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Thursday, September 2, 2021

Tilka Movement (1784-1785): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Tilka Movement (1784-1785)

Causes of Revolt:

1784: Tilka Manjhi (Jabra Paharia) started a movement against the British, which came to be known as the 'Tilka Movement'. This movement was against the rights of their land, against the policy of divisiveness by giving more facilities to the hills, and against the repression of Cleveland.

Form of Revolt:

The Santhal entered in Rajmahal area in the last years of the 18th century. The entry of Santhal tribals into the Rajmahal was opposed by the Paharia community. After a few encounters, the Santhals settled in this area. The Santhal lived on the hills and when the East India Company's boats passed through the Ganga river, they would come down from the mountains and plunder them and kill the mail carriers. They were very skilled the guerilla warfare.


Tilka Movement (1784-1785): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


1778:
Augustine Cleveland was appointed the Superintendent of Police of the Rajmahal area. He adopted a policy of divisiveness and within nine (9) months of his appointment, had made 47 Paharia chieftains his supporters and made a person named Jaurah their chief. Some facilities were given to the Paharia Sardars and the British did not collect any tax from them. This was opposed by a brave Sardar Tilka Manjhi of the Santhal community. He said that the policy should be the same. Tilka also opposed the Jaurah of the Pahariya caste, a supporter of the British. Tilka started opposing the British from the place called Vancharijor near Bhagalpur. Like Robin Hood, he used to plunder the royal treasuries and warehouses and distribute them among the poor. He sent door-to-door messages through Sal's leaves and started organizing the Santhals.


1784: At the beginning of the year, with the help of his followers, Tilka attacked Bhagalpur. On January 13, he hid on a plan tree and sat down. While passing through the same path, he shot Cleveland riding on a horse with an arrow. This caused panic in the English army. Now Ayerkoot was sent to help the British army. Ayerkoot along with Paharia Sardar Jaurah attacked the followers of Tilka Manjhi. Many followers of Tilka Manjhi suffered causalities. But Tilka Manjhi escaped and hid in the hills of Sultanganj.


1785: Tilka Manjhi was caused by deceit and dragged by four (4) horses, tied with rope, was brought to Bhagalpur, where he was hanged on a Banyan tree. That place is known today as 'Baba Tilka Manjhi Chowk'.


Key Facts of Tilka Movement:

  • The Tilka Movement started in 1783 under the leadership of Tilka Manjhi.
  • Main objective: to protect the tribal autonomy and drive out the British from this region.
  • Like the modern Robin Hood, he started plundering the English treasury and distributing it among the poor and needy.
  • Tilka Manjhi led a guerilla war from the hills of Sultanganj. The hero of the British army, who was killed by Tilka Manjhi's arrow was Augustine Cleveland.
  • 1785: Tilka Manjhi was arrested by fraud and hanged on a Banyan tree in Bhagalpur. That place is today famous as 'Baba Tilka Manjhi Chowk' in Bhagalpur.
  • The first rebel martyr of the Indian freedom struggle was - Tilka Manjhi.
  • Most importantly, women also participated in the Tilka Rebellion, while women started participating in the Indian national movement much later.

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