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Education Marks Proper Humanity

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Education Marks Proper Humanity

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History

In general, during the Sultanate period, Muslims entered Jharkhand only while pursuing their enemies or while going to Bengal-Orissa or returning from there. During the Sultanate period, there were sporadic external attacks on Jharkhand. Despite these external invasions, Jharkhand always remained independent during the Sultanate period. 

Invasion of Singhbhum by the Raja of Birbhum (West Bengal), the invasion of Hazaribagh (1340 AD) by Malik Baya, the commander of the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and the invasion of Santhal Pargana by Kapilendra Gajapati (1435-70 AD) of Orissa had no lasting effect. Thus, if these sporadic external attacks on Jharkhand are quelled, then the independent power of Jharkhand remained intact throughout the Sultanate period and the kings here continued to rule without any external interference.

Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

In 1202-03 AD, Qutbuddin Aibak's general Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked South Bihar and destroyed and corrupted Udantapuri, Nalanda, and Vikramshila universities and caused heavy bloodshed. As a result, non-Muslim people started taking refuge in Jharkhand to save their lives. In this way, new ethnic elements were incorporated in Jharkhand. During these invasions, Bakhtiyar came to know about the routes to reach Bengal which passed through Jharkhand. He attacked Nadia, the capital of the Sen dynasty ruler of Bengal, Lakshman Sen, passing through Jharkhand in 1204-05 AD.

Ghulam Dynasty Jharkhand (1206-90 AD):

During the time of Sultans Iltutmish (1211-36 AD) and Balban (1265-86 AD) of the Adi Turk slave dynasty, the turmoil in South Bihar had little effect on Jharkhand, because it is reported that Nagavanshi the ruler Harikarna continued to run his kingdom efficiently.


Khilji Dynasty Jharkhand (1290-1320 AD):

Chhajju Malik, the commander of Sultan Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD) of the Khilji dynasty, forced the Nagavanshi ruler to pay taxes (1310 AD).


Tughlaq Dynasty Jharkhand (1320-1412 AD):

Malik Beya, the commander of the Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-51 AD) of the Tughlaq dynasty, had reached Chai Champa in the Hazaribagh area. Whereas, according to the Santhali source, this invasion took place in 1340 AD under the leadership of Ibrahim Ali. Ibrahim Ali captured the fort of Bigha, as a result, the Santhals of the place escaped with their chieftain for their lives. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's successor Firoz Tughlaq (1351-88 AD) defeated Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah of Bengal in a battle for supremacy and conquered a large area in the Satgaon area of Hazaribagh and made Satgaon the capital of his conquered region in (1359-60 AD). But Firoz Tughlaq and his successor could not advance beyond Satgaon, in Chotanagpur Khas, and the Nagvanshi ruler there remained a powerful ruler.


Sayyid Dynasty Jharkhand (1412-51 AD):

The Sultan of the Sayyid dynasty, the successor dynasty of the Tughlaq dynasty, did not interfere in Jharkhand.


Lodhi Dynasty Jharkhand (1451-1526 AD):

The Sultans of the Lodhi dynasty were relatively weak sultans and the influence of the Delhi Sultanate was reduced to a very small area, so they were not in a position to interfere in Jharkhand. The name of the Nagvansh kings who ruled Chotanagpur Khas during the time of Sultans of the Lodi dynasty was Pratap Karna, Chhatra Karna, and Virat Karna

Jharkhand was saved from the interference of the Lodi Sultans, but it had to face havoc with the Gajapati Dynasty of Orissa, a contemporary dynasty of the Lodi dynasty. Kapilendra Gajapati (1435-70 AD), who was the minister of the last Ganga king of Orissa, established a new dynasty in Orissa, the Gajapati dynasty. Under the leadership of Kapilendra Gajapati, the state of Orissa became a superpower of South-East India. He captured a large part of the Nagvanshi kingdom except for Santhal Pargana and Hazaribagh. Thus, the rule of Kapilendra Gajapati was established over some parts of Jharkhand.

