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Tuesday, September 7, 2021

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand

With the Champaran (Bihar) Satyagraha in the year 1917, Mahatma Gandhi took an active step in Indian politics and was completely dominated by it till 1947. That is why it is called the 'Gandhi Era'. 

Abul Kalam Azad was under house arrest in Ranchi: [31 March 1916 - 31 December 1919]

The British government had ordered the detention of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in connection with the Home Rule Movement. To comply with the government order, when Maulana Azad reached Ranchi from Calcutta in April 1916, there was a crowd of visitors at the station. He was taken to the Dak Bungalow by Phaeton. After 10 days they started living in Morabadi. From there he used to go to the Jama Masjid in Upper Bazar to offer Namaz. A few days later, Maulana Azad moved from Morabadi to a rented house near Jama Masjid. People wore black badges at the behest of Maulana Azad to protest against the official celebration of Turkey's defeat in World War I (1914-18). On July 8, 1916, he was alerted and asked to attend the police station daily. In this sequence, he tried to break the wall of untouchability in Ranchi. Maulana Azad laid the foundation of Anjuman Islamia, Ranchi and Madarsa Islamia, Ranchi in August, 1917. By selling the press, he also invested his money in the madrasa.

The government ordered Maulana Azad to go to Morabadi again and the restrictions on him were increased. Still, people like Ghazanfar Mirza, Mohammad Ali, Dr. Purna Chandra Mitra, Devaki Nandan Prasad, Gulab Tiwari, and Nagarmal Modi continued to closely resemble him. But when Gandhiji came to Patna and sought permission to meet Maulana Azad, who was under house arrest in Ranchi, the government did not allow him to meet. Maulana Azad was released on completion of his period of detention. On January 3, 1920, Maulana Azad left Ranchi for Calcutta.

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Mahatma Gandhi's stay in Ranchi: [3-6 June, 5-11 July, 22 September-4 October 1917]

Shyam Krishna Sahai was in London in the year 1917. There he invited Gandhiji to come to Ranchi. Gandhiji came to Ranchi for the first time in June 1917. He had reached Ranchi from Motihari in Bihar in connection with Champaran Satyagraha. After coming here, he stayed with Shyam Krishna Sahay. Along with it was Braj Kishore Babu. He met the Lieutenant Governor of Bihar, Edward Albert Gate, at the Raj Bhawan in Ranchi. The outline of the Champaran movement was prepared by staying in Ranchi. After several meetings, Gandhiji signed his report on October 3, 1917, challenging the government. On October 4, 1917, left Ranchi for Champaran. In this way, the people of Jharkhand had long-term contact with Gandhiji. He was accompanied by his wife Kasturba Gandhi, and son Devdas Gandhi. The people of Jharkhand were highly impressed by Gandhiji's simplicity and his principles and agreed to participate in the Indian independence movement.

Anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha: [1919 AD]

The Rowlett Act was passed on March 21, 1919, based on the report of the Sedition Committee headed by Justice Sidney Rowlett to curb seditious activities in India. This was called the 'Black Law'. Since there was no trial against this law, it was said 'no appeal, no lawyer, no plea'. Countryside strikes and public meetings were organized against this law. 

As far as Jharkhand is concerned, the wave of anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha spread in Jharkhand too. In Ranchi, it was led by Bareshwar Sahai and Gulab Tiwari. Ramdin Pandey, the teacher of the Zila School in Palamu, observed a fast on April 6,1919, along with his six students. In Jamshedpur and Chaibasa also some people celebrated protest day. Due to the widespread violence, Mahatma Gandhi suspended the anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha on April 18, 1919. Thus ended this Satyagraha.

Establishment of District Congress Committees: [1919-20 AD]

Gradually the campaign of Congress increased in Jharkhand and Congress committees started being established in the districts. In the year 1919, Bindeshwari Pathak and Bhagwat Pandey established the Palamu District Congress Committee. District Congress Committee was established in Ranchi and Hazaribagh in 1920 AD.

Calcutta Session of Congress (Special Session): [September 1920]

In September 1920, the special session of the All India National Congress (AINC) was held in Calcutta. It was presided over by Lala Lajpat Rai. Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the leader of the nation from this convention. The representatives of Jharkhand who came to participate in the convention urged Mahatma Gandhi to declare Jharkhand as an independent. To this Mahatma Gandhi replied with one line- 'Sow cotton, spin the spinning wheel, Chotanagpur will be free'. In the Calcutta session itself, the epoch-making and important non-cooperation resolution was passed for the first time, which was confirmed in the Nagpur session of the Congress annual session (December 1920 AD).

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Monday, September 6, 2021

Mughal Era Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Mughal Era Jharkhand: Jharkhand History

Mughal Era Jharkhand

Mughal Administrator: The number of small and big states in Jharkhand increased further during the Mughal period. The biggest change was that after defeating the Raxales, the Chero established a new kingdom in Palamu. Yet Jharkhand was spared from Muslim encroachment. Ultimately, Sher Khan paved the way for the entry of Muslims into it. Sher Shah had got the right over Rohtasgarh in 1538 AD. But when he lived in a military campaign or was in trouble, the Chero people would come out of the jungles of Jharkhand to persecute the peasants and plunder with travelers on the way to Bengal, or sometimes even in the army camps of Sher Shah screaming. Therefore, Sher Shah needed to suppress them. In the course of Sher Shah's struggle with the Mughals, this area was his shelter. So he was understanding the importance of this area.

