All Jharkhand Competitive Exam JSSC, JPSC, Current Affairs, SSC CGL, K-12, NEET-Medical (Botany+Zoology), CSIR-NET(Life Science)

Wednesday, July 29, 2020



There are two classes of Verbs:

Auxiliary Verbs are of two kinds:

Modal Auxiliary: A verb is used to express the mood (mode) or attitude of a speaker is called Modal Auxiliary.
(i.) You should regularly go to a dance class.
(ii.) They must attend tomorrow's ceremony.
(iii.) May I use your bottle, please?
(iv.) You can park the motor in front of my house.
(v.) You may take these dresses home.
(vi.) Could you open the room, please?

Most Commonly Used Modals:
(1.) can                           (2.) could 
(3.) may                         (4.) might 
(5.) should                    (6.) would
(7.) must                       (8.) ought to
(9.) used to                  (10.) dare
(11.) need                      (12.) have/had to 
(13.) shall/ will            (14.) am/was to
All these Modals Suggest the following:
(A.) Permission           (B.) Ability
(C.) Possibility             (D.) Suggestion, Advice
(E.) Promise                 (F.) Intention
(G.) Request                (H.) Necessity, Compulsion
(I.) Prohibition            (J.) Wish or Prayer
(K.) Duty, Obligation          

Different Uses of Modals:
1. May & Might - these are used to expressing
(A.) Possibility:
(a.) It may/might rain.
(b.) He may/might go to Ranchi tomorrow.
(c.) You may fall.
(d.) Rahul said that he might go there.

(B.) Permission:
(i.) May I go?
(ii.) Yes, you may go.

(C.) Prayer or Wish:
(i.) May you enjoy wedding happiness!
(ii.) May God bless you!

(D.) Purpose:
(i.) He works hard so that he may pass.
(ii.) They came so that they might see me.

(E.) Remote Possibility: 'Might' is used in place of 'may' to express remote possibility. 
(i.) It might rain.
(ii.) He might be reading now.
1.) Both 'May & Might' can be used to express the possibility of the present and future.
2.) 'Might' is used when the reporting verb is in the past.
3.) 'May/Might have' give the opposite sense of the action.

(F.) May/Might + Have: They are used to express possibility/desirability creating to the past action. 
(i.) He may/might have left yesterday.
(ii.) He might have failed. 
(iii.) Better, you might not have revealed the secret.

2. Can & Could (Able to) - these are used to expressing
(A.) Ability: (Present, Past & Future)
(i.) She can write French well.
(ii.) Reena could play at cards.
(iii.) She will be able to help me.
(iv.) I have been able to do it.

(B.) Polite Request:
(i.) Could you please do it for me? ('would' is also used for the polite request)
(ii.) Could you please give me a pen?

(C.) Permission/Order:
(i.) Yes, you can go now.
(ii.) You can take my book. ('can' is an alternative to 'may')

(D.) Polite Request:
(i.) You cannot go outside. (Prohibition)
(ii.) Can I get some chocolates? (Offer)
(iii.) Can I help you? (Offer)

(E.) Possibility:
(i.) Who is she with him?
      She could be his wife.
(ii) How old is she?
     She could be thirty.

(F.) Could + Have: This form is used for past ability while indicating that the action did not take place.
(i.) I could have revealed the secret. (but I did not)
(ii.) You could have borrowed money. (but you did not)
(iii.) The police could have arrested him. (but they did not)

3. Should - these are used to expressing
(A.) Duty/Obligation: 
(i.) You should stand by your brother.
(ii.) I should leave now.
(iii.) The promise should be kept.
(iv.) She should be present here.

(B.) Future in the Past: 
(i.) I told her that I should go there.
(ii.) Did I not tell you that I should qualify?

(C.) Purpose: 
(i.) Walk carefully lets you should fall.

(D.) Condition: 
(i.) Should you work hard, you will get success. ('should' is used in the sense of 'it')

(E.) Should + Have: This form is used to express obligation in the past. It may imply the non-performance of the action.
(i.) You should have stood by your brother.
(ii.) He should have left a message.
(iii.) She should have been present at the function.
(iv.) My sister should have replied politely.

4. Must - these are used to expressing
(A.) Necessity or Obligation: (in place of 'should'
(i.) You must follow the rules.
(ii.) She must leave now.

