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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Saturday, September 11, 2021

British Law in India before 1857 - JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

British Law in India before 1857

After the victory in the Battle of Plassey (1757), the Company made the imperialist expansion and consolidation of the Company in India by two-pronged methods;

  • Policy of amalgamation through diplomatic and administrative machinery.

Under the first policy, the company defeated big Indian powers like Bengal, Mysore, Maratha, and Sikh one by one and subjugated their empire. But to subjugate other princely states and princely states, he adopted three major diplomatic and administrative policies-

British Law in India before 1857

  • Warren Hasting's Ring Fence Policy
  • Wellesley Subsidiary Treaty
  • Dalhousie's Lapse Principle.

Policy of Ring Fence: The purpose of this policy was to protect the company's borders by creating a buffer zone. In these policies, the states included within the 'ring fence' were assured of military assistance against external aggregation, at their own expense.

Subsidiary Alliance: It was a type of friendship treaty Lord Wellesley used during 1798-1805 to establish relations with the native states. According to the rulers of this treaty, the company will decide the foreign relations of the Indian kings. The big states would keep the British army in their state at their own expense. Those states would have to have an English resident in their court. The company will protect the state from external enemies but will not interfere in the internal affairs of the state.

With this treaty, the independence of Indian states ended, the economic burden increased and they became dependent on the mercy of the British. But, the British benefited immensely from this.

Principle of Lapse: It is also called the 'Policy of Peaceful Merger'. It was used by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor-General of India from 1848-1856 AD. Dalhousie believed that the problems of the subjects increased due to the old system of administration by false princely states and artificial intermediary powers. Therefore, to remove the problems of the public, these princely and intermediary powers should be under the company. Based on this arbitrary logic, he annexed the following states in their Company;

This policy of Dalhousie caused intense discontent among the Indian princely states, which became a major cause of the Revolt of 1857.

In this way, the Company, due to its power, diplomacy, and efficiency of administrative machinery, subjugated most of the Indian territory and established the supremacy of the Company.

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Thursday, September 9, 2021

Major Forts/ Historical Places of Jharkhand- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Major Forts/Historical Places of Jharkhand

1. Palamu Fort, near Betla National Park: This fort is 5 km from Betla National Park in the Latehar district. It is situated on the distant Auranga River. It was built by the Cherovanshi rulers in their capital city Palamu. There are two (2) forts here- the old fort and the new fort. These two forts are jointly known as Palamu Fort. These two forts were considered impregnable in their time. There is no difference of many days between the construction of the old and new fort. 

  • Old Fort- it was built by the Cherovanshi ruler Pratap Rai (a contemporary of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan). 
  • New Fort- it was built by the  Cherovanshi ruler Medini Rai, 1658-74 AD (a contemporary of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb).

The 'Nagpuri Darwaza' (Nagpuri Gate) of the new fort is visible due to its attractive architectural style. The height of the doo is 40 feet (12 m) and the width is 15 feet (4.5 m). The remains of 4 two-storeyed palaces, several temples, and one mosque have three domes and were built in 1661 AD by Dawood Khan, the then Mughal Subedar of Bihar, after the Palamu conquest.

Major Forts Historical Places of Jharkhand- JPSC JSSC PSC

2. Narayanpur Fort, Nawagarh (Latehar)This fort is 8 km from Latehar in the Latehar district located in far south Nawagarh. It was built by Jaj Das, the accountant of Cherovanshi ruler Bhagwat Rai.

3. Shahpur Chandani, Medininagar (Palamu)Actually, this is the name of a fort. It is situated in the Palamu district from Daltonganj to the west south bank of the Koel River. This fort was built by the Cherovanshi ruler Gopal Rai in 1772 AD.

4. Bishrampur Fort, Bishrampur (Palamu): This fort is built by the Cherovanshi ruler of Bishrampur. There is a temple near the fort. It took about 9 years to build the fort and the temple.

5. Chainpur Palace (Palamu): This palace is situated on the banks of the Koel river in Medininagar (former name-Daltonganj), the headquarter of the Palamu district. This palace was built by the descendants of the Rajput Diwan Pooranamal of the Chero king. 