Similarly, Adil Shah-I/ Adil Khan-II (1457-1501 AD) was an extremely powerful ruler of Khandesh. He had amassed immense power. He sent his army to Jharkhand and that is why he became famous as 'Jharkhandi Sultan' = king of the Jungle.

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Next Page:Mughal Era Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


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Gupta and post-Gupta period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Gupta and Post-Gupta Period

Gupta Period:

After the fall of the Kushanas, powerful Guptas emerged in Prayag and Pataliputra. The greatest ruler of the Gupta dynasty was Samudragupta (355-80 AD). The description of the strategic victories of Samudragupta is found in the Prayag Prashasti composed Harishena, the court poet of Samudragupta. One of these victories was the Atavik victory. The Aatvik region. Samudragupt defeated the ruler of the Atavik region and followed with him the 'Paricharakrit' policy (policy of making peon/ attendants). It is clear from this that during the reign of Samudragupta, the region of Jharkhand was under him.

Chotanagpur has been called 'Murund Desh' in the Prayag Prashati of Samudragupta.

The reign of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya (380-412 AD), the famous ruler of the Gupta dynasty, extended from Ujjain to Angal and which was also included Jharkhand called as 'Kukkutlad' by the Chinese traveler Fahian who came to India during the reign of Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya.

Notable among the archaeological remains of the Gupta period is-

  • Temples around the village called Satgaon (Hazaribagh)
  • A well on a hill in Pithoriya is located north of the list.

Gupta and post-Gupta period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Post Gupta Period:

In the post-Gupta period (550-650 AD), the ruler of the Gaur (West Bengal) Shashanka (602-25 AD) was a great ruler. His empire included the forest province from Midnapore (West Bengal) to Sarguja (Chattisgarh). Cunnigham has described Bada Bazar and Hewitt as Dulmi as its capital. Shashank was a great Shiva worshiper. When Shshanka established his dominance over Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, he's started a persecution of Buddhists. 

Pressed by Harshavardhana from the west and Bhaskaravarnam from the east, he vacated his capital, Paundravardhana, and went to the hilly region of South Bihar. Now, the center of his power became Varunika, which these days is called Barun or Son East Bank. Shaivism Shashanka's idol-breaking ferocity was so great that he destroyed all the Buddhist centers of Jharkhand. In this way, due to his efforts, Hindusim established the primacy of Buddhism instead of Jainism in Jharkhand. By the 10th century AD, the dominance of Hinduism was fully established in Jharkhand. This is confirmed by the remains of temples built by Brahmins at Dulmi, Telkupi, Pakbira, etc. Most of these temples are Shaivites.

The vast empire of Harshavardhan (606-47 AD), the most powerful ruler of the Pushyabhuti dynasty (Vardhana dynasty), also included the small kingdom of Karjagal (Rajmahal). It was in Kazangal that Harshavardhan met the Chinese traveler Huan Tsang for the first time and was impressed by him. Later, both of them remained together for many years.

Previous Page:Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Next Page:Sultanate Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


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Saturday, September 4, 2021

Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Maurya and Post-Maurya Period

Mauryan Period: 

  • Chandragupta Maurya (322 BC- 298 BC) established the Maurya dynasty in Magadha by defeating Dhananada, the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty, with the help of his guru Kautilya (other names Chanakya, Vishnugupta). The ruler of the Nanda dynasty were the masters of a huge army. The army of the Nandas included the tribal soldiers of Jharkhand as well as elephants. In fact, an important reason for Magadha's military success was the tribal element involved. Chandragupta Maurya, the destroyer of the Nanda dynasty and the founder of the Maurya dynasty, was familiar with the region of Jharkhand.
Maurya and Post-Maurya Period: Jharkhand History
  • Kautilya in his book 'Arthashatra' has called this region Kukut/Kukutdesh. According to Kautilya, there was a republican system of government in Kukutdesh. To keep the tribes under control, using them in the interest of Magadha and preventing their alliance with the enemies of Magadha, an officer named 'Aatvik' was appointed.

