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Sunday, August 16, 2020

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT SOME METALS - CHEMISTRY (SCIENCE)

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT METALS (SCIENCE):

Alkali Metals: Group 1st element are called alkali metals because its hydroxides are alkaline.
Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2nd elements are called alkaline earth metals.
Actinides Series: Radio-active elements.
Transition Metals: Generally transition metals & their compounds are colored. 

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'A':

  • Aluminum hydroxide (AlOH3):  used to make waterproof & Stainless cloth.
  • Auric chloride (AuCl3)used to make antivenom needle.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'B':

  • Babbitt metal/ Non-Ferrous Alloy: It contains [Tin(Sn)- 89%, Antimony(Sb)- 9%, & Copper(Cu)- 2%] = used in engine to support moving mechanical parts & protects them from frictional degradation.
  • Barium (Ba): In fireworks, green color is due to Barium.
  • Barium Sulphate (BaSO4)used in X-ray of the abdomen as barium-meal.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'C':

  • Calcium Hydride/Hydrolith (CaH2): used as dry alcohol. It is used to prepare fire-proof & waterproof clothes.
  • Calcium hypochlorite Ca(ClO2)Bleaching powder, used for water treatment.
  • Cadmium rod: used in the Nuclear reactor to slow down the speed of the neutron.
  • Chromium trioxide(CrO3)/Chromic Acid: used for chrome plating on a metal object.
  • Cobalt-60 (Co-60): used in Cancer treatment.
  • Cytochrome: In cytochrome Iron (Fe) is present.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'F':

  • Ferric oxide (Fe2O3): the reaction with Aluminium (Al) is used to fill up the cracks of railway tracks & machine parts = Thermite reaction.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'G':

  • Gun powder: contains [ Pottasium nitrate(KNO3)- 75%, Sulphar- 10%, Charcoal- 15%].
  • Galvanised Iron (Fe) is coated with Zinc - to prevent rusting.
  • Gallium (Ga) metal: liquid at room temperature.
  • Gold (Au): Pure gold is 24 carat. To harden the gold, copper (Cu) is mixed.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'I':

  • Iron & Mercury (Fe & Hg): produces more resistance in comparison to other during the flow of electricity.
  • Iron Pyrites (FeS2)known as Fool's gold.
  • Iron(Fe): wrought Iron is the purest form of Iron.
  • Iron Cast: percentage of Carbon in cast iron = 2.5 - 5%, wrought iron = 01 - 0.2%
  • Iron (Ferric) oxide (Fe2O3): the reaction with Aluminium (Al) is used to fill up the cracks of railway tracks & machine parts = Thermite reaction.
  • Iron(Fe): Anemia is caused due to deficiency of Iron in the body while excess iron in the body may cause siderosis.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'L':

  • Lead (Pb): used to write on paper as it is a 'stable element'. Combustion of petrol in automobiles pollutes the air by producing the lead.
  • Lead arsenic (PbHASO4): is an alloy used to make bullets.
  • Lead Carbon: used to make an artificial part of the body. 
  • Lead Oxide(PbO)/Litharage: used in rubber industries in the manufacturing of storage batteries & flint glass.
  • Lead-pipe: is not used for drinking water because it forms poisonous lead hydroxide Pb(OH2).
  • Lithium (Li): the highest & the most reductant element.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'M':

  • Mercury (Hg): known as 'Quick Silver'. It is kept in Iron (Fe) pot because it doesn't form the amalgam with Iron.
  • Mercury & Argon: vapor of mercury(Hg) & argon(Ar) is used in tubelight.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'M':

  • Nitrogen (N2) gas: In flash-bulb, Magnesium (Mg) wire is kept in an atmosphere of Nitrogen gas.
  • Nichrome (NiFeCr): wire used in the electrical heater.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'O':

  • Oxides of metals are alkaline.
  • Osmium (Os): heaviest metal.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'P':

  • Platinum (Pt): hardest metal.
  • Palladium (Pd) metal: used in an airplane.
  • Potassium (K): Onion & Garlic have an odor due to Potassium.
  • Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)Known as "Pearl Ash"- used in making soap & glass.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'R':

  • Radium (Ra): extracted from pitchblende (Uraninite).
  • Rusting of Iron(Fe2O3): = Chemical changes that increase the weight of Iron.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'S':

  • Selenium (Se): used in the photoelectric cells.
  • Silver & Copper (Ag & Cu): best conductor of electricity.
  • Silver & Gold (Ag & Au): most malleable metal.
  • Silver Chloride (AgCl): used in photochromatic glass.
  • Silver Iodide (AgI): used in artificial rain.
  • Silver Nitrate (AgNO2)used as Marker during an election. It is kept in a colored bottle to avoid decomposition.
  • Silver Sulfide(Ag2S)Silver spoon is not used in egg food because it forms black Silver sulfide.   
  • Sodium Peroxide (Na2O2)used in submarine & also to purify closed air in the hospital.
  • Stannous Sulphide (SnS2): called 'Mosaic gold'. It is used as paint. Sn shows the allotropy.
  • Strontium (Sr): In fireworks, crimson red color is due to the presence of Sr.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'T':

  • Titanium (Ti): Strategic metal, it is lighter than Iron (Fe).
  • Tetra-ethyl lead (C8H20Pb): used as an anti-knocking compound.
  • Tungsten (W): melting point= 3500 degrees C. To prevent oxidation of tungsten, the air is removed from the electric bulb.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'U':

  • Uranium (U): a heavy radioactive metal & it belongs to actinide group. It is used in the manufacture atom bomb.

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'W':

  • Wilson Disease: Excess of copper (Cu) in the human body or copper poisoning, causes inherited disorder.
  • World-famous Eiffel Tower has a steel & cement base. 

Metal's name & fact starting with the letter 'Z':

  • Zinc Phosphide (Zn3P2): used for killing rats.
  • Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2): It is coated with wooden furniture to prevent termites. 
  • Zinc Oxide (ZnO): known as 'Flower of Zinc'. It is also known as Chinese white & used as white paint.
  • Zeolite: made up of metal ions of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium & Silicon. It is used to remove the hardness of the water.
  • Zirconium (Zr): metal burns in oxygen as well as in nitrogen.
  • Zirconium (Zr), Cadmium (Cd), Boron (B): To capability to absorb neutrons & used in a nuclear reactor.

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