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Sunday, September 5, 2021

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History

In general, during the Sultanate period, Muslims entered Jharkhand only while pursuing their enemies or while going to Bengal-Orissa or returning from there. During the Sultanate period, there were sporadic external attacks on Jharkhand. Despite these external invasions, Jharkhand always remained independent during the Sultanate period. 

Invasion of Singhbhum by the Raja of Birbhum (West Bengal), the invasion of Hazaribagh (1340 AD) by Malik Baya, the commander of the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and the invasion of Santhal Pargana by Kapilendra Gajapati (1435-70 AD) of Orissa had no lasting effect. Thus, if these sporadic external attacks on Jharkhand are quelled, then the independent power of Jharkhand remained intact throughout the Sultanate period and the kings here continued to rule without any external interference.

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

In 1202-03 AD, Qutbuddin Aibak's general Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked South Bihar and destroyed and corrupted Udantapuri, Nalanda, and Vikramshila universities and caused heavy bloodshed. As a result, non-Muslim people started taking refuge in Jharkhand to save their lives. In this way, new ethnic elements were incorporated in Jharkhand. During these invasions, Bakhtiyar came to know about the routes to reach Bengal which passed through Jharkhand. He attacked Nadia, the capital of the Sen dynasty ruler of Bengal, Lakshman Sen, passing through Jharkhand in 1204-05 AD.

Ghulam Dynasty Jharkhand (1206-90 AD):

During the time of Sultans Iltutmish (1211-36 AD) and Balban (1265-86 AD) of the Adi Turk slave dynasty, the turmoil in South Bihar had little effect on Jharkhand, because it is reported that Nagavanshi the ruler Harikarna continued to run his kingdom efficiently.


Khilji Dynasty Jharkhand (1290-1320 AD):

Chhajju Malik, the commander of Sultan Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD) of the Khilji dynasty, forced the Nagavanshi ruler to pay taxes (1310 AD).


Tughlaq Dynasty Jharkhand (1320-1412 AD):

Malik Beya, the commander of the Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51 AD) of the Tughlaq dynasty, had reached Chai Champa in the Hazaribagh area. Whereas, according to the Santhali source, this invasion took place in 1340 AD under the leadership of Ibrahim Ali. Ibrahim Ali captured the fort of Bigha, as a result, the Santhals of the place escaped with their chieftain for their lives. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's successor Firoz Tughlaq (1351-88 AD) defeated Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah of Bengal in a battle for supremacy and conquered a large area in the Satgaon area of Hazaribagh and made Satgaon the capital of his conquered region in (1359-60 AD). But Firoz Tughlaq and his successor could not advance beyond Satgaon, in Chotanagpur Khas, and the Nagvanshi ruler there remained a powerful ruler.


Sayyid Dynasty Jharkhand (1412-51 AD):

The Sultan of the Sayyid dynasty, the successor dynasty of the Tughlaq dynasty, did not interfere in Jharkhand.


Lodhi Dynasty Jharkhand (1451-1526 AD):

The Sultans of the Lodhi dynasty were relatively weak sultans and the influence of the Delhi Sultanate was reduced to a very small area, so they were not in a position to interfere in Jharkhand. The name of the Nagvansh kings who ruled Chotanagpur Khas during the time of Sultans of the Lodi dynasty was Pratap Karna, Chhatra Karna, and Virat Karna

Jharkhand was saved from the interference of the Lodi Sultans, but it had to face havoc with the Gajapati Dynasty of Orissa, a contemporary dynasty of the Lodi dynasty. Kapilendra Gajapati (1435-70 AD), who was the minister of the last Ganga king of Orissa, established a new dynasty in Orissa, the Gajapati dynasty. Under the leadership of Kapilendra Gajapati, the state of Orissa became a superpower of South-East India. He captured a large part of the Nagvanshi kingdom except for Santhal Pargana and Hazaribagh. Thus, the rule of Kapilendra Gajapati was established over some parts of Jharkhand.

Similarly, Adil Shah-I/ Adil Khan-II (1457-1501 AD) was an extremely powerful ruler of Khandesh. He had amassed immense power. He sent his army to Jharkhand and that is why he became famous as 'Jharkhandi Sultan' = king of the Jungle.

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Gupta and post-Gupta period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Gupta and Post-Gupta Period

Gupta Period:

After the fall of the Kushanas, powerful Guptas emerged in Prayag and Pataliputra. The greatest ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta (355-80 AD). The description of the strategic victories of Samudragupta is found in the Prayag Prashasti composed Harishena, the court poet of Samudragupta. One of these victories was the Atavik victory. The Aatvik region. Samudragupt defeated the ruler of the Atavik region and followed with him the 'Paricharakrit' policy (policy of making peon/ attendants). It is clear from this that during the reign of Samudragupta, the region of Jharkhand was under him.

