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Thursday, October 8, 2020

Environmental Management - UPSC

 Environmental Management

Our Natural Resources are limited and won't unlimited. The judicious utilization of natural resources is imperative to make them sustainable. There is, thus, a need for conservation of resources. Conservation of environment (resources) means to use the resources in such a way so that the present generation may fulfill its needs without compromising the needs of future generations. 

The main objectives of conservation are:

(i.) to maintain the resilience characteristics of the ecosystem.

(ii.) to prepare the biodiversity

(iii.) to enhance the sustainability of the environment.

Some of the measures which may go long in achieving these objectives have been given briefly here:

Forest Conservation

Fig: Forest Conservation

  • Forest resources are renewable but not inexhaustible. 
  • The rate of forest removal and they're complete by cutting and burning has been accentuated during the last few decades after Independence. 
  • About four thousand years back, the Indo-Gangetic Plain was under thick forest cover, but now hardly any forest is found in this physiographic fertile region. 
  • The rapid urbanization & industrialization during the Post-Independence period, the requirements for construction of houses, railway sleepers, paper and timber, fuel-wood, and furniture, have degraded the Indian forests significantly. 
  • Moreover, forest fires and shifting cultivation have converted many of the lush green tacts into ecological slums.
The following steps are needed to keep the forests in a healthy and regenerative condition:


Fig: Agri-Silvi-pastoral systems
  • The cultivable waste, village community land, and degraded forest need to be brought under social forestry.
  • Every tree cut must be replaced by a new tree. For this purpose, incentives should be given to rural females and youths.
  • The forest can be conserved by adopting better harvesting techniques. Only the mature trees are cut.
  • Simultaneously, there is a need to reduce wastage. The waste paper could be recycled.
  • Protection of forests from natural hazards such as large-scale fires, insects, and diseases need immediate attention.
  • Over-grazing should be prevented in forest areas.
  • There should be more areas marked as reserved forests, national parks, and biosphere reserves.
  • Agri-silviculture and Agri-Silvi-pastoral systems should be encouraged.
  • Scientific rotation of crops can make the agricultural land more sustainable.

  • Recycling of metallic minerals should be encouraged.

  • Mass awareness is required to keep the environment in a sound condition.



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