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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Thursday, September 2, 2021

Kol Movement (1831-32): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Kol Movement (1831-32)

Causes and nature of rebellion:

The Kol rebellion has a special place in the tribal revolts in Jharkhand, because it was the first organized and widespread tribal revolt of Jharkhand. Exploited by their new masters, oppressed by dikus (outsiders), and deprived of their traditional source of justice, the tribals of Chotanagpur had no choice but to revolt. In fact, it was a rebellion of the Mundas, in which Ho joined as his right hand.

The tribes of some areas of Chotanagpur Khas, Palamu, Singhbhum, and Manbhum participated in this rebellion. Only Hazaribagh remained untouched by this rebellion. It was the result of the Kol rebellion that in 1834 AD, an administrative unit named 'South-West Frontier Agency' (SWFA) was formed by merging the revolt-affected areas with some of the other areas, with its headquarters at Vishunpur or Wilkinsonganj (later Ranchi) created.

Kol Movement (1831-32): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Key facts of Kol rebellion (for MCQ):

  • If anyone bothered the British rulers and landlords the most in Chotanagpur, it was the Kol rebels.
  • In this rebellion, the tribes of Chotanagpur, especially Palamu, Singhbhum, and other parts of the Manbhum actively participated.
  • The main reason for the Kol rebellion was 'land dissatisfaction'.
  • One of the main leaders of this rebellion was Budhu Bhagat. In this battle, he was killed along with his brother, son, and 100 followers. 
  • The revolt was suppressed, but the lands of the village headman (Munda) and their peed chief (Mankis) made up of seven to twelve were returned.
  • As a result of this rebellion, a new province Southwest Frontier Agency was formed in 1833 AD. Later, financial and judicial powers were also given to the 'Manki Munda System'.


Chuar Movement (1769- 1805): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Chuar Movement (1769-1805)


The British official used to call the Bhumij of Jungle Mahal as Chaur= Duvant/low caste. Hence, their rebellion was called Chaur Rebellion.

The Chuar made a living by clearing forests, hunting animals and birds, and selling the things produced in the forest. Most of them worked as 'Paika= soldiers' in the local zamindars. They were given land instead of salary, which was called 'Paikan land'

As soon as the British rulers took possession, snatched the ancestral lands of the Chuars and sold them to new landlords, and started settling new subjects with these landlords. 

Chuar Movement (1769- 1805): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Simultaneously, after removing the paika and bringing it from outside, the police were appointed in their place. Due to this, thousands of paika started stumbling blocks after losing land, house-door, means of livelihood everything. The combined powers of these paikas (sepoys) and peasants ignited the fire of rebellion, which became very difficult for the British rulers to extinguish.

Apart from this, the British rulers had snatched the land from the hands of Zamindars, who were unable to pay the hugely increased revenue. Some of the landlords who had lost their land joined the rebellion. This rebellion was done over famine, increase in rent, auction of land, and other economic issues.

Form of Revolt:

The name of the prominent leaders of the Chuar rebellion are;

  • Ragunath Mahto
  • Shyam Ganjam Subal Singh
  • Jagannath Patar
  • Durjan Singh
  • Lal Singh
  • Mohan Singh.

In 1769, Raghunath Mahto gave the slogan 'Apna Gaon Apna Raj, Faraway Foreign Raj'.

The name of the suppressors of the Chuar rebellion are;

  • Lieutenant Nun
  • Captain Forbes
  • Lieutenant Goodyar.

For nearly 30 years, due to the riots of the Chuars, there was unrest in the entire area.

The Company government understood that without giving some facilities (e.g; the return of their land to paikas, prohibition on the auction of the land of zamindars when revenue is left) to the paikas, farmers, and zamindars, and without restoration of police rights of landlords and Ghatwals, the peace in this area is not possible. Therefore, by a resolution;

  • March 6th, 1800, the Zamindari-Ghatwali Police System was restored.
  • December 13th, 1800, this arrangement also got the approval of the Company's government.

The law and order situation improved with the appointment of local people as police officers in place of non-tribal inspectors. After the creation of the Jungle Mahal district, relative peace was maintained in the Manbhum area for 25 years (1805-30).

Important facts of Chuar Revolt:

  • In June, Chuar and Paika of Bankura, and Paika of Orissa joined it. British repression did not work in front of the wide nature of the rebellion and the British were forced to return the land and all the facilities snatched from them to the Chuar and Paika chieftains. 


Tilka Movement (1784-1785): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Tilka Movement (1784-1785)

Causes of Revolt:

1784: Tilka Manjhi (Jabra Paharia) started a movement against the British, which came to be known as the 'Tilka Movement'. This movement was against the rights of their land, against the policy of divisiveness by giving more facilities to the hills, and against the repression of Cleveland.