Chotanagpur has been called 'Murund Desh' in the Prayag Prashati of Samudragupta.

The reign of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya (380-412 AD), the famous ruler of the Gupta dynasty, extended from Ujjain to Angal and which was also included Jharkhand called as 'Kukkutlad' by the Chinese traveler Fahian who came to India during the reign of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya.

Notable among the archaeological remains of the Gupta period is-

  • Temples around the village called Satgaon (Hazaribagh)
  • A well on a hill in Pithoriya is located north of the list.

Gupta and post-Gupta period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Post Gupta Period:

In the post-Gupta period (550-650 AD), the ruler of the Gaur (West Bengal) Shashanka (602-25 AD) was a great ruler. His empire included the forest province from Midnapore (West Bengal) to Sarguja (Chattisgarh). Cunnigham has described Bada Bazar and Hewitt as Dulmi as its capital. Shashank was a great Shiva worshiper. When Shshanka established his dominance over Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, he's started a persecution of Buddhists. 

Pressed by Harshavardhana from the west and Bhaskaravarnam from the east, he vacated his capital, Paundravardhana, and went to the hilly region of South Bihar. Now, the center of his power became Varunika, which these days is called Barun or Son East Bank. Shaivism Shashanka's idol-breaking ferocity was so great that he destroyed all the Buddhist centers of Jharkhand. In this way, due to his efforts, Hindusim established the primacy of Buddhism instead of Jainism in Jharkhand. By the 10th century AD, the dominance of Hinduism was fully established in Jharkhand. This is confirmed by the remains of temples built by Brahmins at Dulmi, Telkupi, Pakbira, etc. Most of these temples are Shaivites.

The vast empire of Harshavardhan (606-47 AD), the most powerful ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty (Vardhana dynasty), also included the small kingdom of Karjagal (Rajmahal). It was in Kazangal that Harshavardhan met the Chinese traveler Huan Tsang for the first time and was impressed by him. Later, both of them remained together for many years.

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Saturday, September 4, 2021

Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Maurya and Post-Maurya Period

Mauryan Period: 

  • Chandragupta Maurya (322 BC- 298 BC) established the Maurya dynasty in Magadha by defeating Dhananada, the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty, with the help of his guru Kautilya (other names Chanakya, Vishnugupta). The ruler of the Nanda dynasty were the masters of a huge army. The army of the Nandas included the tribal soldiers of Jharkhand as well as elephants. In fact, an important reason for Magadha's military success was the tribal element involved. Chandragupta Maurya, the destroyer of the Nanda dynasty and the founder of the Maurya dynasty, was familiar with the region of Jharkhand.
Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History
  • Kautilya in his book 'Arthashatra' has called this region Kukut/Kukutdesh. According to Kautilya, there was a republican system of government in Kukutdesh. To keep the tribes under control, using them in the interest of Magadha and preventing their alliance with the enemies of Magadha, an officer named 'Aatvik' was appointed.

  • Under 'Aatvik' there were other officers like 'Nagadhyaksha', 'Vanadhyaksha', 'Nagpal', 'Vanpal'. The trade route from Magadha to South India passed through Jharkhand. Therefore, Jharkhand had commercial importance. Kautilya has written that diamonds were obtained from the rivers of 'Indravanak'. Indravanak was probably the area of the rivers Inva and Shankh.



Post-Mauryan Period:

The most important thing of this period was:

  • The discovery of some coins of this period in the areas of Jharkhand gives an impression that the rulers of this period must have ruled in this area.
  • Coins of Roman emperors have been found in Singhbhum.
  • Indo-Scythian coins have been found in Chaibasa.
  • Coins of the first and second centuries of the Kushan period have been found in Ranchi, a Pura-Kushan coin of the third century has also been received from here. There is no king's name on these coins. 

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Stone and Vedic Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Stone and Vedic Period: Jharkhand History

The history of Jharkhand dates back to the Stone Age when humans began to manufacture tools made of sharp stones to meet their needs, such as digging the soil and hunting the animals. Extensive evidence of human development in the Jharkhand region during that period has been obtained during archaeological excavations. Here tools related to the two periods of the Stone Age (East and Late Stone Age) have been found.