  • Under 'Aatvik' there were other officers like 'Nagadhyaksha', 'Vanadhyaksha', 'Nagpal', 'Vanpal'. The trade route from Magadha to South India passed through Jharkhand. Therefore, Jharkhand had commercial importance. Kautilya has written that diamonds were obtained from the rivers of 'Indravanak'. Indravanak was probably the area of the rivers Inva and Shankh.



Post-Mauryan Period:

The most important thing of this period was:

  • The discovery of some coins of this period in the areas of Jharkhand gives an impression that the rulers of this period must have ruled in this area.
  • Coins of Roman emperors have been found in Singhbhum.
  • Indo-Scythian coins have been found in Chaibasa.
  • Coins of the first and second centuries of the Kushan period have been found in Ranchi, a Pura-Kushan coin of the third century has also been received from here. There is no king's name on these coins. 

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Stone and Vedic Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Stone and Vedic Period: Jharkhand History

The history of Jharkhand dates back to the Stone Age when humans began to manufacture tools made of sharp stones to meet their needs, such as digging the soil and hunting the animals. Extensive evidence of human development in the Jharkhand region during that period has been obtained during archaeological excavations. Here tools related to the two periods of the Stone Age (East and Late Stone Age) have been found.

Ancient History of Jharkhand:

1. Early Stone Age:

During this period of the region of Jharkhand was surrounded by dense forests and the density of trees was such that nothing was clearly visible. At that time, like other places, there were such human beings, who were called semi-human or primitive men. The main tools used by them include the remains of stone axes, knives, and pieces of stone used as knives. These remains have been received from Singhbhum, Ranchi, Santhal Pargana, and Hazaribagh in the order of archaeological excavation.



2. Late Stone Age:

This period is also called the Neolithic period. Many remains of this period have been found here. Possibly when the Bronze Age culture was developing in the Indus Valley, the Neolithic culture was developing in Chotanagpur during the same period. Smooth polished stone craft tools and pottery have been found here. The main objects found here related to the Neolithic period are axes, celts, chisels, chalk, iron, and copper saws.

Another thing that is worth noting is that most of the stone tools of this period found from here are polished. Twelve (12) types of hand-crafts belonging to the Neo-Stone Age have been found in India. Almost all of these hand-crafts have been found in Chotanagpur. The remains found in the above period do not give detailed information about the history, but the evidence of the life of the primitive man and the indications of the gradual changes taking place in it.


3. Iron Age:

Iron was used in the later Vedic period. The name 'Pand' of Jharkhand is first found in the Aitareya Brahmin, the composition of the later Vedic period. A tribe found here 'Asura' is seen associating with this period. The main work of the Asura tribe has been to prepare tools by smelting iron. Therefore, it is clear from this that the Iron Age must have developed here as well.


Vedic Age:

The relation of any historical fact related to Jharkhand from the Rigveda period has not been received till now. Iron was used in the later Vedic period, due to which some tribes working in iron, especially the Asura, are discussed in the Aitareya Brahmana of the later Vedic period.


Religious Movement:

In the year 6th Century BC Jain and Buddist movements took place, which had a wide impact and the Jharkhand was no exception to this.

Buddhism:

Buddism had a profound impact on Jharkhand. Relics related to Buddhism have been found in various places in Jharkhand. 

  • A lion head has been found from Murtiya village (Palamu), where resembles the lion head engraved on the entrance of the Sanchi Stupa. 
  • A Buddhist stupa has been found in Karua village. 
  • Today's Dhanbad district was an important center of Buddhism. Many Buddhist monuments have been found from Diyapur-Dalmi and Boudhpur of Dhanbad, among which the Budheswar temple of Buddhapur is notable. 
  • A fragmentary stone Buddha statue has been found from Gholmara (near Purulia).
  • A stone statue of Buddha has been found from Suryakund (near Barhi, Hazaribagh).
  • A Buddha statue has been found from Balan reaching Johna Falls.
  • A Buddha statue has been found in Katega village (Bano railway station, Gumla).
  • Two Buddha statues have been found from Patamba village (Jamshedpur).
  • The idol of Tara (Buddhist Goddess) has been found from the Ichagarh (Saraikela-Kharsawan), which is kept in Ranchi Museum.