6. Rohila Fort, Alinagar (Palamu): This fort is 10 km from Japla in Palamu district located away in Alinagar. Since this fort was built by Rohila Sardar Muzaffar Khan, hence it is known as 'Fort of Rohillas'. This fort is triangular in shape.

7. Kunda Fort, Kunda (Chatra): This fort is situated in Kunda of Chatra district. It was built by the Cherovanshi royal family.

8. Raj Bhavan of Nagfeni, Nagfenigaon (Gumla): This Raj Bhawan is located in Nagfeni village of Sisai police station in Gumla district. The construction of this Raj Bhawan started around 1704 AD but could not be completed. A king was building a palace here, but he died before the palace could be built. Although a picture of the king, his seven queens, and a dog is found on a stone here, the identity of this king has not yet been identified. A historian has described Nagfeni as the 'City of Serpants'.

9. Navratnaragh/ Doisagarh, Nagargram (Gumla): This palace is situated near Nagargram in the Gumla district. This palace was built by Nagvanshi king Durjanshal when his capital was Doisa. Based on historical evidence (like Ranchi, Gazetteer, etc.), this palace was originally five-storeyed, and each floor had 9 rooms. Now only 3 floors are left. Although there is a public opinion that this palace was 9 storeyed, out of which 6 floors got submerged in the ground. The center of special attraction of this palace is its 'treasury house'. The entire palace is surrounded by jagged walls in the Kangura style.

10. Tilma Fort, Tilma village (Khunti): This fort is located in the Tilma village of Karra block of Khunti district. This fort was built in 1737 AD by a Nagavanshi Thakur (feudal) named Akbar to attain salvation.

11. The Palace of Palkot, Palkot (Gumla): This palace is located in Palkot of Gumla district. Nagavanshi ruler Yadunath Shah (1715-24 AD) made Palkot his capital in place of Doisa and built many buildings here. One of these palaces remains the palace of Palkot and the rest has turned into ruins. This palace is considered important from an architectural point of view.

12. Ratu Palace, Ratu (Ranchi): This palace was built by Nagvanshi Maharaj Udai Pratap Nath Shahdeo in 1900. The Nagvanshi ruler shifted his capital from Palkot to Ranchi in 1870. The vastness of this palace is visible.

13. Kesnagarh Fort, Kesnagarh (West Singhbhum): This fort is situated at Kesnagarh, south-east of Chaibasa in Singhbhum district.

14. Jagannathpur Fort, Jagannathpur (West Singhbhum): This fort is 38 km from Chaibasa in West Singhbhum. It was built by Porhat king Jagannath Singh.

15. Jaintgarh Fort, Jaintgarh (West Singhbhum): This fort is 55 km from Chaibasa in West Singhbhum. It is situated in Jaintgarh on the bank of the Dakshin Vaitarni river. It was built by Porhat king Kala Arjun Singh.

16. Rajwadi of Chakradharpur, Chakradharpur (West Singhbhum): This Rajwadi is located in Chakradharpur of West Singhbhum. It was built by Narpati Singh (son of Raja Arjun Singh) during 1910-20 AD. This Rajwadi is built of bricks. The Rangmahal of this palace with a structure of three floors is famous for its beauty. Later it was sold by Shashank Manjari, daughter of Raja Narpati Singh.

17. Teliagarh Rajmahal Hill (Sahebganj): This history-famous fort is situated on Rajmahal hill, Sahebganj. It was called 'the entrance of Bengal'. The Sur ruler Sher Shah defeated the Sultan of Bengal Ghiyasuddin Mahmud here in 1535 AD. Now, this fort has become a ruin and only one wall is left on it.

18. Panchkot Fort, Panchet Pahar (Dhanbad): This fort is situated at a distance of 16 km from Barakar in the Dhanbad district. It is situated on the south-eastern slope of the distant Panchet mountain. It was built by Govanshi Naresh Gomukhi of Panchet. Due to being surrounded by five Kotas (walls), this fort was named 'Panchkot'.

19. Jharigarh Palace, Jharia (Dhanbad): This palace is located in the Dhanbad district. It was built by the Jharia king in his capital Jhariagarh. Jharia king has also built some palaces in his headquarters, Katrasgarh, whose remains are found.

20. Ramgarh Fort (Ramgarh): This fort is located in Ramgarh of Ramgarh district. It was built by Ramgarh Naresh Sabal Rai. The architecture of this fort is influenced by the Mughal style.