Ancient History of Jharkhand:

1. Early Stone Age:

During this period of the region of Jharkhand was surrounded by dense forests and the density of trees was such that nothing was clearly visible. At that time, like other places, there were such human beings, who were called semi-human or primitive men. The main tools used by them include the remains of stone axes, knives, and pieces of stone used as knives. These remains have been received from Singhbhum, Ranchi, Santhal Pargana, and Hazaribagh in the order of archaeological excavation.



2. Late Stone Age:

This period is also called the Neolithic period. Many remains of this period have been found here. Possibly when the Bronze Age culture was developing in the Indus Valley, the Neolithic culture was developing in Chotanagpur during the same period. Smooth polished stone craft tools and pottery have been found here. The main objects found here related to the Neolithic period are axes, celts, chisels, chalk, iron, and copper saws.

Another thing that is worth noting is that most of the stone tools of this period found from here are polished. Twelve (12) types of hand-crafts belonging to the Neo-Stone Age have been found in India. Almost all of these hand-crafts have been found in Chotanagpur. The remains found in the above period do not give detailed information about the history, but the evidence of the life of the primitive man and the indications of the gradual changes taking place in it.


3. Iron Age:

Iron was used in the later Vedic period. The name 'Pand' of Jharkhand is first found in the Aitareya Brahmin, the composition of the later Vedic period. A tribe found here 'Asura' is seen associating with this period. The main work of the Asura tribe has been to prepare tools by smelting iron. Therefore, it is clear from this that the Iron Age must have developed here as well.


Vedic Age:

The relation of any historical fact related to Jharkhand from the Rigveda period has not been received till now. Iron was used in the later Vedic period, due to which some tribes working in iron, especially the Asura, are discussed in the Aitareya Brahmana of the later Vedic period.


Religious Movement:

In the year 6th Century BC Jain and Buddist movements took place, which had a wide impact and the Jharkhand was no exception to this.

Buddhism:

Buddism had a profound impact on Jharkhand. Relics related to Buddhism have been found in various places in Jharkhand. 

  • A lion head has been found from Murtiya village (Palamu), where resembles the lion head engraved on the entrance of the Sanchi Stupa. 
  • A Buddhist stupa has been found in Karua village. 
  • Today's Dhanbad district was an important center of Buddhism. Many Buddhist monuments have been found from Diyapur-Dalmi and Boudhpur of Dhanbad, among which the Budheswar temple of Buddhapur is notable. 
  • A fragmentary stone Buddha statue has been found from Gholmara (near Purulia).
  • A stone statue of Buddha has been found from Suryakund (near Barhi, Hazaribagh).
  • A Buddha statue has been found from Balan reaching Johna Falls.
  • A Buddha statue has been found in Katega village (Bano railway station, Gumla).
  • Two Buddha statues have been found from Patamba village (Jamshedpur).
  • The idol of Tara (Buddhist Goddess) has been found from the Ichagarh (Saraikela-Kharsawan), which is kept in Ranchi Museum.

Jainism:

Jainism also had a profound impact on Jharkhand. Nirvana of 23rd Tirthankara of Jains, Parshvanath, in 717 BC, was born on a mountain near Isri (Giridih), which was named Parsvanath/ Parasnath mountain after him. This mountain is famous as a major pilgrimage site for Jains. Manbhum (today's Dhanbad) of Chotanagpur was the center of Jain civilization and culture.

The main Jain sites of this region were;

  • Pakbira, Tuisama, Deoli, Pawanpur, Palma, Arsha, Charg, Golmara, Badam, Balrampur, Karra, Para, Katras, etc.
  • Some places of worship of Jains have been found in Hanumand village (near Satbarwa) of Palamu.
  • The early inhabitants of Singhbhum were Jains, who were called 'Saraks'. 'Sarak' is a spoiled form of the word Sharvak. The householder of Jain faiths was called Shravak. Later the people of the Ho tribe drove them out of Singhbhum.

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Hari Baba Movement (1930): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


Hari Baba Movement (1930)

In the 1930s, the Duku Ho of Singhbhum, who was popularly known as Haribaba, started a movement called the 'Haribaba Movement'.

The aim of the Haribaba movement was the purification of the crumbling and disintegrating social, economic, religious system. Through this, an attempt was made to organize the people of the 'Ho' tribes so that they could escape the tyranny of outsiders.

Hari Baba Movement (1930): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

In this movement, apart from Hari Baba, Singrai Ho residents of Bhutagaon of Barkel Pir area, Bamia Ho of Bhadahatu area, and Hari, Dula, and Birjo Ho of Garia area played an important role. These people propagated Sarna Dharma.