Babur-Humayun Era Jharkhand:

During the reign of Mughal emperors Babur (1526-30 AD) and Humayun (1530-40 AD), Jharkhand was out of their sphere of influence, so the regional kings of Jharkhand continued to rule without any external interference. Since Babur had established the Mughal dynasty by overthrowing the Afghans while living in Bihar-Bengal were trying to gather power again and compete with the Mughals. Thus during the reign of Babur and Humayun, Jharkhand became a haven for the anti-Mughal Afghans. Humayun had entered Bhurkunda (Hazaribagh) on one occasion during the Mughal-Afghan conflict. Humayun's greatest enemy Sher Shah used this area several times in the Mughal-Afghan conflict (1530-40 AD).

Akbar's reign:

In the year 303 (1585 AD) of the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the first military conflict of the Mughals with Jharkhand started. The only thing that happened in the preceding 45 years was that under pressure from the Mughals, the Afghan rebels would take shelter in the forests here and reach Jharkhand in pursuit of the Mughals. During the reign of Akbar, there were three (3) major ruling dynasties in Jharkhand:

During Akbar's time, the Mughal paid attention to this region for political, strategic, and economic reasons. With the possession of this area, the problem of elephants was removed for the Mughal army. Probably diamonds were also obtained from the Sankh river in this region. In 1585 AD, the Mughal army invaded this region. At this time the king of Kokrah was Madhukaran Shah. It seems that he was also taken captive and presented in the royal court, where because of his humble nature, the emperor again sent him to Kokrah. Thus by end of the 16th century, the neutrality of Kokrah had been broken and the region had come under the control of Mughals and had to pay annual taxes to them. The biggest thing was that the king here had become a trusted subordinate of the Mughals, as is evident from the help given by him to the Mughals during the Orissa campaign. Like Kokrah, the Singh dynasty kings of Singhbhum also became accomplices of the Mughals. By 1589 AD, under the leadership of Man Singh, Chero was also defeated and made a part of the empire. 

Mughal Era Jharkhand

Jahangir's reign:

During the reign of Jahangir, a completely new era began in the history of Mughal-Jharkhand relations. Especially in the context of Mughal-Nagvanshi and Mughal-Chero. Jahangir was also aware of the subject of diamonds found in Jharkhand. He has mentioned this in his autobiography Tajuk-e-Jahangir

During the time of Jahangir, the rule of Kokrah was in hands of Durjan Sal. He also stopped paying annual taxes to the Mughal court. Therefore, disciplinary action was necessary against him. In 1615, Ibrahim Khan attacked Kokrah and presented the Durjan Sal as a prisoner to the royal court. From there he was sent to the Gwalior Fort after being sentenced to 12 years of imprisonment. Along with the Durjan Sal, some of his family members and kings were also prisoners. After this victory, Ibrahim Khan presented some diamonds and elephants to the royal court. Jahangir was deeply interested in the diamonds that could be obtained from this region. It is said that once a purple-colored diamond was found in this area. The emperor wanted complete information about the purity of the diamond. He did not know that Durjan Sal is a very good connoisseur of diamonds. This quality of Durjan Sal became the means of liberation from his prisoner life. Durjan Sal, at the behest of the emperor, checked the purity of the diamond and told it to be pure. The emperor was pleased with him and returned him to his kingdom. Permission was given to the wicked that if he had any demand, he could put it before the emperor. He made two (2) demands;

  • Rajagan and his family members who were imprisoned in Gwalior Fort should be freed.

The emperor accepted both the above demands. Durjan Sal also agreed to pay 6,000 annual taxes and the Patta of his kingdom was given to him by the emperor.

In the time of Jahangir, there is a mention of the rule of two Chero kings in Palamu. But they are not mentioned in any Persian source other than the Chero Geneology of Jahangir. At the time of Jahangir, the Bishnupur of Manbhum was occupied by the Mughals. According to Baharistan-e-Gawi, the Subedar Islam Khan of Bengal attacked Veer Hammir, the zamindar of Panchet with the help of Subedar Afzal Khan of Bihar and zamindars under him. Without resistance, he surrendered to the commander of the invading army, Sheikh Kalam. There is a lack of specific information about other states during the period of Jahangir.

Shah Jahan's reign:

By the beginning of the Shah Jahan's reign, the Mughals were fully acquainted with Chotanagpur. They were also now taking a keen interest in the internal matter of this region and were making every effort to establish their dominance over the residents here. Even now the Mughals had a deep connection with only two parts of this region- Kokrah and Palamu. 