21. Badam Fort (Hazaribagh): This fort is 32 km from Hazaribagh town in Hazaribagh district. Nestled in the southwest is located in Badam. It was built by Ramgarh Naresh Hemant Singh in 1642 AD. Hemant Singh has also built a Shiva temple here.

22. Padma's Fort, Padma (Hazaribagh): This fort is situated on the banks of the National Highway (NH-33) in Hazaribagh district at a place called the Padma. It was built by the Maharaja of Padma. Currently, this fort has been made a Police Training Center by the State Government.

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Tuesday, September 7, 2021

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand

With the Champaran (Bihar) Satyagraha in the year 1917, Mahatma Gandhi took an active step in Indian politics and was completely dominated by it till 1947. That is why it is called the 'Gandhi Era'. 

Abul Kalam Azad was under house arrest in Ranchi: [31 March 1916 - 31 December 1919]

The British government had ordered the detention of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in connection with the Home Rule Movement. To comply with the government order, when Maulana Azad reached Ranchi from Calcutta in April 1916, there was a crowd of visitors at the station. He was taken to the Dak Bungalow by Phaeton. After 10 days they started living in Morabadi. From there he used to go to the Jama Masjid in Upper Bazar to offer Namaz. A few days later, Maulana Azad moved from Morabadi to a rented house near Jama Masjid. People wore black badges at the behest of Maulana Azad to protest against the official celebration of Turkey's defeat in World War I (1914-18). On July 8, 1916, he was alerted and asked to attend the police station daily. In this sequence, he tried to break the wall of untouchability in Ranchi. Maulana Azad laid the foundation of Anjuman Islamia, Ranchi and Madarsa Islamia, Ranchi in August, 1917. By selling the press, he also invested his money in the madrasa.

The government ordered Maulana Azad to go to Morabadi again and the restrictions on him were increased. Still, people like Ghazanfar Mirza, Mohammad Ali, Dr. Purna Chandra Mitra, Devaki Nandan Prasad, Gulab Tiwari, and Nagarmal Modi continued to closely resemble him. But when Gandhiji came to Patna and sought permission to meet Maulana Azad, who was under house arrest in Ranchi, the government did not allow him to meet. Maulana Azad was released on completion of his period of detention. On January 3, 1920, Maulana Azad left Ranchi for Calcutta.

Gandhi Era and Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Mahatma Gandhi's stay in Ranchi: [3-6 June, 5-11 July, 22 September-4 October 1917]

Shyam Krishna Sahai was in London in the year 1917. There he invited Gandhiji to come to Ranchi. Gandhiji came to Ranchi for the first time in June 1917. He had reached Ranchi from Motihari in Bihar in connection with Champaran Satyagraha. After coming here, he stayed with Shyam Krishna Sahay. Along with it was Braj Kishore Babu. He met the Lieutenant Governor of Bihar, Edward Albert Gate, at the Raj Bhawan in Ranchi. The outline of the Champaran movement was prepared by staying in Ranchi. After several meetings, Gandhiji signed his report on October 3, 1917, challenging the government. On October 4, 1917, left Ranchi for Champaran. In this way, the people of Jharkhand had long-term contact with Gandhiji. He was accompanied by his wife Kasturba Gandhi, and son Devdas Gandhi. The people of Jharkhand were highly impressed by Gandhiji's simplicity and his principles and agreed to participate in the Indian independence movement.

Anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha: [1919 AD]

The Rowlett Act was passed on March 21, 1919, based on the report of the Sedition Committee headed by Justice Sidney Rowlett to curb seditious activities in India. This was called the 'Black Law'. Since there was no trial against this law, it was said 'no appeal, no lawyer, no plea'. Countryside strikes and public meetings were organized against this law. 

As far as Jharkhand is concerned, the wave of anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha spread in Jharkhand too. In Ranchi, it was led by Bareshwar Sahai and Gulab Tiwari. Ramdin Pandey, the teacher of the Zila School in Palamu, observed a fast on April 6,1919, along with his six students. In Jamshedpur and Chaibasa also some people celebrated protest day. Due to the widespread violence, Mahatma Gandhi suspended the anti-Rowlett Act Satyagraha on April 18, 1919. Thus ended this Satyagraha.