The Haribaba movement also adopted Gandhiji's self-purification and sacrifice, because he hoped that through this movement he could drive away from the demons. This movement became political under the influence of Gandhiji. He believed that Gandhiji was capable of driving away from the British government. 

On 15th May 1931, he also showed ferocity and uprooted the telegraph wires in Singhbhum. Seeing this, the government took action to suppress this movement. The Haribaba Movement disintegrated as a result of the repression.

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Friday, September 3, 2021

Sardari Movement (1858-95): JPSC/JSSC/ PSC

Sardari Movement (1858-95)

Causes:

  • To solve the problems, the Chotanagpur Tenure Act was implemented in 1869, but the complaints did not end, due to which this movement took place. In this movement, the Munda Sardars agitated for collective farming.

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Kherwar Movement (1874): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Kherwar Movement (1874)

The Kherwar movement has a remarkable place in tribal reformist movements in Jharkhand. This movement initially taught monotheism and social reform, but just before its suppression, it took the form of a campaign against the activities of revenue endowment.

This movement was led by Bhagirath Manjhi of the Kherwar tribe. That is why it is called the 'Bhagirath Manjhi movement'.

Key facts of the Kherwar Movement (for MCQ):

  • The Kherwar Movement was one of the non-violent struggles against British rule.
  • Its form was in no way different from the Safahor movement which manifested in its true form in later days.
  • The credit for articulating this goes to Bhagwan Das (Rajmahal) and Lambodar Mukherjee (Dumka).
Kherwar Movement (1874): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC
  • Bhagirath had adopted a non-cooperative policy towards the British rule and by declaring himself the king of the village of Bounsi, he started the system of collecting rent himself by not paying rent to the landlords and the government.
  • Later Gandhiji used to aspects to his non-cooperation.
  • Bhagirath Manjhi was born in Taldiha village of Godda district where he has established a bench.
  • Bhagirath Manjhi was known as 'Baba' among the tribals.

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Safahod Movement (1870): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Safahod Movement (1870)

Causes and Nature of Rebellion:

  • The credit for giving rise to this rebellion goes to Lal Hembram alias Lal Baba.
Safahod Movement (1870): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


  • Being frightened, the British banned the making of Tulsi Chaura in the courtyard and chanting Ram-Naam.
  • Lal Baba had formed the 'Deshoddharak Dal' in Santhal Parganas on the lines of Azad Hind Fauj.
  • His associates were Paika Murmu, Pagan Marandi, Bhatu Soren, and Rasik Lal Soren.

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Ho Movement (1820-21): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Ho Movement (1820-21)

The abode of the Ho people was known as 'Ho Desam'= the land of the Ho caste or Kolhan= Kol place.

Ho Desam was never owned by the Mughals or Marathas. Although the Singh kings of Porhat had influence over them, they were equal and not subordinate to the Singh dynasty. They did not pay any regular tax to the Singh kings, only gave some gifts from time to time. As a result of being free from external control for a long time, he became freedom-loving and a fighter in nature. For this reason, during the company period, these fighters were famous as 'Kol'.

1820: At the request of Raja of Singhbhum, political agent Major Rafsej entered Ho Desam with an army. The British were victorious in a battle with the Ho people on the banks of the Roro river near Chaibasa.

Ho Movement (1820-21): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Despite this repression, the Ho of only the northern part of the Desam agreed to pay taxes to the Raja of Porhat. The Ho people of the southern Kolhan continued to oppose the British. Ho people started creating a disturbance in the areas of the border states. As a result of these activities of the Ho people, the Porhat king again had to plead for help from Rafsej.

1821: As a result, a large army under the leadership of Colonel Richard was sent against the Ho people. The Ho people confronted Richard for a month but eventually found the opposition meaningless and thought it better to make a treaty with the company. 

The main terms of the treaty were;

  • The people agreed to pay 8 annas (50 paise) per plow annually to their kings and zamindars.

Despite this treaty, the disturbances in Kolhan did not end, in 1831-32 the Ho people took an active part in the Kol rebellion. 

Key facts of Ho rebellion (for MCQ):

  • The Ho people of Chotanagpur revolted fiercely in 1820-21.
  • This rebellion took place in the area of Singhbhum.
  • The main reason for this rebellion was the exploitation by Raja Jagannath Singh and its backwardness to the British.
  • The Ho rebellion was suppressed in 1820-21 under Major Rusage and in 1837
  •  under Captain Wilkinson.
Ho Movement (1820-21)


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Chero Revolt (1770-71), Bhogta Revolt (1771), Chero Movement (1800-18): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Revolts/ Movement:

Chero Revolt (1770-71):

In the year 1770-71, the Chero ruler Chitrajit Rai of Palamu and his Dewan Jaynath Singh organized a rebellion against the British fighting on behalf of Gopal Rai, the claimant to the throne of Palamu, which is known as 'Chero Rebellion'. In fact, it was a battle to capture the throne of Palamu.