(B.) Order of the Speaker: 
(i.) You must not leave now.
(ii.) They must not play here.

(C.) Strong Possibility: (in place of 'may'
(i.) It is nine. The student must be in the class.
(ii.) She must be working in college now.

(D.) Determination: 
(i.) I must help him.

(E.) Deduction, Inference: 
(i.) She has a big house. She must be rich.
(ii.) He reads a lot. He must be learned.

(F.) Must + Have: This form is used for a past action or situations to indicating the non-performance of the action. 
(i.) You must have followed guidelines.
(ii.) You must have left them.
(iii.) I must have helped her.

5. Ought To - these are used to expressing
(A.) Duty or Moral Obligation: It is used for 'should & must' when there is a strong sense of moral duty, advice, or indication of correct action.
(i.) You ought to serve your motherland.
(ii.) You ought not to take junk food.
(iii.) You ought to take food before leaving.

(B.) Ought to + Have: It is used in relation to past acts of duty that was not fulfilled or an action that was neglected in the past.
(i.) You ought to have taken care of your family.
(ii.) You ought to have served your parents.
(iii.) She ought to have been present at the wedding of her friend.
(iv.) He ought not to have smoked in the car.

6. To Be + Infinitive - these are used to expressing
(A.) Express Plan: 
(i.) She is to leave for college after marriage.
(ii) I am to make a speech tomorrow.

(B.) Express Order: 
(i.) Students are to wait outside.
(ii.) The maid is to remain in the house till we return.

(C.) Obligation/Duty: 
(i.) I am to help my ailing sister.
(ii.) My friend was to send fruits to his sister.

(D.) Express Plan: This expression is used to express an action that could not take place according to the plan.
(i.) She was to have attended the ceremony but fell ill.
(ii.) Kareena was to have appeared at the examination but she gave up the plan.

(7.) To have+Infinitive: This expression is used to express compulsion as is expressed with 'Must'. It also expresses Obligation (In the Present, Past, Future).
(i.) I have to leave for Kolkata today.
(ii.) I have not to meet him now.
(iii.) I will have to get up early in the morning.

8. Used To - Would these are used to expressing
(A.) To Denote Habitual Action or the Past Routine of the Subject: 
(i.) She used to go to Ranchi by car.
(ii.) She did not use to go to Patna.
(iii.) Mohan would study at noon.
(iv.) He would go out with me in the evening.

(B.) To Denote Discontinued Action: 
(i.) He used to play basketball. (now he has stopped)
(ii.) She used to work in a mall before marriage. (not now)

(C.) 'Used To' also used as an Adjective (be used to). It is equal to 'accustomed to' as
(i.) He is used to getting up early.
(ii.) I was used to driving through crowded.
(iii.) We are used to hot moons in the plains.

9. Would - It is used in the following cases-
(i.) Would you please help my sister? (polite request)
(ii.) She told me that she would give me a dress. (future in the past)
(iii.) I would/should like to read now. (wish)
(iv.) Who is he? He would be his brother. (possibly he is)
(v.) She would go to Pune by car.

10. Need & Not Need - 'Need' can be used as an auxiliary or as an ordinary verb
As an auxiliary verb - it is used mainly in the negative and the interrogative forms with a direct infinitive. It has No Past tense.
(A.) Need Not: It is used for an action that is not necessary.
(i.) He needs to work hard. (Ordinary verb)
(ii.) Need I write to her? (Auxiliary verb)
(iii.) She need not go there again. (Auxiliary verb)
(iv.) You do not need to work now. (Ordinary verb)

(B.) Need Not + Have: It is used for an action that is not necessary but was performed.
(i.) You need not have gone there.
(ii.) Rahul need not have called yesterday.

11. Dare - 'Dare' can be used as an auxiliary or as an ordinary verb
As an auxiliary verbit is used mainly in the negative and the interrogative forms with a direct infinitive.
(i.) She dared her sister to touch her. (Challenge, Ordinary verb)
(ii.) I dare to go outside now. (To have courage, Ordinary verb)
(iii.) Dare you go outside now? (Auxiliary verb)
(iv.) I dare say he will cheat you. (I suppose)
(v.) I dare say she will pass. (it is likely)
Note: '-s' is not used with dare & need as auxiliary verbs. 



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