Establishment of District Congress Committees: [1919-20 AD]

Gradually the campaign of Congress increased in Jharkhand and Congress committees started being established in the districts. In the year 1919, Bindeshwari Pathak and Bhagwat Pandey established the Palamu District Congress Committee. District Congress Committee was established in Ranchi and Hazaribagh in 1920 AD.

Calcutta Session of Congress (Special Session): [September 1920]

In September 1920, the special session of the All India National Congress (AINC) was held in Calcutta. It was presided over by Lala Lajpat Rai. Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the leader of the nation from this convention. The representatives of Jharkhand who came to participate in the convention urged Mahatma Gandhi to declare Jharkhand as an independent. To this Mahatma Gandhi replied with one line- 'Sow cotton, spin the spinning wheel, Chotanagpur will be free'. In the Calcutta session itself, the epoch-making and important non-cooperation resolution was passed for the first time, which was confirmed in the Nagpur session of the Congress annual session (December 1920 AD).

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Monday, September 6, 2021

Mughal Era Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Mughal Era Jharkhand: Jharkhand History

Mughal Era Jharkhand

Mughal Administrator: The number of small and big states in Jharkhand increased further during the Mughal period. The biggest change was that after defeating the Raxales, the Chero established a new kingdom in Palamu. Yet Jharkhand was spared from Muslim encroachment. Ultimately, Sher Khan paved the way for the entry of Muslims into it. Sher Shah had got the right over Rohtasgarh in 1538 AD. But when he lived in a military campaign or was in trouble, the Chero people would come out of the jungles of Jharkhand to persecute the peasants and plunder with travelers on the way to Bengal, or sometimes even in the army camps of Sher Shah screaming. Therefore, Sher Shah needed to suppress them. In the course of Sher Shah's struggle with the Mughals, this area was his shelter. So he was understanding the importance of this area.

Babur-Humayun Era Jharkhand:

During the reign of Mughal emperors Babur (1526-30 AD) and Humayun (1530-40 AD), Jharkhand was out of their sphere of influence, so the regional kings of Jharkhand continued to rule without any external interference. Since Babur had established the Mughal dynasty by overthrowing the Afghans while living in Bihar-Bengal were trying to gather power again and compete with the Mughals. Thus during the reign of Babur and Humayun, Jharkhand became a haven for the anti-Mughal Afghans. Humayun had entered Bhurkunda (Hazaribagh) on one occasion during the Mughal-Afghan conflict. Humayun's greatest enemy Sher Shah used this area several times in the Mughal-Afghan conflict (1530-40 AD).

Akbar's reign:

In the year 303 (1585 AD) of the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the first military conflict of the Mughals with Jharkhand started. The only thing that happened in the preceding 45 years was that under pressure from the Mughals, the Afghan rebels would take shelter in the forests here and reach Jharkhand in pursuit of the Mughals. During the reign of Akbar, there were three (3) major ruling dynasties in Jharkhand:

During Akbar's time, the Mughal paid attention to this region for political, strategic, and economic reasons. With the possession of this area, the problem of elephants was removed for the Mughal army. Probably diamonds were also obtained from the Sankh river in this region. In 1585 AD, the Mughal army invaded this region. At this time the king of Kokrah was Madhukaran Shah. It seems that he was also taken captive and presented in the royal court, where because of his humble nature, the emperor again sent him to Kokrah. Thus by end of the 16th century, the neutrality of Kokrah had been broken and the region had come under the control of Mughals and had to pay annual taxes to them. The biggest thing was that the king here had become a trusted subordinate of the Mughals, as is evident from the help given by him to the Mughals during the Orissa campaign. Like Kokrah, the Singh dynasty kings of Singhbhum also became accomplices of the Mughals. By 1589 AD, under the leadership of Man Singh, Chero was also defeated and made a part of the empire. 