In the first phase of Shah Jahan's reign, the ruler of this place was Durjan Sal. Durjan Sal ruled Kokrah for about 13 years after being freed from captivity. On his return here, he made Doisa a more strategically secure place in place of his capital Khukhra and it was decorated with many beautiful buildings. Surrounded by hills on three sides and the South Koel River on one side, the Doisa was often formidable to the enemies. There is a clear influence of Mughal architecture in the construction of the buildings established in Doisa, in which the palace of Durjan Sal, Navratgarh, or Navratnagarh is most important. It was five-storeyed but only three stories remain. After the death of Durjan Sal, Raghunath Shah probably became the ruler, and even during his period, the Mughal Nagvanshi relations remained cordial. By the end of Shah Jahan's reign, the seclusion of Kokrah had come to an end and it was now associated with the life of the people of North India. The Nagvanshi rulers were now adopting cultured administrative and architectural traditions from the border states. In this way, new concepts of power and culture developed in the forest zone.

Although even during the time of Shah Jahan, the reason for the interest of the Mughals in this area was diamond. During the reign of Shah Jahan, the Chero and Mughal relations of Palamu became more visible. In fact from this time of history of Palamu seems orderly and authentic. Probably at this time also the Chero rulers remained under the control of the Mughal rulers for a few days. Pratap Rai was the ruler of Chero during the reign of Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan appointed it a Hazari Mansabdar. The kings of the Singh dynasty of Singhbhum had close contacts with Mughals. It was during Shah Jahan's time that he agreed to pay regular annual taxes to the Mughals. There is a lack of clear information on the relations of Shah Jahan with the Manbhum (present-day Singhbhum, Dhanbad, and Hazaribagh) region.

Aurangzeb's reign:

During the reign of Aurangzeb, Jharkhand was also a victim of his imperialist mentality like other parts of India. During his time he established closer relations with the region. Also, areas like Manbhum and Singhbhum, which were almost untouched till then, were now forced to pay annual taxes. During the reign of Aurangzeb, Raghunath Shah, the Nagvanshi king of Korah, ruled for the most part. He was a man of extreme religious and charitable nature. His religious teacher was Harinath. It is said that on one occasion Raghunath donated his entire kingdom to Harinath. When Guru Harinath refused to accept such a huge donation, Raghunath declared that he was Harinath's slave and he (Raghunath) too the name of Guru. The word 'Nath' was added to his name. All subsequent Nagavanshi kings began to include the words 'Shah' and 'Nath' in their names (the first given by the Mughal emperor Akbar and the second given by Guru Harinath). Raghunath decorated his capital Doisa with many buildings and public utilities and also got many temples built here. Jagannath Temple is the most notable among these temples. Two inscriptions engraved on the wall of this temple show that it was built in 1682 AD during the reign of Raghunath Shah. Raghunath Shah built the 'Madan Mohan Temple' at a place called Boreya. The 'Ram Sita Mandir' was built in Chutiya by Hari Brahmachari. During the reign of Raghunath Shah, it appears from architectural works that the kingdom of Kokrah was internally prosperous. There was only one invasion of the Mughals during his period. Chero (Palamu) ruler Medini Rai attacked Kokrah and plundered the capital. Apart from the property looted from here, there was also a huge stone gate, which was installed by Medini Rai in the 'New Fort' of Palamu, which is still famous as 'Nagpur-Darwaja'

Ram Shah became the ruler after the death of Raghunath Shah. Even at this time, the Mughal-Nagvanshi relations were cordial.

In the year of Aurangzeb's rule, the Chero king of Palamu was Medini Rai. He ruled from 1658 AD to 1674 AD. Perhaps initially he accepted Mughal authority, but he took full advantage of the succession battle of Shah Jahan's sons. The Chero had returned to their traditional anti-Mughal policy and started plundering and attacking the Mughal territories because of their safe haven. In fact, this free-loving caste did not accept even the nominal suzerainty of the Mughals. He not only stopped paying taxes to the Mughals' territories. This was the situation for an imperialist ruler like Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb ordered Dawood Khan, the Subedar of Bihar, to attack Palamu and collect taxes from the Chero king. He also ordered many jagirdars and faujdars of Bihar to help in this campaign of Dawood. As a result, a long military campaign started against the Chero ruler of Palamu on 23 April 1660 which lasted till December 1660. Ultimately the Chero was defeated by Medini Rai fled. The Palamu conquest was an important milestone in Dawood's military life. In this campaign, he displayed tactical skill, quick decision power, and leadership. In this memory of the Palamu victory, Dawood built a mosque in Palamu's Purana Quila in 1662 AD. While returning from there, Dawood Khan took the 'Singh Darwaza' of Palamu Fort with him and got it installed in his fort at Dawoodnagar.

After the Palamu conquest, Mankali Khan was appointed as Faujdar there, which lasted till 1666 AD. After the transfer of Mankali Khan, the administration there came into the hands of the Subedar of Bihar. After being defeated by Dawood, Medini Rai fled to Sarguja and returned to Palamu again after the departure of Mankali Khan and took control of his lost kingdom. Medini Rai has been called the 'Nyasi Raja'. He soon brought Palamu out of poverty and brought him to the pinnacle of prosperity. It seems that keeping in mind the improved condition of Palamu under him, the Mughals allowed Palamu to remain under him. Even today, Palamu people remember Medini Rai's reign as the 'Golden age of Chero rule'. Even after Medini Rai was restored to the throne of Palamu, Aurangzeb did not stop taking interest in this area and here the Mughals remained nominally sovereign.

