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Wednesday, September 1, 2021

The Vindhyan System: Geological Structure of India

Vindhyan System

The Vindhyan system derives its name from the Vindhyan Mountain. This mountain forms a dividing line between the Ganga Plain and the Deccan Plateau.The system covers an extensive area of 103,600 km2 from Chittorgarh (Rajasthan) to Sasaram (Bihar).

It has enormous sedimentary deposits and at places, its depth is more than 4000 m. In some tracts. the Vindhyan System from the Aravallis for a distance of about 800 km.

The Vindhyan System is well-known for red sandstone, sandstone, building material, ornamental stone, conglomerates, diamondiferous and raw materials for cement, lime, glass, and chemical industries. In certain places, these rocks yield inferior quality of iron ore and manganese. The well-known diamond mines of Panna and Golconda lie in the Vindhyan system.

The Vindhyan System: Geological Structure of India

The historical buildings of Qutab Minar, Humayun's Tomb, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Fort, Jama-Masjid, Birla Mandir, the Buddhist Stupa of Sanchi, etc., have been constructed from the red sandstone obtained from the Vindhyan Ranges. Coarser sandstones have been used as grindstones and millstones.

Name of the series of Vindhyan System

Distribution in India

Significant Features

Bhander Series

1. Western part of Vindhyan formation. 

1. Main rocks: sandstone, shales, limestones.

2. It provides good building material.

Bijwar Series

1. Stretches over districts of Chhatarpur and Panna in Madhya Pradesh.

1. Main rocks: sandstone, red sandstone, quartzite.

2. Basaltic intrusions found whose dykes are rich in diamonds.

Kaimur Series

1. Stretches over Bundelkhand (UP), Baghelkhand (MP).

1. Main rocks: sandstone, conglomerate, shale.

2. Red sandstone was used in historical monuments like Red Fort, Hawa Mahal, Qutub Minar, Humayun's Tomb.



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