Mughal Era Jharkhand

Jahangir's reign:

During the reign of Jahangir, a completely new era began in the history of Mughal-Jharkhand relations. Especially in the context of Mughal-Nagvanshi and Mughal-Chero. Jahangir was also aware of the subject of diamonds found in Jharkhand. He has mentioned this in his autobiography Tajuk-e-Jahangir

During the time of Jahangir, the rule of Kokrah was in hands of Durjan Sal. He also stopped paying annual taxes to the Mughal court. Therefore, disciplinary action was necessary against him. In 1615, Ibrahim Khan attacked Kokrah and presented the Durjan Sal as a prisoner to the royal court. From there he was sent to the Gwalior Fort after being sentenced to 12 years of imprisonment. Along with the Durjan Sal, some of his family members and kings were also prisoners. After this victory, Ibrahim Khan presented some diamonds and elephants to the royal court. Jahangir was deeply interested in the diamonds that could be obtained from this region. It is said that once a purple-colored diamond was found in this area. The emperor wanted complete information about the purity of the diamond. He did not know that Durjan Sal is a very good connoisseur of diamonds. This quality of Durjan Sal became the means of liberation from his prisoner life. Durjan Sal, at the behest of the emperor, checked the purity of the diamond and told it to be pure. The emperor was pleased with him and returned him to his kingdom. Permission was given to the wicked that if he had any demand, he could put it before the emperor. He made two (2) demands;

  • Rajagan and his family members who were imprisoned in Gwalior Fort should be freed.

The emperor accepted both the above demands. Durjan Sal also agreed to pay 6,000 annual taxes and the Patta of his kingdom was given to him by the emperor.

In the time of Jahangir, there is a mention of the rule of two Chero kings in Palamu. But they are not mentioned in any Persian source other than the Chero Geneology of Jahangir. At the time of Jahangir, the Bishnupur of Manbhum was occupied by the Mughals. According to Baharistan-e-Gawi, the Subedar Islam Khan of Bengal attacked Veer Hammir, the zamindar of Panchet with the help of Subedar Afzal Khan of Bihar and zamindars under him. Without resistance, he surrendered to the commander of the invading army, Sheikh Kalam. There is a lack of specific information about other states during the period of Jahangir.

Shah Jahan's reign:

By the beginning of the Shah Jahan's reign, the Mughals were fully acquainted with Chotanagpur. They were also now taking a keen interest in the internal matter of this region and were making every effort to establish their dominance over the residents here. Even now the Mughals had a deep connection with only two parts of this region- Kokrah and Palamu. 

In the first phase of Shah Jahan's reign, the ruler of this place was Durjan Sal. Durjan Sal ruled Kokrah for about 13 years after being freed from captivity. On his return here, he made Doisa a more strategically secure place in place of his capital Khukhra and it was decorated with many beautiful buildings. Surrounded by hills on three sides and the South Koel River on one side, the Doisa was often formidable to the enemies. There is a clear influence of Mughal architecture in the construction of the buildings established in Doisa, in which the palace of Durjan Sal, Navratgarh, or Navratnagarh is most important. It was five-storeyed but only three stories remain. After the death of Durjan Sal, Raghunath Shah probably became the ruler, and even during his period, the Mughal Nagvanshi relations remained cordial. By the end of Shah Jahan's reign, the seclusion of Kokrah had come to an end and it was now associated with the life of the people of North India. The Nagvanshi rulers were now adopting cultured administrative and architectural traditions from the border states. In this way, new concepts of power and culture developed in the forest zone.

Although even during the time of Shah Jahan, the reason for the interest of the Mughals in this area was diamond. During the reign of Shah Jahan, the Chero and Mughal relations of Palamu became more visible. In fact from this time of history of Palamu seems orderly and authentic. Probably at this time also the Chero rulers remained under the control of the Mughal rulers for a few days. Pratap Rai was the ruler of Chero during the reign of Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan appointed it a Hazari Mansabdar. The kings of the Singh dynasty of Singhbhum had close contacts with Mughals. It was during Shah Jahan's time that he agreed to pay regular annual taxes to the Mughals. There is a lack of clear information on the relations of Shah Jahan with the Manbhum (present-day Singhbhum, Dhanbad, and Hazaribagh) region.