Aurangzeb does not seem to have had any special influence on the territories included in the present Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, and Manbhum districts. At that time there were five major kingdoms in the Hazaribagh region. During the time of Aurangzeb, Dhanbad and Purulia districts remained largely outside the Mughal influence. These were only two areas in the whole of Chotanagpur, which were completely spared from Muslim invasions. At the time of Aurangzeb sitting on the throne, the Panchet kingdom regularly paid taxes to the Mughals. Porhat of Singhbhum was ruled by his contemporary king Mahipal at the time of Aurangzeb, but there is no evidence of Aurangzeb's sovereignty over it because the geographical position here was such that Singhbhum could never be included in Aurangzeb's empire and Porhat's Singh-king maintained their independence.

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Sunday, September 5, 2021

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History

In general, during the Sultanate period, Muslims entered Jharkhand only while pursuing their enemies or while going to Bengal-Orissa or returning from there. During the Sultanate period, there were sporadic external attacks on Jharkhand. Despite these external invasions, Jharkhand always remained independent during the Sultanate period. 

Invasion of Singhbhum by the Raja of Birbhum (West Bengal), the invasion of Hazaribagh (1340 AD) by Malik Baya, the commander of the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and the invasion of Santhal Pargana by Kapilendra Gajapati (1435-70 AD) of Orissa had no lasting effect. Thus, if these sporadic external attacks on Jharkhand are quelled, then the independent power of Jharkhand remained intact throughout the Sultanate period and the kings here continued to rule without any external interference.

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

In 1202-03 AD, Qutbuddin Aibak's general Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked South Bihar and destroyed and corrupted Udantapuri, Nalanda, and Vikramshila universities and caused heavy bloodshed. As a result, non-Muslim people started taking refuge in Jharkhand to save their lives. In this way, new ethnic elements were incorporated in Jharkhand. During these invasions, Bakhtiyar came to know about the routes to reach Bengal which passed through Jharkhand. He attacked Nadia, the capital of the Sen dynasty ruler of Bengal, Lakshman Sen, passing through Jharkhand in 1204-05 AD.

Ghulam Dynasty Jharkhand (1206-90 AD):

During the time of Sultans Iltutmish (1211-36 AD) and Balban (1265-86 AD) of the Adi Turk slave dynasty, the turmoil in South Bihar had little effect on Jharkhand, because it is reported that Nagavanshi the ruler Harikarna continued to run his kingdom efficiently.

Khilji Dynasty Jharkhand (1290-1320 AD):

Chhajju Malik, the commander of Sultan Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD) of the Khilji dynasty, forced the Nagavanshi ruler to pay taxes (1310 AD).

Tughlaq Dynasty Jharkhand (1320-1412 AD):

Malik Beya, the commander of the Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51 AD) of the Tughlaq dynasty, had reached Chai Champa in the Hazaribagh area. Whereas, according to the Santhali source, this invasion took place in 1340 AD under the leadership of Ibrahim Ali. Ibrahim Ali captured the fort of Bigha, as a result, the Santhals of the place escaped with their chieftain for their lives. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's successor Firoz Tughlaq (1351-88 AD) defeated Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah of Bengal in a battle for supremacy and conquered a large area in the Satgaon area of Hazaribagh and made Satgaon the capital of his conquered region in (1359-60 AD). But Firoz Tughlaq and his successor could not advance beyond Satgaon, in Chotanagpur Khas, and the Nagvanshi ruler there remained a powerful ruler.

Sayyid Dynasty Jharkhand (1412-51 AD):

The Sultan of the Sayyid dynasty, the successor dynasty of the Tughlaq dynasty, did not interfere in Jharkhand.

Lodhi Dynasty Jharkhand (1451-1526 AD):

The Sultans of the Lodhi dynasty were relatively weak sultans and the influence of the Delhi Sultanate was reduced to a very small area, so they were not in a position to interfere in Jharkhand. The name of the Nagvansh kings who ruled Chotanagpur Khas during the time of Sultans of the Lodi dynasty was Pratap Karna, Chhatra Karna, and Virat Karna

Jharkhand was saved from the interference of the Lodi Sultans, but it had to face havoc with the Gajapati Dynasty of Orissa, a contemporary dynasty of the Lodi dynasty. Kapilendra Gajapati (1435-70 AD), who was the minister of the last Ganga king of Orissa, established a new dynasty in Orissa, the Gajapati dynasty. Under the leadership of Kapilendra Gajapati, the state of Orissa became a superpower of South-East India. He captured a large part of the Nagvanshi kingdom except for Santhal Pargana and Hazaribagh. Thus, the rule of Kapilendra Gajapati was established over some parts of Jharkhand.

Similarly, Adil Shah-I/ Adil Khan-II (1457-1501 AD) was an extremely powerful ruler of Khandesh. He had amassed immense power. He sent his army to Jharkhand and that is why he became famous as 'Jharkhandi Sultan' = king of the Jungle.

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Gupta and post-Gupta period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Gupta and Post-Gupta Period

Gupta Period:

After the fall of the Kushanas, powerful Guptas emerged in Prayag and Pataliputra. The greatest ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta (355-80 AD). The description of the strategic victories of Samudragupta is found in the Prayag Prashasti composed Harishena, the court poet of Samudragupta. One of these victories was the Atavik victory. The Aatvik region. Samudragupt defeated the ruler of the Atavik region and followed with him the 'Paricharakrit' policy (policy of making peon/ attendants). It is clear from this that during the reign of Samudragupta, the region of Jharkhand was under him.