Eventually, the British Captain Jacob Camac was successful in defeating the Cheros' rebels and capturing Palamu. On July 1, 1771, Gopal Rai was declared the king of the Palamu.


Chero Revolt (1770-71), Bhogta Revolt (1771), Chero Movement (1800-18): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Bhogta Revolt (1771):

In fact, the Bhogta rebellion was a supplementary event of the Chero rebellion (1770-71). Jainath Singh, the Diwan (Prime Minister) of Raja Chitrajit Rai of Palamu was a bountiful chieftain. The British used to talk directly to Jainath Singh only. 

On January 9, 1771, Jainath Singh received a letter from Patna Council through his messenger Ghulam Hussain Khan, in which order was given to hand over the Palamu Fort to the company peacefully. From here the Bhogta rebellion started. It was fought together with the Cheros. Jainath Singh was ready to leave Palamu Fort, but with some conditions. 

Since the Company was intent on capturing the Palamu Fort, therefore, the British refused to accept conditions laid by Jainath Singh, calling them unreasonable. The fight has started. Both Bhogta and Cheros fought the British together, but Bhogta Sardar Jayanath Singh was defeated and fled to Sarguja and the British declared Gopal Rai as the king of Palamu.


Chero Movement/ Andolan (1800-1818):

The Chero tribe of Palamu revolted under the leadership of Bhukhan Singh in 1800 against the high tax collection and re-acquisition of sub-dependent pattas. In suppressing it, the British resorted to deceit and cunning. As a result of this rebellion, in 1809, the British government formed the Zamindari Police Force to maintain peace and order in Chotanagpur. 

1814: Under the guise of action of Palamu pargana, the British captured it and handed over the responsibility of governance to Raja Ghanshyam Singh of Bhardev. In 1817, they revolted against this conspiracy of the British by ensuing tribal cooperation, but this too was suppressed. This rebellion was suppressed by Colonel Jones

https://www.simoticlasses.com/2021/05/jharkhand-me-aapda-prabandhan-ikai.html

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Thursday, September 2, 2021

Bhumij Revolt (1832-33): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Bhumij Revolt (1832-33)

Causes and Nature of Revolt:

Dhalbhum, Barabhum, and Patkum Parganas, which were then included in the Midnapore (now West Bengal) district, saw a widespread revolt by the Bhumij tribesmen under the leadership of Ganga Narayan.

Bhumij Revolt (1832-33): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Thi revolt was the result of the complaints of the Bhumij against the Badabhum king, police officers, munsifs, salt-daroga, and other dikkus. At the same time, the imposition of the Company's governance system on the local system was also not liked by the people. Thus the widespread despair all around and the persecution of the tribals necessitated this revolt. The tribals had no hope of justice, as the police were corrupt, the court staff looks illegitimate benefits and the revenue officials exploited them. Bribery by petty officers was common. Thus in the backdrop of extortion, deprivation of property and humiliation, and oppression, the Bhumij were left with no option but to revolt.

The revolt began with the brutal murder of Diwan Madhav Singh of Barabhum Pargana on 6th April 1832. The murder was done by Ganganarayan Singh, the cousin of the zamindar of Barabhumi Pargana. The main reason for this rebellion was to disregard the father of Ganganarayan Singh, the rightful owner of the throne of Barabhum, and oust him from the ancestral property.

Key facts of Bhumij Revolt/ Rebellion(for MCQs):

  • The Bhumij rebellion started in 1832 AD under the leadership of Ganga Narayan. Its influence remained in the areas of Birbhum and Singhbhum.
  • The rebellion was the result of the complaints of the Bhumij against the Birbhum (Badabhum) king, police officers, munsifs, salt inspectors, and other dikkus.
  • The reason for the rebellion was the imposition of the Company's system of governance on the local system. At the same time, the discontent arising out of the oppressive rent system of the British was also working behind it.
  • The formal beginning of the Bhumij rebellion took place on April 26, 1832, with the killing of Diwan Madhav Singh, and the half-brother of the zamindar of Birbhum Pargana.
  • The murder was done by Ganga Narayan Singh. He was the cousin of the zamindar of Birbhum. Madhav Singh was quite infamous as Diwan. He had devastated the people by lying in various types of taxes.
  • Ganga Narayan provided unprecedented leadership to the Bhumij against Madhav Singh. After killing Madhav Singh, Ganga Narayan had a collision with the Company's army. The Company's forces were led by Braden and Lieutenant Timmer.
  • On February 7, 1833, Ganga Narayan Singh was killed while fighting against Thakur Chetan Singh of Kharsawan.
  • The Thakur of Kharsawan cut off his head and sent it to the British officer Captain Wilkinson. Captain Wilkinson heaved a sigh of relief at the death of Ganga Narayan Singh.
  • After the death of Ganga Narayan Singh, this rebellion fell into disrepair. Although Ganga Narayan Singh was ultimately defeated in this rebellion, it made it clear that there was a need for administrative change in Jungle Mahal.