Aurangzeb's reign:

During the reign of Aurangzeb, Jharkhand was also a victim of his imperialist mentality like other parts of India. During his time he established closer relations with the region. Also, areas like Manbhum and Singhbhum, which were almost untouched till then, were now forced to pay annual taxes. During the reign of Aurangzeb, Raghunath Shah, the Nagvanshi king of Korah, ruled for the most part. He was a man of extreme religious and charitable nature. His religious teacher was Harinath. It is said that on one occasion Raghunath donated his entire kingdom to Harinath. When Guru Harinath refused to accept such a huge donation, Raghunath declared that he was Harinath's slave and he (Raghunath) too the name of Guru. The word 'Nath' was added to his name. All subsequent Nagavanshi kings began to include the words 'Shah' and 'Nath' in their names (the first given by the Mughal emperor Akbar and the second given by Guru Harinath). Raghunath decorated his capital Doisa with many buildings and public utilities and also got many temples built here. Jagannath Temple is the most notable among these temples. Two inscriptions engraved on the wall of this temple show that it was built in 1682 AD during the reign of Raghunath Shah. Raghunath Shah built the 'Madan Mohan Temple' at a place called Boreya. The 'Ram Sita Mandir' was built in Chutiya by Hari Brahmachari. During the reign of Raghunath Shah, it appears from architectural works that the kingdom of Kokrah was internally prosperous. There was only one invasion of the Mughals during his period. Chero (Palamu) ruler Medini Rai attacked Kokrah and plundered the capital. Apart from the property looted from here, there was also a huge stone gate, which was installed by Medini Rai in the 'New Fort' of Palamu, which is still famous as 'Nagpur-Darwaja'

Ram Shah became the ruler after the death of Raghunath Shah. Even at this time, the Mughal-Nagvanshi relations were cordial.

In the year of Aurangzeb's rule, the Chero king of Palamu was Medini Rai. He ruled from 1658 AD to 1674 AD. Perhaps initially he accepted Mughal authority, but he took full advantage of the succession battle of Shah Jahan's sons. The Chero had returned to their traditional anti-Mughal policy and started plundering and attacking the Mughal territories because of their safe haven. In fact, this free-loving caste did not accept even the nominal suzerainty of the Mughals. He not only stopped paying taxes to the Mughals' territories. This was the situation for an imperialist ruler like Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb ordered Dawood Khan, the Subedar of Bihar, to attack Palamu and collect taxes from the Chero king. He also ordered many jagirdars and faujdars of Bihar to help in this campaign of Dawood. As a result, a long military campaign started against the Chero ruler of Palamu on 23 April 1660 which lasted till December 1660. Ultimately the Chero was defeated by Medini Rai fled. The Palamu conquest was an important milestone in Dawood's military life. In this campaign, he displayed tactical skill, quick decision power, and leadership. In this memory of the Palamu victory, Dawood built a mosque in Palamu's Purana Quila in 1662 AD. While returning from there, Dawood Khan took the 'Singh Darwaza' of Palamu Fort with him and got it installed in his fort at Dawoodnagar.

After the Palamu conquest, Mankali Khan was appointed as Faujdar there, which lasted till 1666 AD. After the transfer of Mankali Khan, the administration there came into the hands of the Subedar of Bihar. After being defeated by Dawood, Medini Rai fled to Sarguja and returned to Palamu again after the departure of Mankali Khan and took control of his lost kingdom. Medini Rai has been called the 'Nyasi Raja'. He soon brought Palamu out of poverty and brought him to the pinnacle of prosperity. It seems that keeping in mind the improved condition of Palamu under him, the Mughals allowed Palamu to remain under him. Even today, Palamu people remember Medini Rai's reign as the 'Golden age of Chero rule'. Even after Medini Rai was restored to the throne of Palamu, Aurangzeb did not stop taking interest in this area and here the Mughals remained nominally sovereign.

Aurangzeb does not seem to have had any special influence on the territories included in the present Hazaribagh, Singhbhum, and Manbhum districts. At that time there were five major kingdoms in the Hazaribagh region. During the time of Aurangzeb, Dhanbad and Purulia districts remained largely outside the Mughal influence. These were only two areas in the whole of Chotanagpur, which were completely spared from Muslim invasions. At the time of Aurangzeb sitting on the throne, the Panchet kingdom regularly paid taxes to the Mughals. Porhat of Singhbhum was ruled by his contemporary king Mahipal at the time of Aurangzeb, but there is no evidence of Aurangzeb's sovereignty over it because the geographical position here was such that Singhbhum could never be included in Aurangzeb's empire and Porhat's Singh-king maintained their independence.