Chotanagpur has been called 'Murund Desh' in the Prayag Prashati of Samudragupta.

The reign of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya (380-412 AD), the famous ruler of the Gupta dynasty, extended from Ujjain to Angal and which was also included Jharkhand called as 'Kukkutlad' by the Chinese traveler Fahian who came to India during the reign of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya.

Notable among the archaeological remains of the Gupta period is-

  • Temples around the village called Satgaon (Hazaribagh)
  • A well on a hill in Pithoriya is located north of the list.

Gupta and post-Gupta period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Post Gupta Period:

In the post-Gupta period (550-650 AD), the ruler of the Gaur (West Bengal) Shashanka (602-25 AD) was a great ruler. His empire included the forest province from Midnapore (West Bengal) to Sarguja (Chattisgarh). Cunnigham has described Bada Bazar and Hewitt as Dulmi as its capital. Shashank was a great Shiva worshiper. When Shshanka established his dominance over Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, he's started a persecution of Buddhists. 

Pressed by Harshavardhana from the west and Bhaskaravarnam from the east, he vacated his capital, Paundravardhana, and went to the hilly region of South Bihar. Now, the center of his power became Varunika, which these days is called Barun or Son East Bank. Shaivism Shashanka's idol-breaking ferocity was so great that he destroyed all the Buddhist centers of Jharkhand. In this way, due to his efforts, Hindusim established the primacy of Buddhism instead of Jainism in Jharkhand. By the 10th century AD, the dominance of Hinduism was fully established in Jharkhand. This is confirmed by the remains of temples built by Brahmins at Dulmi, Telkupi, Pakbira, etc. Most of these temples are Shaivites.

The vast empire of Harshavardhan (606-47 AD), the most powerful ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty (Vardhana dynasty), also included the small kingdom of Karjagal (Rajmahal). It was in Kazangal that Harshavardhan met the Chinese traveler Huan Tsang for the first time and was impressed by him. Later, both of them remained together for many years.

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Saturday, September 4, 2021

Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Maurya and Post-Maurya Period

Mauryan Period: 

  • Chandragupta Maurya (322 BC- 298 BC) established the Maurya dynasty in Magadha by defeating Dhananada, the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty, with the help of his guru Kautilya (other names Chanakya, Vishnugupta). The ruler of the Nanda dynasty were the masters of a huge army. The army of the Nandas included the tribal soldiers of Jharkhand as well as elephants. In fact, an important reason for Magadha's military success was the tribal element involved. Chandragupta Maurya, the destroyer of the Nanda dynasty and the founder of the Maurya dynasty, was familiar with the region of Jharkhand.
Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History
  • Kautilya in his book 'Arthashatra' has called this region Kukut/Kukutdesh. According to Kautilya, there was a republican system of government in Kukutdesh. To keep the tribes under control, using them in the interest of Magadha and preventing their alliance with the enemies of Magadha, an officer named 'Aatvik' was appointed.

  • Under 'Aatvik' there were other officers like 'Nagadhyaksha', 'Vanadhyaksha', 'Nagpal', 'Vanpal'. The trade route from Magadha to South India passed through Jharkhand. Therefore, Jharkhand had commercial importance. Kautilya has written that diamonds were obtained from the rivers of 'Indravanak'. Indravanak was probably the area of the rivers Inva and Shankh.

Post-Mauryan Period:

The most important thing of this period was:

  • The discovery of some coins of this period in the areas of Jharkhand gives an impression that the rulers of this period must have ruled in this area.
  • Coins of Roman emperors have been found in Singhbhum.
  • Indo-Scythian coins have been found in Chaibasa.
  • Coins of the first and second centuries of the Kushan period have been found in Ranchi, a Pura-Kushan coin of the third century has also been received from here. There is no king's name on these coins. 


Stone and Vedic Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Stone and Vedic Period: Jharkhand History

The history of Jharkhand dates back to the Stone Age when humans began to manufacture tools made of sharp stones to meet their needs, such as digging the soil and hunting the animals. Extensive evidence of human development in the Jharkhand region during that period has been obtained during archaeological excavations. Here tools related to the two periods of the Stone Age (East and Late Stone Age) have been found.

Ancient History of Jharkhand:

1. Early Stone Age:

During this period of the region of Jharkhand was surrounded by dense forests and the density of trees was such that nothing was clearly visible. At that time, like other places, there were such human beings, who were called semi-human or primitive men. The main tools used by them include the remains of stone axes, knives, and pieces of stone used as knives. These remains have been received from Singhbhum, Ranchi, Santhal Pargana, and Hazaribagh in the order of archaeological excavation.

2. Late Stone Age:

This period is also called the Neolithic period. Many remains of this period have been found here. Possibly when the Bronze Age culture was developing in the Indus Valley, the Neolithic culture was developing in Chotanagpur during the same period. Smooth polished stone craft tools and pottery have been found here. The main objects found here related to the Neolithic period are axes, celts, chisels, chalk, iron, and copper saws.