Like the Kol rebellion, the British were compelled to bring many administrative changes after the Bhumij rebellion;

  • Under the Regulation XIII of 1833 AD, extensive changes were made in the system of governance.
  • There was a change in the revenue policy and Chotanagpur was accepted as part of the South-West Frontier Agency (SWFA).
Bhumij Revolt (1832-33): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


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Kol Movement (1831-32): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Kol Movement (1831-32)

Causes and nature of rebellion:

The Kol rebellion has a special place in the tribal revolts in Jharkhand, because it was the first organized and widespread tribal revolt of Jharkhand. Exploited by their new masters, oppressed by dikus (outsiders), and deprived of their traditional source of justice, the tribals of Chotanagpur had no choice but to revolt. In fact, it was a rebellion of the Mundas, in which Ho joined as his right hand.

The tribes of some areas of Chotanagpur Khas, Palamu, Singhbhum, and Manbhum participated in this rebellion. Only Hazaribagh remained untouched by this rebellion. It was the result of the Kol rebellion that in 1834 AD, an administrative unit named 'South-West Frontier Agency' (SWFA) was formed by merging the revolt-affected areas with some of the other areas, with its headquarters at Vishunpur or Wilkinsonganj (later Ranchi) created.


Kol Movement (1831-32): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Key facts of Kol rebellion (for MCQ):

  • If anyone bothered the British rulers and landlords the most in Chotanagpur, it was the Kol rebels.
  • In this rebellion, the tribes of Chotanagpur, especially Palamu, Singhbhum, and other parts of the Manbhum actively participated.
  • The main reason for the Kol rebellion was 'land dissatisfaction'.
  • One of the main leaders of this rebellion was Budhu Bhagat. In this battle, he was killed along with his brother, son, and 100 followers. 
  • The revolt was suppressed, but the lands of the village headman (Munda) and their peed chief (Mankis) made up of seven to twelve were returned.
  • As a result of this rebellion, a new province Southwest Frontier Agency was formed in 1833 AD. Later, financial and judicial powers were also given to the 'Manki Munda System'.

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Chuar Movement (1769- 1805): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Chuar Movement (1769-1805)

Causes:

The British official used to call the Bhumij of Jungle Mahal as Chaur= Duvant/low caste. Hence, their rebellion was called Chaur Rebellion.

The Chuar made a living by clearing forests, hunting animals and birds, and selling the things produced in the forest. Most of them worked as 'Paika= soldiers' in the local zamindars. They were given land instead of salary, which was called 'Paikan land'

As soon as the British rulers took possession, snatched the ancestral lands of the Chuars and sold them to new landlords, and started settling new subjects with these landlords. 

Chuar Movement (1769- 1805): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Simultaneously, after removing the paika and bringing it from outside, the police were appointed in their place. Due to this, thousands of paika started stumbling blocks after losing land, house-door, means of livelihood everything. The combined powers of these paikas (sepoys) and peasants ignited the fire of rebellion, which became very difficult for the British rulers to extinguish.

Apart from this, the British rulers had snatched the land from the hands of Zamindars, who were unable to pay the hugely increased revenue. Some of the landlords who had lost their land joined the rebellion. This rebellion was done over famine, increase in rent, auction of land, and other economic issues.

Form of Revolt:

The name of the prominent leaders of the Chuar rebellion are;

  • Ragunath Mahto
  • Shyam Ganjam Subal Singh
  • Jagannath Patar
  • Durjan Singh
  • Lal Singh
  • Mohan Singh.

In 1769, Raghunath Mahto gave the slogan 'Apna Gaon Apna Raj, Faraway Foreign Raj'.

The name of the suppressors of the Chuar rebellion are;

  • Lieutenant Nun
  • Captain Forbes
  • Lieutenant Goodyar.

