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Tuesday, September 7, 2021

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand

With the Champaran (Bihar) Satyagraha in the year 1917, Mahatma Gandhi took an active step in Indian politics and was completely dominated by it till 1947. That is why it is called the 'Gandhi Era'. 

Abul Kalam Azad was under house arrest in Ranchi: [31 March 1916 - 31 December 1919]

The British government had ordered the detention of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in connection with the Home Rule Movement. To comply with the government order, when Maulana Azad reached Ranchi from Calcutta in April 1916, there was a crowd of visitors at the station. He was taken to the Dak Bungalow by Phaeton. After 10 days they started living in Morabadi. From there he used to go to the Jama Masjid in Upper Bazar to offer Namaz. A few days later, Maulana Azad moved from Morabadi to a rented house near Jama Masjid. People wore black badges at the behest of Maulana Azad to protest against the official celebration of Turkey's defeat in World War I (1914-18). On July 8, 1916, he was alerted and asked to attend the police station daily. In this sequence, he tried to break the wall of untouchability in Ranchi. Maulana Azad laid the foundation of Anjuman Islamia, Ranchi and Madarsa Islamia, Ranchi in August, 1917. By selling the press, he also invested his money in the madrasa.

The government ordered Maulana Azad to go to Morabadi again and the restrictions on him were increased. Still, people like Ghazanfar Mirza, Mohammad Ali, Dr. Purna Chandra Mitra, Devaki Nandan Prasad, Gulab Tiwari, and Nagarmal Modi continued to closely resemble him. But when Gandhiji came to Patna and sought permission to meet Maulana Azad, who was under house arrest in Ranchi, the government did not allow him to meet. Maulana Azad was released on completion of his period of detention. On January 3, 1920, Maulana Azad left Ranchi for Calcutta.

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Mahatma Gandhi's stay in Ranchi: [3-6 June, 5-11 July, 22 September-4 October 1917]

Shyam Krishna Sahai was in London in the year 1917. There he invited Gandhiji to come to Ranchi. Gandhiji came to Ranchi for the first time in June 1917. He had reached Ranchi from Motihari in Bihar in connection with Champaran Satyagraha. After coming here, he stayed with Shyam Krishna Sahay. Along with it was Braj Kishore Babu. He met the Lieutenant Governor of Bihar, Edward Albert Gate, at the Raj Bhawan in Ranchi. The outline of the Champaran movement was prepared by staying in Ranchi. After several meetings, Gandhiji signed his report on October 3, 1917, challenging the government. On October 4, 1917, left Ranchi for Champaran. In this way, the people of Jharkhand had long-term contact with Gandhiji. He was accompanied by his wife Kasturba Gandhi, and son Devdas Gandhi. The people of Jharkhand were highly impressed by Gandhiji's simplicity and his principles and agreed to participate in the Indian independence movement.

Anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha: [1919 AD]

The Rowlett Act was passed on March 21, 1919, based on the report of the Sedition Committee headed by Justice Sidney Rowlett to curb seditious activities in India. This was called the 'Black Law'. Since there was no trial against this law, it was said 'no appeal, no lawyer, no plea'. Countryside strikes and public meetings were organized against this law. 

As far as Jharkhand is concerned, the wave of anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha spread in Jharkhand too. In Ranchi, it was led by Bareshwar Sahai and Gulab Tiwari. Ramdin Pandey, the teacher of the Zila School in Palamu, observed a fast on April 6,1919, along with his six students. In Jamshedpur and Chaibasa also some people celebrated protest day. Due to the widespread violence, Mahatma Gandhi suspended the anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha on April 18, 1919. Thus ended this Satyagraha.

Establishment of District Congress Committees: [1919-20 AD]

Gradually the campaign of Congress increased in Jharkhand and Congress committees started being established in the districts. In the year 1919, Bindeshwari Pathak and Bhagwat Pandey established the Palamu District Congress Committee. District Congress Committee was established in Ranchi and Hazaribagh in 1920 AD.

Calcutta Session of Congress (Special Session): [September 1920]

In September 1920, the special session of the All India National Congress (AINC) was held in Calcutta. It was presided over by Lala Lajpat Rai. Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the leader of the nation from this convention. The representatives of Jharkhand who came to participate in the convention urged Mahatma Gandhi to declare Jharkhand as an independent. To this Mahatma Gandhi replied with one line- 'Sow cotton, spin the spinning wheel, Chotanagpur will be free'. In the Calcutta session itself, the epoch-making and important non-cooperation resolution was passed for the first time, which was confirmed in the Nagpur session of the Congress annual session (December 1920 AD).

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