Another thing that is worth noting is that most of the stone tools of this period found from here are polished. Twelve (12) types of hand-crafts belonging to the Neo-Stone Age have been found in India. Almost all of these hand-crafts have been found in Chotanagpur. The remains found in the above period do not give detailed information about the history, but the evidence of the life of the primitive man and the indications of the gradual changes taking place in it.

3. Iron Age:

Iron was used in the later Vedic period. The name 'Pand' of Jharkhand is first found in the Aitareya Brahmin, the composition of the later Vedic period. A tribe found here 'Asura' is seen associating with this period. The main work of the Asura tribe has been to prepare tools by smelting iron. Therefore, it is clear from this that the Iron Age must have developed here as well.

Vedic Age:

The relation of any historical fact related to Jharkhand from the Rigveda period has not been received till now. Iron was used in the later Vedic period, due to which some tribes working in iron, especially the Asura, are discussed in the Aitareya Brahmana of the later Vedic period.

Religious Movement:

In the year 6th Century BC Jain and Buddist movements took place, which had a wide impact and the Jharkhand was no exception to this.


Buddism had a profound impact on Jharkhand. Relics related to Buddhism have been found in various places in Jharkhand. 

  • A lion head has been found from Murtiya village (Palamu), where resembles the lion head engraved on the entrance of the Sanchi Stupa. 
  • A Buddhist stupa has been found in Karua village. 
  • Today's Dhanbad district was an important center of Buddhism. Many Buddhist monuments have been found from Diyapur-Dalmi and Boudhpur of Dhanbad, among which the Budheswar temple of Buddhapur is notable. 
  • A fragmentary stone Buddha statue has been found from Gholmara (near Purulia).
  • A stone statue of Buddha has been found from Suryakund (near Barhi, Hazaribagh).
  • A Buddha statue has been found from Balan reaching Johna Falls.
  • A Buddha statue has been found in Katega village (Bano railway station, Gumla).
  • Two Buddha statues have been found from Patamba village (Jamshedpur).
  • The idol of Tara (Buddhist Goddess) has been found from the Ichagarh (Saraikela-Kharsawan), which is kept in Ranchi Museum.


Jainism also had a profound impact on Jharkhand. Nirvana of 23rd Tirthankara of Jains, Parshvanath, in 717 BC, was born on a mountain near Isri (Giridih), which was named Parsvanath/ Parasnath mountain after him. This mountain is famous as a major pilgrimage site for Jains. Manbhum (today's Dhanbad) of Chotanagpur was the center of Jain civilization and culture.

The main Jain sites of this region were;

  • Pakbira, Tuisama, Deoli, Pawanpur, Palma, Arsha, Charg, Golmara, Badam, Balrampur, Karra, Para, Katras, etc.
  • Some places of worship of Jains have been found in Hanumand village (near Satbarwa) of Palamu.
  • The early inhabitants of Singhbhum were Jains, who were called 'Saraks'. 'Sarak' is a spoiled form of the word Sharvak. The householder of Jain faiths was called Shravak. Later the people of the Ho tribe drove them out of Singhbhum.

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Hari Baba Movement (1930): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Hari Baba Movement (1930)

In the 1930s, the Duku Ho of Singhbhum, who was popularly known as Haribaba, started a movement called the 'Haribaba Movement'.

The aim of the Haribaba movement was the purification of the crumbling and disintegrating social, economic, religious system. Through this, an attempt was made to organize the people of the 'Ho' tribes so that they could escape the tyranny of outsiders.

Hari Baba Movement (1930): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

In this movement, apart from Hari Baba, Singrai Ho residents of Bhutagaon of Barkel Pir area, Bamia Ho of Bhadahatu area, and Hari, Dula, and Birjo Ho of Garia area played an important role. These people propagated Sarna Dharma.

The Haribaba movement also adopted Gandhiji's self-purification and sacrifice, because he hoped that through this movement he could drive away from the demons. This movement became political under the influence of Gandhiji. He believed that Gandhiji was capable of driving away from the British government. 

On 15th May 1931, he also showed ferocity and uprooted the telegraph wires in Singhbhum. Seeing this, the government took action to suppress this movement. The Haribaba Movement disintegrated as a result of the repression.

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Friday, September 3, 2021

Sardari Movement (1858-95): JPSC/JSSC/ PSC

Sardari Movement (1858-95)


  • To solve the problems, the Chotanagpur Tenure Act was implemented in 1869, but the complaints did not end, due to which this movement took place. In this movement, the Munda Sardars agitated for collective farming.


Kherwar Movement (1874): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Kherwar Movement (1874)

The Kherwar movement has a remarkable place in tribal reformist movements in Jharkhand. This movement initially taught monotheism and social reform, but just before its suppression, it took the form of a campaign against the activities of revenue endowment.

This movement was led by Bhagirath Manjhi of the Kherwar tribe. That is why it is called the 'Bhagirath Manjhi movement'.

Key facts of the Kherwar Movement (for MCQ):

  • The Kherwar Movement was one of the non-violent struggles against British rule.
  • Its form was in no way different from the Safahor movement which manifested in its true form in later days.
  • The credit for articulating this goes to Bhagwan Das (Rajmahal) and Lambodar Mukherjee (Dumka).
Kherwar Movement (1874): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC
  • Bhagirath had adopted a non-cooperative policy towards the British rule and by declaring himself the king of the village of Bounsi, he started the system of collecting rent himself by not paying rent to the landlords and the government.
  • Later Gandhiji used to aspects to his non-cooperation.
  • Bhagirath Manjhi was born in Taldiha village of Godda district where he has established a bench.
  • Bhagirath Manjhi was known as 'Baba' among the tribals.