For nearly 30 years, due to the riots of the Chuars, there was unrest in the entire area.

The Company government understood that without giving some facilities (e.g; the return of their land to paikas, prohibition on the auction of the land of zamindars when revenue is left) to the paikas, farmers, and zamindars, and without restoration of police rights of landlords and Ghatwals, the peace in this area is not possible. Therefore, by a resolution;

  • March 6th, 1800, the Zamindari-Ghatwali Police System was restored.
  • December 13th, 1800, this arrangement also got the approval of the Company's government.

The law and order situation improved with the appointment of local people as police officers in place of non-tribal inspectors. After the creation of the Jungle Mahal district, relative peace was maintained in the Manbhum area for 25 years (1805-30).

Important facts of Chuar Revolt:

  • In June, Chuar and Paika of Bankura, and Paika of Orissa joined it. British repression did not work in front of the wide nature of the rebellion and the British were forced to return the land and all the facilities snatched from them to the Chuar and Paika chieftains. 



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Tilka Movement (1784-1785): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Tilka Movement (1784-1785)

Causes of Revolt:

1784: Tilka Manjhi (Jabra Paharia) started a movement against the British, which came to be known as the 'Tilka Movement'. This movement was against the rights of their land, against the policy of divisiveness by giving more facilities to the hills, and against the repression of Cleveland.

Form of Revolt:

The Santhal entered in Rajmahal area in the last years of the 18th century. The entry of Santhal tribals into the Rajmahal was opposed by the Paharia community. After a few encounters, the Santhals settled in this area. The Santhal lived on the hills and when the East India Company's boats passed through the Ganga river, they would come down from the mountains and plunder them and kill the mail carriers. They were very skilled the guerilla warfare.


Tilka Movement (1784-1785): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


1778:
Augustine Cleveland was appointed the Superintendent of Police of the Rajmahal area. He adopted a policy of divisiveness and within nine (9) months of his appointment, had made 47 Paharia chieftains his supporters and made a person named Jaurah their chief. Some facilities were given to the Paharia Sardars and the British did not collect any tax from them. This was opposed by a brave Sardar Tilka Manjhi of the Santhal community. He said that the policy should be the same. Tilka also opposed the Jaurah of the Pahariya caste, a supporter of the British. Tilka started opposing the British from the place called Vancharijor near Bhagalpur. Like Robin Hood, he used to plunder the royal treasuries and warehouses and distribute them among the poor. He sent door-to-door messages through Sal's leaves and started organizing the Santhals.


1784: At the beginning of the year, with the help of his followers, Tilka attacked Bhagalpur. On January 13, he hid on a plan tree and sat down. While passing through the same path, he shot Cleveland riding on a horse with an arrow. This caused panic in the English army. Now Ayerkoot was sent to help the British army. Ayerkoot along with Paharia Sardar Jaurah attacked the followers of Tilka Manjhi. Many followers of Tilka Manjhi suffered causalities. But Tilka Manjhi escaped and hid in the hills of Sultanganj.


1785: Tilka Manjhi was caused by deceit and dragged by four (4) horses, tied with rope, was brought to Bhagalpur, where he was hanged on a Banyan tree. That place is known today as 'Baba Tilka Manjhi Chowk'.


Key Facts of Tilka Movement:

  • The Tilka Movement started in 1783 under the leadership of Tilka Manjhi.
  • Main objective: to protect the tribal autonomy and drive out the British from this region.
  • Like the modern Robin Hood, he started plundering the English treasury and distributing it among the poor and needy.
  • Tilka Manjhi led a guerilla war from the hills of Sultanganj. The hero of the British army, who was killed by Tilka Manjhi's arrow was Augustine Cleveland.
  • 1785: Tilka Manjhi was arrested by fraud and hanged on a Banyan tree in Bhagalpur. That place is today famous as 'Baba Tilka Manjhi Chowk' in Bhagalpur.
  • The first rebel martyr of the Indian freedom struggle was - Tilka Manjhi.
  • Most importantly, women also participated in the Tilka Rebellion, while women started participating in the Indian national movement much later.

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Tamar Revolt (1782- 1820): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Tamar Revolt (1782-1820)

Causes of Rebellion:

The revolt waged by the Munda tribesmen in the last quarter of the 18th century by making Tamar the main center of Chotanagpur is called the 'Tamar Rebellion'

The Company's policy of instigating outsiders and the atrocities of the Nagavanshi rulers were the root causes of this rebellion. The Munda tribals in Tamar were stricken by the tyranny of the Company government. The policies of the company paved the way for outsiders to come here and make them comfortable. On the other hand, they were feeling suffocated due to the tyranny and exploitation of the Nagavanshi rulers of Chotanagpur Khas.

