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Sunday, June 20, 2021

Sadan of Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC

Sadan of Jharkhand

Sadans are the original non-tribal people of Jharkhand, but not all non-tribes are Sadans. The Sadan= people who were settled here or inhabited the place.

In the Sadani language, the house pigeon in Nagpuri is called 'Sed Parewa' and the wild pigeon or the pigeon that does not live in the house is called 'Ban Parewa'. Similarly, the Sadan should be treated as 'Sed Parewa'.There is a fundamental difference between the Adivasis and the Sadans, the Adivasis are tribes and nomads, while the Sadans are communities and permanent residence.

Sadan of Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC

Concerning language, a non-tribal person whose language is basically Khortha, Nagpuri, Panchapargani, and Kurmali in the Sadan. In this consideration, Dr. Bisheshwar Prasad Keshari (Dr. B.P.Keshari) believes that the original form of these languages must have developed in different tribes of Nagajati. But language is not limited to caste only. Therefore, Nagaraja will be in Nagadihsum. So as people, there will be no hag people or people of other castes and language will also be there. 

Hinduism is the ancient Sadan in terms of religion. Islam originated in the 6th (sixth) century. Jainism is also the religion among Sadan. Today the mother tongue of all these religious people is Urdu or Arabic, Persian, or Jain's language but they have languages like Khortha, Nagpuri, Panchpargania, and Karmali, etc. Whether the person from any religion can be a Sadan only when his mother tongue is Saadri language.

Sadan is an Aryan in terms of race. Some Dravidians are also called Sadans. Even some Aryan people are Sadans. They were the Diwan, Thakur, Pandey, Karta, and Lal among the four-five pillars in the Pariha Panchayat of Oraon and Mundas. The Manaki Munda, Pahan, Mahato belonged to their pegs, there were also Lal, Pandey, Thakur, Diwan, etc. as assistants, who ran the business. That is to say, Sadan lived with Munda and Oraon in the royal system or in other business activities.

According to history, there was a decent species here before the Asura. Certainly, these civilized species belonged to the Sadans, who were the original inhabitants. After all, the work of making iron for Ausra was done by only someone else. The Asura were followed by Munda followed by Oraon. Sadan was inhabited before their arrival. Munda and Oraon were welcomed by the Sadans. The British successes in imposing the surname 'Diku' under a conspiracy policy, which confused the tribals and the Kol rebellion (1831-32), in which the Sadans and the Adivasis had clashed. Later, Birsa Munda understood the British conspiracy and he had targeted only the British. In the Birsa Munda era, the Mughal, Pathan, Sikh, Kirani Babu, and British were called 'Diku', who use to exploit the tribals and create differences between them and the houses.

Types of Houses according to Caste:

  • Caste like those found in another part of the country viz. Brahmin, Rajput, Mali, Kumhar, Kurmi, Sonar, Baniya, Ahir, Chamar, Dushadh, Thakur, and Nagajati.
  • Many Sadan caste whose gotras are Avadhiya, Kanuajia, Tirhutia, Gaur, Dakhinaha, etc. this shows their original place is somewhere outside.

Social and Cultural Framework:

The cultural structure of Sadans is Adivasis is almost the same. The cultural structure of the Sadan family is most like the Sanatani family, but many social, religious, and cultural functions are performed like the tribals, such as weddings, festivals, dances, songs, languages, etc. Both Sadan and Adivasis are native to Jharkhand. They have a shared culture. Due to this, there is a glimpse of Aryanism as well as tribalism in the houses.

Religion and Belief:

The caste located in a small area called Sadan Sarak is influenced by Jainism. Like the Jains, they do not eat after sunset and do not consume nonvegetarian meat and fish. They are worshipers of the sun with resolution. Some Sadans are influenced by the Vaishnava tradition. Along with worshipping the deities of the Hindus, the Sadan people also worship deities. Along with Ojha Mati, craft and ghost are also popular. It would be relevant to say that the religious tradition of the Sadans is entranced calling in the spirits priesthood and ritualism.

Physical Emergence:

Arya, Dravidian, and Austric are seen in the physical emergence of the houses. The shades of white, black with short, medium, and tall heights are seen in the houses.


Sadan traditionally wears a dhoti, gamcha, and chadar. But in recent times they used to pants, shirts, coats, ties, etc.


The Sadan people use jewelry like pola, sankha, bracelets, necklaces, sikari, bullak, basar, nathya, karn flower, etc, Tattooing is also practiced in the houses like tribals.

Hunting Gadget:

Sadan uses nets, kumani bansidang, polai, and tools like arrow-bows, swords, spears, lathis, and tongs for hunting like tribals. The tradition of holding guns by the Sadan came influencing of Zamindars.

Household Goods:

Sadan people use earthenware in the villages. Handiya, gagri, chukka, dhakni are commonly used goods in houses. Keeping brass and bronze utensils in the houses is considered a sign of prosperity. Both sides of the plate are used in group meals. Sadan and Adivasis use the same equipment in farming and plowing.


Sadan society is patriarchal. Society is controlled by men rather than women, passing power, property, etc. from father to son rather than from mother to daughter. Marital relationship is forbidden in the maternal and paternal clan.


The festivals of the Sadan are a very long list. A person who is not a Sadan will not derive pleasure or enjoy the festivals here. Holi, Diwali, Dussehra, Kali-Puja, Jitiya, Sohrai, Karma, Sarhul, Makar Sankranti, Tusu, Teej, etc. are the major festivals among the Sadans. While Muslim Sadan celebrates Eid, Muharram, etc.


Houses are identified with the village of Akhara. The collective dance of girls takes place in Akhara in Karam Utsav. There is an overnight dance to awaken Jawa. Apart from these, women also dance in wedding viz. Dumkach, Jhumta, Jhumar are all group dances. Ghatwari dance, Jamda dance, Chokra dance, Luri Savari dance, Rajput Jhalak dance- all these dances together are called colorful male dance. Apart from these Ganesh dance and Kathak dance are the classical dance.

The songs of the Sadans are named after their Ragas and Sur viz. Dumkach, Jhumta, Agnayi, Mardani Jhumar, Sohrai, etc.

Sadan community is also a contemporary of the tribals, who are natives of Jharkhand. Seeing the mutual friendship between the tribals and the Sadans, the British tried to create a rift between them. But they got partial success over this.

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