Form of Revolt:

The Santhal entered in Rajmahal area in the last years of the 18th century. The entry of Santhal tribals into the Rajmahal was opposed by the Paharia community. After a few encounters, the Santhals settled in this area. The Santhal lived on the hills and when the East India Company's boats passed through the Ganga river, they would come down from the mountains and plunder them and kill the mail carriers. They were very skilled the guerilla warfare.

Tilka Movement (1784-1785): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Augustine Cleveland was appointed the Superintendent of Police of the Rajmahal area. He adopted a policy of divisiveness and within nine (9) months of his appointment, had made 47 Paharia chieftains his supporters and made a person named Jaurah their chief. Some facilities were given to the Paharia Sardars and the British did not collect any tax from them. This was opposed by a brave Sardar Tilka Manjhi of the Santhal community. He said that the policy should be the same. Tilka also opposed the Jaurah of the Pahariya caste, a supporter of the British. Tilka started opposing the British from the place called Vancharijor near Bhagalpur. Like Robin Hood, he used to plunder the royal treasuries and warehouses and distribute them among the poor. He sent door-to-door messages through Sal's leaves and started organizing the Santhals.

1784: At the beginning of the year, with the help of his followers, Tilka attacked Bhagalpur. On January 13, he hid on a plan tree and sat down. While passing through the same path, he shot Cleveland riding on a horse with an arrow. This caused panic in the English army. Now Ayerkoot was sent to help the British army. Ayerkoot along with Paharia Sardar Jaurah attacked the followers of Tilka Manjhi. Many followers of Tilka Manjhi suffered causalities. But Tilka Manjhi escaped and hid in the hills of Sultanganj.

1785: Tilka Manjhi was caused by deceit and dragged by four (4) horses, tied with rope, was brought to Bhagalpur, where he was hanged on a Banyan tree. That place is known today as 'Baba Tilka Manjhi Chowk'.

Key Facts of Tilka Movement:

  • The Tilka Movement started in 1783 under the leadership of Tilka Manjhi.
  • Main objective: to protect the tribal autonomy and drive out the British from this region.
  • Like the modern Robin Hood, he started plundering the English treasury and distributing it among the poor and needy.
  • Tilka Manjhi led a guerilla war from the hills of Sultanganj. The hero of the British army, who was killed by Tilka Manjhi's arrow was Augustine Cleveland.
  • 1785: Tilka Manjhi was arrested by fraud and hanged on a Banyan tree in Bhagalpur. That place is today famous as 'Baba Tilka Manjhi Chowk' in Bhagalpur.
  • The first rebel martyr of the Indian freedom struggle was - Tilka Manjhi.
  • Most importantly, women also participated in the Tilka Rebellion, while women started participating in the Indian national movement much later.


Tamar Revolt (1782- 1820): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Tamar Revolt (1782-1820)

Causes of Rebellion:

The revolt waged by the Munda tribesmen in the last quarter of the 18th century by making Tamar the main center of Chotanagpur is called the 'Tamar Rebellion'

The Company's policy of instigating outsiders and the atrocities of the Nagavanshi rulers were the root causes of this rebellion. The Munda tribals in Tamar were stricken by the tyranny of the Company government. The policies of the company paved the way for outsiders to come here and make them comfortable. On the other hand, they were feeling suffocated due to the tyranny and exploitation of the Nagavanshi rulers of Chotanagpur Khas.

Tamar Revolt (1782- 1820): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS

Form of Rebellion:

1782: Gradually the rebels of Ramgarh, Panchet, and Birbhum started gathering in Tamar. They also started robbing the merchants. The Nagavanshi ruler attacked Tamar to suppress the rebels. This further fueled the rebellion. 

1782: The rebels also get the support of some landlords. Finally, Major James Crawford entered Tamar in December 1783 and forced the rebels to surrender. Peace prevailed in Tamar for the next five (5) years.

1789: The rebellion broke out again in Tamar. Under the leadership of Vishnu Manki and Mauji Manki, 3000 Mundas refused to pay taxes. Captain Hogan was sent to suppress the rebels, but he failed. After this, Lieutenant Cooper was sent. Cooper suppressed the rebels in early July 1789 AD. Tamar remained calm for the next four (4) years.

1794: In November, the rebellion broke out again in Tamar, which became difficult for the British to suppress.

1796: Raja Narendra Shahi of Rahe sided with the British. When the king and his soldiers went to Sonahatu, they were attacked by the villagers. When Captain B. Ben learns that the tribals are opposing Narendra Shahi, he is removed. In 1796, this rebellion took a widespread form. 

All tribals and zamindars of Tamar, Silli, Sonahatu and Rahe jumped into it. 