Tamar Revolt (1782- 1820): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS


Form of Rebellion:

1782: Gradually the rebels of Ramgarh, Panchet, and Birbhum started gathering in Tamar. They also started robbing the merchants. The Nagavanshi ruler attacked Tamar to suppress the rebels. This further fueled the rebellion. 

1782: The rebels also get the support of some landlords. Finally, Major James Crawford entered Tamar in December 1783 and forced the rebels to surrender. Peace prevailed in Tamar for the next five (5) years.

1789: The rebellion broke out again in Tamar. Under the leadership of Vishnu Manki and Mauji Manki, 3000 Mundas refused to pay taxes. Captain Hogan was sent to suppress the rebels, but he failed. After this, Lieutenant Cooper was sent. Cooper suppressed the rebels in early July 1789 AD. Tamar remained calm for the next four (4) years.

1794: In November, the rebellion broke out again in Tamar, which became difficult for the British to suppress.

1796: Raja Narendra Shahi of Rahe sided with the British. When the king and his soldiers went to Sonahatu, they were attacked by the villagers. When Captain B. Ben learns that the tribals are opposing Narendra Shahi, he is removed. In 1796, this rebellion took a widespread form. 

All tribals and zamindars of Tamar, Silli, Sonahatu and Rahe jumped into it. 

Prominent leaders of the rebels were;

  • Thakur Bholanath Singh - Tamar
  • Thakur Vishwanath Singh- Silli
  • Thakur Harinath Singh- Vishunpur
  • Thakur Shivnath Singh- Bundu
  • Ram Shahi Munda- Tribal leader
  • Thakur Das Munda- nephew of Ram Shahi Munda.

The relatives of Narendra Shahi of Rahe were killed, but Narendra Shahi himself managed to escape. 

1798: In April, Captain Lemond successes in capturing the major rebel leaders of Tamar. Bholanath Singh, the most powerful of the rebels, was arrested by Captain Ben. The Tamar rebellion spontaneously disintegrated after the arrested of the leaders.

Key Fact of Tamar Rebellion:

  • This rebellion started in 1782 against the exploitation of the landlords by the Oraon tribe of Chotanagpur, which lasted till 1794. This rebellion started under the leadership of Thakur Bholanath Singh. This is famous in history as the 'Tamar Rebellion'.
  • 1809: the British arranged a Zamindari police force to establish peace in Chotanagpur but to no avail. Because again in 1807, 1811, 1817, and 1820 the Munda and Oraon tribes raised their voice against the landlords and Dikus.
  • 1807: the Mundas revolted under the leadership of Dukh Manki of Tamar and in 1819-20, under the leadership of Rugu and Konta.

Tamar Revolt (1782- 1820)

Previous Page:Ghatwal Revolt (1772- 1773): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

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Ghatwal Revolt (1772- 1773): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Ghatwal Revolt (1772-1773)

Ghatwal: the one who collected revenue from the Ghats (paths) of the hills was called 'Ghatwal'.

1772: In 1772 AD, the revolt by the Ghatwals of the Hazaribagh especially Ramgarh state against the British is called the 'Ghatwal Rebellion'. This rebellion was a protest against the mistreatment of the British towards their king.

Ghatwal Revolt (1772- 1773): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS

Causes of Revolt:

When one of the King's relatives Tej Singh expressed his authority over the kingdom of Ramgarh Naresh Mukund Singh, the British supported Tej Singh. Mukund Singh was simultaneously attacked by British Captain Jacob Camac from the South (S) side and Tej Singh from the North (N) side. Fearing to be taken prisoner, Mukund Singh ran away. Since Ghatwals was a loyal ryot of Mukund Singh, they revolted. 

The Ghatwal of Andragarba Valley met Loranga and the Ghatwals of Dunguna Valley started opposing Captain Jacob Camac.

In this rebellion, the ryot of Champa state also supported Ramgarh Naresh Mukund Singh. The special thing about this rebellion was that it did not face any war-like situation.

Seeing the organization of Ghatwals, a situation of war had arisen, but after persuasion by the British they calmed down. When the Ghatwals and Ryots felt that Mukund Singh could not become the king again at any cost, they also left him and started their respective business. 

Thus, the protest ended without creating any explosive situation. Later the British provided many concessions to the Ghatwals.

Ghatwal Revolt (1772- 1773)

Previous Page:Paharia Revolt (1772- 1782): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS

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