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Sunday, September 5, 2021

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History

In general, during the Sultanate period, Muslims entered Jharkhand only while pursuing their enemies or while going to Bengal-Orissa or returning from there. During the Sultanate period, there were sporadic external attacks on Jharkhand. Despite these external invasions, Jharkhand always remained independent during the Sultanate period. 

Invasion of Singhbhum by the Raja of Birbhum (West Bengal), the invasion of Hazaribagh (1340 AD) by Malik Baya, the commander of the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and the invasion of Santhal Pargana by Kapilendra Gajapati (1435-70 AD) of Orissa had no lasting effect. Thus, if these sporadic external attacks on Jharkhand are quelled, then the independent power of Jharkhand remained intact throughout the Sultanate period and the kings here continued to rule without any external interference.

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

In 1202-03 AD, Qutbuddin Aibak's general Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked South Bihar and destroyed and corrupted Udantapuri, Nalanda, and Vikramshila universities and caused heavy bloodshed. As a result, non-Muslim people started taking refuge in Jharkhand to save their lives. In this way, new ethnic elements were incorporated in Jharkhand. During these invasions, Bakhtiyar came to know about the routes to reach Bengal which passed through Jharkhand. He attacked Nadia, the capital of the Sen dynasty ruler of Bengal, Lakshman Sen, passing through Jharkhand in 1204-05 AD.

Ghulam Dynasty Jharkhand (1206-90 AD):

During the time of Sultans Iltutmish (1211-36 AD) and Balban (1265-86 AD) of the Adi Turk slave dynasty, the turmoil in South Bihar had little effect on Jharkhand, because it is reported that Nagavanshi the ruler Harikarna continued to run his kingdom efficiently.

Khilji Dynasty Jharkhand (1290-1320 AD):

Chhajju Malik, the commander of Sultan Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD) of the Khilji dynasty, forced the Nagavanshi ruler to pay taxes (1310 AD).

Tughlaq Dynasty Jharkhand (1320-1412 AD):

Malik Beya, the commander of the Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51 AD) of the Tughlaq dynasty, had reached Chai Champa in the Hazaribagh area. Whereas, according to the Santhali source, this invasion took place in 1340 AD under the leadership of Ibrahim Ali. Ibrahim Ali captured the fort of Bigha, as a result, the Santhals of the place escaped with their chieftain for their lives. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's successor Firoz Tughlaq (1351-88 AD) defeated Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah of Bengal in a battle for supremacy and conquered a large area in the Satgaon area of Hazaribagh and made Satgaon the capital of his conquered region in (1359-60 AD). But Firoz Tughlaq and his successor could not advance beyond Satgaon, in Chotanagpur Khas, and the Nagvanshi ruler there remained a powerful ruler.

Sayyid Dynasty Jharkhand (1412-51 AD):

The Sultan of the Sayyid dynasty, the successor dynasty of the Tughlaq dynasty, did not interfere in Jharkhand.

Lodhi Dynasty Jharkhand (1451-1526 AD):

The Sultans of the Lodhi dynasty were relatively weak sultans and the influence of the Delhi Sultanate was reduced to a very small area, so they were not in a position to interfere in Jharkhand. The name of the Nagvansh kings who ruled Chotanagpur Khas during the time of Sultans of the Lodi dynasty was Pratap Karna, Chhatra Karna, and Virat Karna

Jharkhand was saved from the interference of the Lodi Sultans, but it had to face havoc with the Gajapati Dynasty of Orissa, a contemporary dynasty of the Lodi dynasty. Kapilendra Gajapati (1435-70 AD), who was the minister of the last Ganga king of Orissa, established a new dynasty in Orissa, the Gajapati dynasty. Under the leadership of Kapilendra Gajapati, the state of Orissa became a superpower of South-East India. He captured a large part of the Nagvanshi kingdom except for Santhal Pargana and Hazaribagh. Thus, the rule of Kapilendra Gajapati was established over some parts of Jharkhand.

Similarly, Adil Shah-I/ Adil Khan-II (1457-1501 AD) was an extremely powerful ruler of Khandesh. He had amassed immense power. He sent his army to Jharkhand and that is why he became famous as 'Jharkhandi Sultan' = king of the Jungle.