Safahod Movement (1870): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Safahod Movement (1870)

Causes and Nature of Rebellion:

  • The credit for giving rise to this rebellion goes to Lal Hembram alias Lal Baba.
Safahod Movement (1870): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

  • Being frightened, the British banned the making of Tulsi Chaura in the courtyard and chanting Ram-Naam.
  • Lal Baba had formed the 'Deshoddharak Dal' in Santhal Parganas on the lines of Azad Hind Fauj.
  • His associates were Paika Murmu, Pagan Marandi, Bhatu Soren, and Rasik Lal Soren.


Ho Movement (1820-21): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Ho Movement (1820-21)

The abode of the Ho people was known as 'Ho Desam'= the land of the Ho caste or Kolhan= Kol place.

Ho Desam was never owned by the Mughals or Marathas. Although the Singh kings of Porhat had influence over them, they were equal and not subordinate to the Singh dynasty. They did not pay any regular tax to the Singh kings, only gave some gifts from time to time. As a result of being free from external control for a long time, he became freedom-loving and a fighter in nature. For this reason, during the company period, these fighters were famous as 'Kol'.

1820: At the request of Raja of Singhbhum, political agent Major Rafsej entered Ho Desam with an army. The British were victorious in a battle with the Ho people on the banks of the Roro river near Chaibasa.

Ho Movement (1820-21): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Despite this repression, the Ho of only the northern part of the Desam agreed to pay taxes to the Raja of Porhat. The Ho people of the southern Kolhan continued to oppose the British. Ho people started creating a disturbance in the areas of the border states. As a result of these activities of the Ho people, the Porhat king again had to plead for help from Rafsej.

1821: As a result, a large army under the leadership of Colonel Richard was sent against the Ho people. The Ho people confronted Richard for a month but eventually found the opposition meaningless and thought it better to make a treaty with the company. 

The main terms of the treaty were;

  • The people agreed to pay 8 annas (50 paise) per plow annually to their kings and zamindars.

Despite this treaty, the disturbances in Kolhan did not end, in 1831-32 the Ho people took an active part in the Kol rebellion. 

Key facts of Ho rebellion (for MCQ):

  • The Ho people of Chotanagpur revolted fiercely in 1820-21.
  • This rebellion took place in the area of Singhbhum.
  • The main reason for this rebellion was the exploitation by Raja Jagannath Singh and its backwardness to the British.
  • The Ho rebellion was suppressed in 1820-21 under Major Rusage and in 1837
  •  under Captain Wilkinson.
Ho Movement (1820-21)


Chero Revolt (1770-71), Bhogta Revolt (1771), Chero Movement (1800-18): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Revolts/ Movement:

Chero Revolt (1770-71):

In the year 1770-71, the Chero ruler Chitrajit Rai of Palamu and his Dewan Jaynath Singh organized a rebellion against the British fighting on behalf of Gopal Rai, the claimant to the throne of Palamu, which is known as 'Chero Rebellion'. In fact, it was a battle to capture the throne of Palamu.

Eventually, the British Captain Jacob Camac was successful in defeating the Cheros' rebels and capturing Palamu. On July 1, 1771, Gopal Rai was declared the king of the Palamu.

Chero Revolt (1770-71), Bhogta Revolt (1771), Chero Movement (1800-18): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Bhogta Revolt (1771):

In fact, the Bhogta rebellion was a supplementary event of the Chero rebellion (1770-71). Jainath Singh, the Diwan (Prime Minister) of Raja Chitrajit Rai of Palamu was a bountiful chieftain. The British used to talk directly to Jainath Singh only. 

On January 9, 1771, Jainath Singh received a letter from Patna Council through his messenger Ghulam Hussain Khan, in which order was given to hand over the Palamu Fort to the company peacefully. From here the Bhogta rebellion started. It was fought together with the Cheros. Jainath Singh was ready to leave Palamu Fort, but with some conditions. 

Since the Company was intent on capturing the Palamu Fort, therefore, the British refused to accept conditions laid by Jainath Singh, calling them unreasonable. The fight has started. Both Bhogta and Cheros fought the British together, but Bhogta Sardar Jayanath Singh was defeated and fled to Sarguja and the British declared Gopal Rai as the king of Palamu.

Chero Movement/ Andolan (1800-1818):

The Chero tribe of Palamu revolted under the leadership of Bhukhan Singh in 1800 against the high tax collection and re-acquisition of sub-dependent pattas. In suppressing it, the British resorted to deceit and cunning. As a result of this rebellion, in 1809, the British government formed the Zamindari Police Force to maintain peace and order in Chotanagpur. 

