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Friday, August 7, 2020




After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the second major theme of the 18th-century Indian polity was the rise of an autonomous state. It signified a decentralization of power and not a power vacuum or political chaos.

From the debris of the Mughal Empire arose a large number of autonomous & semi-autonomous States which the British had to overcome before emerging supreme in India.

  • Broadly three kinds of States arose:

Glimpse Capsule:- 

Successor States: Hyderabad, Carnatic, Bengal, Awadh.

Regional Powers


Important Events

Hyderabad (1724)

 Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah (1724 - 48)

  • 1713: Chin Qilich Khan was made Viceroy of the Deccan by Emperor Farrukhsiyar & given the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk.
  • 1720: He assisted Mohammed Shah in killing the Sayyid brothers.
  • 1722: He appointed wazir in the court of  Mohammad Shah.
  • 1724: He founded the independent state of Hyderabad in the Deccan.
  • He founded the Asaf Jah dynasty.
  • His successor came to be known as Nizams of Hyderabad.

 Carnatic (Early 18th century)

 Nawab Saadatullah Kha (1724 - 48)

  • He appointed his nephew Dost Ali as his successor.
  • 1740: Marathas invaded the Carnatic, killed Nawab Dost Ali & took his Son-in-Law Chanda Sahib as a prisoner at Satara.

 Bengal (1717)

 Murshid Quli Khan (1717 - 27)

  • 1717: He became the first hold of the two offices of Nizam & Diwan of Bengal. 
  • Using this opportunity, he now declared himself = Nawab of Bengal.
  • He shifted the capital from Dhaka to Murshidabad.
  • He replaced the Mughal Jagirdari System with the system of Revenue Farming/Ijara/Malzamini system.
  • His reign saw the rise of the new Elite classes i.e. Zamindari & Bankers. E.g. The House of the Jagat Seth.


Alivardi Khan (1740 - 56)

  • He killed Sarfaraz Khan in the battle of Gheria & became Nawab.
  • During his reign, payment of annual tribute to the emperor stopped.
  • He agreed to pay Chauth & ceded Orissa to the Maratha.
  • He faced challenges from the Afgan General, Mustafa Khan.


Siraj-ud-Daulah (1756 - 57)

  • He was defeated by the East India Company (EIC) in the Battle of Plassey (1857).

Awadh (1722)

Saadat Khan (1722- 39)

  • He subdued the rebellions zamindars of Awadh & was given the title Burhan-ul-Mulk by the emperor.
  • He got his nephew and Son-in-law Safdar Jung recognized by the emperor as his deputy governor & made the province a hereditary possession.
  • 1729: He was taken prisoner by Nadir Shah in the Battle of Karnal.


Safdar Jung (1754- 75) 

  • He and his successors popularly came to known as Nawab Wazirs.


 Shuja-ud-Daula (1754- 75) 

  • 1761: He joined Abdali against the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat.
  • 1764: He was defeated by the East India Company (IEC) in the Battle of Buxar.


 Asaf-ud-Daula (1775- 97) 

  • He shifted the capital from Faizabad to Lucknow.
  • He concentrated his energies in cultural pursuits, giving rise to a distinct Lucknow culture.
  • He also built the famous monument- Bara Imambara.



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