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Gupta and post-Gupta period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Gupta and Post-Gupta Period

Gupta Period:

After the fall of the Kushanas, powerful Guptas emerged in Prayag and Pataliputra. The greatest ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta (355-80 AD). The description of the strategic victories of Samudragupta is found in the Prayag Prashasti composed Harishena, the court poet of Samudragupta. One of these victories was the Atavik victory. The Aatvik region. Samudragupt defeated the ruler of the Atavik region and followed with him the 'Paricharakrit' policy (policy of making peon/ attendants). It is clear from this that during the reign of Samudragupta, the region of Jharkhand was under him.

Chotanagpur has been called 'Murund Desh' in the Prayag Prashati of Samudragupta.

The reign of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya (380-412 AD), the famous ruler of the Gupta dynasty, extended from Ujjain to Angal and which was also included Jharkhand called as 'Kukkutlad' by the Chinese traveler Fahian who came to India during the reign of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya.

Notable among the archaeological remains of the Gupta period is-

  • Temples around the village called Satgaon (Hazaribagh)
  • A well on a hill in Pithoriya is located north of the list.

Gupta and post-Gupta period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Post Gupta Period:

In the post-Gupta period (550-650 AD), the ruler of the Gaur (West Bengal) Shashanka (602-25 AD) was a great ruler. His empire included the forest province from Midnapore (West Bengal) to Sarguja (Chattisgarh). Cunnigham has described Bada Bazar and Hewitt as Dulmi as its capital. Shashank was a great Shiva worshiper. When Shshanka established his dominance over Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, he's started a persecution of Buddhists. 

Pressed by Harshavardhana from the west and Bhaskaravarnam from the east, he vacated his capital, Paundravardhana, and went to the hilly region of South Bihar. Now, the center of his power became Varunika, which these days is called Barun or Son East Bank. Shaivism Shashanka's idol-breaking ferocity was so great that he destroyed all the Buddhist centers of Jharkhand. In this way, due to his efforts, Hindusim established the primacy of Buddhism instead of Jainism in Jharkhand. By the 10th century AD, the dominance of Hinduism was fully established in Jharkhand. This is confirmed by the remains of temples built by Brahmins at Dulmi, Telkupi, Pakbira, etc. Most of these temples are Shaivites.

The vast empire of Harshavardhan (606-47 AD), the most powerful ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty (Vardhana dynasty), also included the small kingdom of Karjagal (Rajmahal). It was in Kazangal that Harshavardhan met the Chinese traveler Huan Tsang for the first time and was impressed by him. Later, both of them remained together for many years.

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Saturday, September 4, 2021

Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Maurya and Post-Maurya Period

Mauryan Period: 

  • Chandragupta Maurya (322 BC- 298 BC) established the Maurya dynasty in Magadha by defeating Dhananada, the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty, with the help of his guru Kautilya (other names Chanakya, Vishnugupta). The ruler of the Nanda dynasty were the masters of a huge army. The army of the Nandas included the tribal soldiers of Jharkhand as well as elephants. In fact, an important reason for Magadha's military success was the tribal element involved. Chandragupta Maurya, the destroyer of the Nanda dynasty and the founder of the Maurya dynasty, was familiar with the region of Jharkhand.
Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History
  • Kautilya in his book 'Arthashatra' has called this region Kukut/Kukutdesh. According to Kautilya, there was a republican system of government in Kukutdesh. To keep the tribes under control, using them in the interest of Magadha and preventing their alliance with the enemies of Magadha, an officer named 'Aatvik' was appointed.

  • Under 'Aatvik' there were other officers like 'Nagadhyaksha', 'Vanadhyaksha', 'Nagpal', 'Vanpal'. The trade route from Magadha to South India passed through Jharkhand. Therefore, Jharkhand had commercial importance. Kautilya has written that diamonds were obtained from the rivers of 'Indravanak'. Indravanak was probably the area of the rivers Inva and Shankh.

Post-Mauryan Period:

The most important thing of this period was:

  • The discovery of some coins of this period in the areas of Jharkhand gives an impression that the rulers of this period must have ruled in this area.
  • Coins of Roman emperors have been found in Singhbhum.
  • Indo-Scythian coins have been found in Chaibasa.
  • Coins of the first and second centuries of the Kushan period have been found in Ranchi, a Pura-Kushan coin of the third century has also been received from here. There is no king's name on these coins. 


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