Jainism:

Jainism also had a profound impact on Jharkhand. Nirvana of 23rd Tirthankara of Jains, Parshvanath, in 717 BC, was born on a mountain near Isri (Giridih), which was named Parsvanath/ Parasnath mountain after him. This mountain is famous as a major pilgrimage site for Jains. Manbhum (today's Dhanbad) of Chotanagpur was the center of Jain civilization and culture.

The main Jain sites of this region were;

  • Pakbira, Tuisama, Deoli, Pawanpur, Palma, Arsha, Charg, Golmara, Badam, Balrampur, Karra, Para, Katras, etc.
  • Some places of worship of Jains have been found in Hanumand village (near Satbarwa) of Palamu.
  • The early inhabitants of Singhbhum were Jains, who were called 'Saraks'. 'Sarak' is a spoiled form of the word Sharvak. The householder of Jain faiths was called Shravak. Later the people of the Ho tribe drove them out of Singhbhum.

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Hari Baba Movement (1930): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


Hari Baba Movement (1930)

In the 1930s, the Duku Ho of Singhbhum, who was popularly known as Haribaba, started a movement called the 'Haribaba Movement'.

The aim of the Haribaba movement was the purification of the crumbling and disintegrating social, economic, religious system. Through this, an attempt was made to organize the people of the 'Ho' tribes so that they could escape the tyranny of outsiders.

Hari Baba Movement (1930): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

In this movement, apart from Hari Baba, Singrai Ho residents of Bhutagaon of Barkel Pir area, Bamia Ho of Bhadahatu area, and Hari, Dula, and Birjo Ho of Garia area played an important role. These people propagated Sarna Dharma.

The Haribaba movement also adopted Gandhiji's self-purification and sacrifice, because he hoped that through this movement he could drive away from the demons. This movement became political under the influence of Gandhiji. He believed that Gandhiji was capable of driving away from the British government. 

On 15th May 1931, he also showed ferocity and uprooted the telegraph wires in Singhbhum. Seeing this, the government took action to suppress this movement. The Haribaba Movement disintegrated as a result of the repression.

Previous Page:Sardari Movement (1858-95): JPSC/JSSC/ PSC

Next Page:Stone and Vedic Period: Jharkhand History- JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC




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Friday, September 3, 2021

Sardari Movement (1858-95): JPSC/JSSC/ PSC

Sardari Movement (1858-95)

Causes:

  • To solve the problems, the Chotanagpur Tenure Act was implemented in 1869, but the complaints did not end, due to which this movement took place. In this movement, the Munda Sardars agitated for collective farming.

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Kherwar Movement (1874): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Kherwar Movement (1874)

The Kherwar movement has a remarkable place in tribal reformist movements in Jharkhand. This movement initially taught monotheism and social reform, but just before its suppression, it took the form of a campaign against the activities of revenue endowment.

This movement was led by Bhagirath Manjhi of the Kherwar tribe. That is why it is called the 'Bhagirath Manjhi movement'.

Key facts of the Kherwar Movement (for MCQ):

  • The Kherwar Movement was one of the non-violent struggles against British rule.
  • Its form was in no way different from the Safahor movement which manifested in its true form in later days.
  • The credit for articulating this goes to Bhagwan Das (Rajmahal) and Lambodar Mukherjee (Dumka).
Kherwar Movement (1874): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC
  • Bhagirath had adopted a non-cooperative policy towards the British rule and by declaring himself the king of the village of Bounsi, he started the system of collecting rent himself by not paying rent to the landlords and the government.
  • Later Gandhiji used to aspects to his non-cooperation.
  • Bhagirath Manjhi was born in Taldiha village of Godda district where he has established a bench.
  • Bhagirath Manjhi was known as 'Baba' among the tribals.

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