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Thursday, October 1, 2020

Paris Agreement (COP 21) - UPSC

 Paris Agreement (COP 21)

  • The Paris Agreement on post-2020 actions on climate change will succeed the Kyoto Protocol.
  • It provides a framework for all countries to take action against climate change.
  • Placing significance on concepts like climate justice & sustainable lifestyles, the Paris Agreement for the first time brings together all nations for a common cause under the UNFCCC.
  • One of the main focus of the agreement is to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2C above pre-industrial level & on driving efforts to limit it even further to 1.50 C.
  • The agreement comprises of 29 articles & is supported by 139 decisions of the COP.
  • The crucial areas are identified as essential for a comprehensive & balanced agreement, including mitigation, adaptation, loss & damage, finance, technology, development & transfer, capacity building & transparency of action & support.

Salient Features of the Agreement:

  • It acknowledges the development imperatives of developing countries by recognizing their right to development & their efforts to harmonize it with the environment while protecting the interests of the most vulnerable.
  • It follows to enhance the 'implementation of the Convention' while reflecting the principles of equity & CBDR-RC (Common but Differentiated Responsibilities & Respective Capabilities), in the light of different national circumstances.
  • Countries are required to communicate to the UNFCCC climate action plans known as nationally determined contributions (NDC) every five years. Each Party's successive NDC will represent a progression beyond the Party's then-current NDC thereby steadily increasing global effort & ambition in the long-term.
  • Developed countries are encouraged to scale up their level of financial support with a complete road map towards achieving the goal of jointly providing US$ 100 billion by 2020.
  • At the same time, a new collective quantified goal based on US$ 100 billion floors will be set before 2025.
  • Develop countries are encouraged to take the lead in the mobilization of climate finance while noting the significant role of public funds in the mobilization of finance which should represent a progression beyond their previous effort.
  • It includes a robust transparency framework for both action & support.
  • Starting in 2030, a global stock-take covering all elements will take place every five years to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of the Agreement & its long-term goals.
  • It establishes a compliance mechanism, overscreens by a committee of experts that operates in a non-punitive way, and is facilitative in nature.



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