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Monday, August 31, 2020

Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34)

CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (1930-34)




1929: LAHORE CONGRESS SESSION


1930: GANDHI'S ELEVEN POINTS

  • Gandhi placed 'Eleven Points' of administrative reforms before Lord Irwin & tried to negotiate with the government once again before launching the CDM.

1930: CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE BEGINS

  • Gandhi started his historic 'Dandi March' from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi (240 miles, 24 days), accompanied by 78 followers & thus began CDM.

1930: GANDHI BREAKS SALT LAW

  • 6th April 1930
  • Gandhi reached Dandi, picked up a handful of salt & broke the salt law as a symbol of defiance to British Laws.
  • C Rajagopalachari led a slat march from Trichinopoly to Vedaranyam on the Tanjore coast.
  • Forms of protest included salt manufacture & resignations on a wide scale, boycott of foreign cloth & liquor, non-payment of land revenue in Ryotwari areas, anti-Chowkidari tax movement in Zamindari areas (Bihar), & Forest Satyagraha, i.e. peaceful violation of forest laws.

1930: CHITTAGONG ARMOURY RAID

  • 18th April 1930
  • Carried out by the Bengal revolutionaries led by Surya Sen.
  • ROLE OF KHAN ABDUL GAFFAR KHAN:
  • Khan had been active in NWFP for several years & had set up a band of non-violent revolutionaries, the Khudai Khidmatgars (Servants of God) or the Red Shirts (because of the color of their shirts) who played an active role in the CDM.
  • ANTI-CUNNINGHAM CIRCULAR AGITATION:
  • In Assam, a powerful agitation by students the infamous 'Cunningham Circular' was launched which prohibited students from participating in political activities associated with the national movement.
  • NON-REVENUE NO-RENT CAMPAIGN:
  • Was started in UP, Agra & Rae-Bareilly emerged as important centers.
  • The participation of women was the most remarkable feature of CDM.

1930-31: FIRST RTC (LONDON)

  • Chaired by British PM Ramsay MacDonald of the labor party.
  • First conference between the Indians & the British as equals.
  • Boycotted by Congress as it had launched the CDM, its proceedings proved to be quite meaningless & the British government grew anxious to secure Congress participation.
  • It recommended- 1.) Formation of an All India Federation of British Indian Provinces & the Indian States. 2.) A responsible government at the center with certain 'reservations & safeguards' for the transitional period.
  • In all, three RTCs were held in London to discuss the Indian constitutional question.
  • INC participated only in the 2nd RTC.
  • Ambedkar attended all the three RTCs.

1931: GANDHI RELEASED

  • 25th January 1931
  • The truce period begins.

1931: GANDHI-IRWIN TALK INITIATED

  • 14th February 1931
  • By the efforts of Sir TB Sapru & Sir MR Jayakar.

1931: GANDHI-IRWIN PACT (DELHI PACT)

  • End of First Phase of CDM
  • The fortnight-long talks culminated in the Delhi Pact.
  • In context to the pact, Sarojini Naidu termed as 'The Two Mahatmas'.
  • The pact was signed by Gandi on behalf of the Congress & by Irwin on behalf of the government on an equal footing.
  • As per the Pact, the Congress agreed to withdraw the CDM immediately & participate in the next RTC.

1931: SPECIAL CONGRESS SESSION AT KARACHI

  • 29th March 1931
  • It was called to ratify the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
  • It was presided by Sardar Patel.
  • Adopted resolutions on Fundamental Rights (Jawaharlal Nehru with the help of M.N.Roy) & National Economic Programme.

1931: CHANGE OF GOVERNMENT

  • April-August 1931
  • Lord Irwin replaced by Lord Willingdon as Viceroy
  • MacDonald's Labour Cabinet was replaced by a new coalition government dominated by the Conservatives.
  • Sir Samuel Hoare:  he became Secretary of State for India.
  • The changed government adopted a hardened stand, saw the Delhi pact as a mistake.

1931: SECOND RTC (LONDON)

  • September-December 1931
  • Congress participated & was represented by Gandhi.
  • Gandhi gave a create Blanche to Jinnah, yet the communal problem could not be resolved.

1931: GOVERNMENT REPRESSION

  • September 1931
  • While India was away to London, Willingdon decided to launch a hard & immediate blow to the revival of the national movement.
  • The policy of 'Civil martial law' was launched & involved the passing of sweeping ordinances banning all Congress organizations.
  • Gandhi was arrested as soon as he returned from the RTC (4th January 1932).

1931: GANDHI RETURNED FROM LONDON

  • 28th December 1931
  • Gandhi returned to a changed political situation.

1931: SECOND CDM LAUNCHED

  • 4th January 1932
  • Gandhi was arrested & the movement was effectively crushed within a few months.
  • Afterward, it just lingered on.

1932: COMMUNAL AWARD

  • MacDonald announced the proposal on minority representation, known as the Communal Awards.
  • It declared depressed classes as the minority & entitled them to separate electorate.
  • Congress strongly disagreed with the communal award, yet it decided neither to accept nor reject it.
  • 20th Septemeber 1932, Gandhi (in Yerwada jail) sat on a fast unto death to oppose the Communal Award.

1932: POONA PACT

  • 24th September 1932
  • It was concluded betweenh Gandi & Ambedkar with the efforts of Ambedkar, MC Rajah & Madan Mohan Malviya.

1932: THIRD RTC

  • November-December 1932
  • It was attended by only 46 delegates & boycotted by the INC as well as the Labour Party in Britain.
  • In March 1933, a White Paper was published & contained four major proposals-Federation, Provincial Autonomy, dyarchy at the center & safeguards.
  • White Paper later became the basis of the Govt. of India Act, 1935.

1934: CDM WITHDRAWN

  • April 1934
  • In May 1933, Gandhi temporarily suspended the movement & formally withdrew it in April 1934.




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