone.

The sculpture of Amravati School was made using white marbles.

3. Religious Influence

Mainly Buddhist imagery, influenced by the Greco-Roman pantheon.

Influence of all three religions of the time, i.e. Hindusim, Buddhism & Jainism.

Mainly Buddhist influence.

4. Area of Development

Developed in the North-West Frontier, in the modern-day of Kandhar.

Developed in & around Mathura, Sonkh & Kankalitila. Kankalitila was famous for Jain sculptures.

Developed in the Krishna-Godavari lower valley, in and around Amravati & Nagarjunakonda.

5. Features of Buddha Sculpture

1. The Buddha is shown in a spiritual state, with wavy hair.

2. He wears a few ornaments & seated in a yogi position.

3. The eyes are half-closed as in meditation.

4. A protuberance is shown on the head signifying the omniscience of Buddha.


1. Buddha is shown in a delighted mood with s smiling face.

2. The body symbolizes muscularity, wearing a tight dress.

3. The face and head are shaven.

4. Buddha is seated in padmasana with different mudras & his face reflects grace. A similar protuberance is shown on the head.

1. Since the sculptures are generally part of narrative art, there is less emphasis on the individual features of Buddha.

2. The sculptures generally depict life stories of Buddha & the Jataka tales, i.e., the previous lives of Buddha in both human & animal form.


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