1814: Under the guise of action of Palamu pargana, the British captured it and handed over the responsibility of governance to Raja Ghanshyam Singh of Bhardev. In 1817, they revolted against this conspiracy of the British by ensuing tribal cooperation, but this too was suppressed. This rebellion was suppressed by Colonel Jones

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Thursday, September 2, 2021

Bhumij Revolt (1832-33): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Bhumij Revolt (1832-33)

Causes and Nature of Revolt:

Dhalbhum, Barabhum, and Patkum Parganas, which were then included in the Midnapore (now West Bengal) district, saw a widespread revolt by the Bhumij tribesmen under the leadership of Ganga Narayan.

Bhumij Revolt (1832-33): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Thi revolt was the result of the complaints of the Bhumij against the Badabhum king, police officers, munsifs, salt-daroga, and other dikkus. At the same time, the imposition of the Company's governance system on the local system was also not liked by the people. Thus the widespread despair all around and the persecution of the tribals necessitated this revolt. The tribals had no hope of justice, as the police were corrupt, the court staff looks illegitimate benefits and the revenue officials exploited them. Bribery by petty officers was common. Thus in the backdrop of extortion, deprivation of property and humiliation, and oppression, the Bhumij were left with no option but to revolt.

The revolt began with the brutal murder of Diwan Madhav Singh of Barabhum Pargana on 6th April 1832. The murder was done by Ganganarayan Singh, the cousin of the zamindar of Barabhumi Pargana. The main reason for this rebellion was to disregard the father of Ganganarayan Singh, the rightful owner of the throne of Barabhum, and oust him from the ancestral property.

Key facts of Bhumij Revolt/ Rebellion(for MCQs):

  • The Bhumij rebellion started in 1832 AD under the leadership of Ganga Narayan. Its influence remained in the areas of Birbhum and Singhbhum.
  • The rebellion was the result of the complaints of the Bhumij against the Birbhum (Badabhum) king, police officers, munsifs, salt inspectors, and other dikkus.
  • The reason for the rebellion was the imposition of the Company's system of governance on the local system. At the same time, the discontent arising out of the oppressive rent system of the British was also working behind it.
  • The formal beginning of the Bhumij rebellion took place on April 26, 1832, with the killing of Diwan Madhav Singh, and the half-brother of the zamindar of Birbhum Pargana.
  • The murder was done by Ganga Narayan Singh. He was the cousin of the zamindar of Birbhum. Madhav Singh was quite infamous as Diwan. He had devastated the people by lying in various types of taxes.
  • Ganga Narayan provided unprecedented leadership to the Bhumij against Madhav Singh. After killing Madhav Singh, Ganga Narayan had a collision with the Company's army. The Company's forces were led by Braden and Lieutenant Timmer.
  • On February 7, 1833, Ganga Narayan Singh was killed while fighting against Thakur Chetan Singh of Kharsawan.
  • The Thakur of Kharsawan cut off his head and sent it to the British officer Captain Wilkinson. Captain Wilkinson heaved a sigh of relief at the death of Ganga Narayan Singh.
  • After the death of Ganga Narayan Singh, this rebellion fell into disrepair. Although Ganga Narayan Singh was ultimately defeated in this rebellion, it made it clear that there was a need for administrative change in Jungle Mahal.

Like the Kol rebellion, the British were compelled to bring many administrative changes after the Bhumij rebellion;

  • Under the Regulation XIII of 1833 AD, extensive changes were made in the system of governance.
  • There was a change in the revenue policy and Chotanagpur was accepted as part of the South-West Frontier Agency (SWFA).
Bhumij Revolt (1832-33): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Previous Page:Kol Movement (1831-32): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Next Page:Chero Revolt (1770-71), Bhogta Revolt (1771), Chero Movement (1800-18): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


Kol Movement (1831-32): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Kol Movement (1831-32)

Causes and nature of rebellion:

The Kol rebellion has a special place in the tribal revolts in Jharkhand, because it was the first organized and widespread tribal revolt of Jharkhand. Exploited by their new masters, oppressed by dikus (outsiders), and deprived of their traditional source of justice, the tribals of Chotanagpur had no choice but to revolt. In fact, it was a rebellion of the Mundas, in which Ho joined as his right hand.

The tribes of some areas of Chotanagpur Khas, Palamu, Singhbhum, and Manbhum participated in this rebellion. Only Hazaribagh remained untouched by this rebellion. It was the result of the Kol rebellion that in 1834 AD, an administrative unit named 'South-West Frontier Agency' (SWFA) was formed by merging the revolt-affected areas with some of the other areas, with its headquarters at Vishunpur or Wilkinsonganj (later Ranchi) created.

Kol Movement (1831-32): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Key facts of Kol rebellion (for MCQ):

  • If anyone bothered the British rulers and landlords the most in Chotanagpur, it was the Kol rebels.
  • In this rebellion, the tribes of Chotanagpur, especially Palamu, Singhbhum, and other parts of the Manbhum actively participated.
  • The main reason for the Kol rebellion was 'land dissatisfaction'.
  • One of the main leaders of this rebellion was Budhu Bhagat. In this battle, he was killed along with his brother, son, and 100 followers. 
  • The revolt was suppressed, but the lands of the village headman (Munda) and their peed chief (Mankis) made up of seven to twelve were returned.
  • As a result of this rebellion, a new province Southwest Frontier Agency was formed in 1833 AD. Later, financial and judicial powers were also given to the 'Manki Munda System'.


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