Prominent leaders of the rebels were;

  • Thakur Bholanath Singh - Tamar
  • Thakur Vishwanath Singh- Silli
  • Thakur Harinath Singh- Vishunpur
  • Thakur Shivnath Singh- Bundu
  • Ram Shahi Munda- Tribal leader
  • Thakur Das Munda- nephew of Ram Shahi Munda.

The relatives of Narendra Shahi of Rahe were killed, but Narendra Shahi himself managed to escape. 

1798: In April, Captain Lemond successes in capturing the major rebel leaders of Tamar. Bholanath Singh, the most powerful of the rebels, was arrested by Captain Ben. The Tamar rebellion spontaneously disintegrated after the arrested of the leaders.

Key Fact of Tamar Rebellion:

  • This rebellion started in 1782 against the exploitation of the landlords by the Oraon tribe of Chotanagpur, which lasted till 1794. This rebellion started under the leadership of Thakur Bholanath Singh. This is famous in history as the 'Tamar Rebellion'.
  • 1809: the British arranged a Zamindari police force to establish peace in Chotanagpur but to no avail. Because again in 1807, 1811, 1817, and 1820 the Munda and Oraon tribes raised their voice against the landlords and Dikus.
  • 1807: the Mundas revolted under the leadership of Dukh Manki of Tamar and in 1819-20, under the leadership of Rugu and Konta.

Tamar Revolt (1782- 1820)

Previous Page:Ghatwal Revolt (1772- 1773): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC


Ghatwal Revolt (1772- 1773): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Ghatwal Revolt (1772-1773)

Ghatwal: the one who collected revenue from the Ghats (paths) of the hills was called 'Ghatwal'.

1772: In 1772 AD, the revolt by the Ghatwals of the Hazaribagh especially Ramgarh state against the British is called the 'Ghatwal Rebellion'. This rebellion was a protest against the mistreatment of the British towards their king.

Ghatwal Revolt (1772- 1773): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS

Causes of Revolt:

When one of the King's relatives Tej Singh expressed his authority over the kingdom of Ramgarh Naresh Mukund Singh, the British supported Tej Singh. Mukund Singh was simultaneously attacked by British Captain Jacob Camac from the South (S) side and Tej Singh from the North (N) side. Fearing to be taken prisoner, Mukund Singh ran away. Since Ghatwals was a loyal ryot of Mukund Singh, they revolted. 

The Ghatwal of Andragarba Valley met Loranga and the Ghatwals of Dunguna Valley started opposing Captain Jacob Camac.

In this rebellion, the ryot of Champa state also supported Ramgarh Naresh Mukund Singh. The special thing about this rebellion was that it did not face any war-like situation.

Seeing the organization of Ghatwals, a situation of war had arisen, but after persuasion by the British they calmed down. When the Ghatwals and Ryots felt that Mukund Singh could not become the king again at any cost, they also left him and started their respective business. 

Thus, the protest ended without creating any explosive situation. Later the British provided many concessions to the Ghatwals.

Ghatwal Revolt (1772- 1773)

Previous Page:Paharia Revolt (1772- 1782): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS


Paharia Revolt (1772- 1782): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Paharia Revolt (1772-1782)

Paharia Tribe is the oldest tribe of the Santhal Pargana division. In fact, these are the first primitive inhabitants of this place.

They have three (3) sub-castes:

  • Kumarbhag: they are situated on the northern bank of river Bansloi.
  • Sauria: they are situated on the plateau of Rajmahal north of the Bansloi river.
Paharia Revolt (1772- 1782): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS

The Paharia tribe struggled with foreign powers during the Rajput, Muslim, Mughal, and British periods. They made several rebellions against the British, which is considered to be the first widespread rebellion against foreign rule in the history of tribal struggle.

After the rebellion against the British in 1766 under the leadership of Ramna Ahari, Paharia did not rest in peace. In this rebellion, Sardar Ramna Ahari (Ghasniya, Dumka), Kariya Pulhar (Amgachi Pahar, Dumka), Changru Sanwaria (Targachi Hill, Rajmahal), Naib Suraja, etc. made the British sleepless.

But the most powerful rebellions took place in 1772, 1778, and 1779. Surya Changru Sanwaria, Pachge Domba Paharia, and Kariya Pulhar were martyred in the rebellion of 1772. Sankara Maharaja Sumer Singh was assassinated.

1781- 82: there was a revolt in 1781-82 when Rani Sarveshwari of Maheshpur Raja revolted, in which the Paharia chieftains openly supported the queen against the British.

Despite the decline of the Sardaris and Zamindari, the resistance of the hills continued. 

Between 1790 and 1810, the British made the Paharias a minority by making the Santhals a majority in these areas. Nevertheless, their rebellion continued.

1824: the British took their land in 1824 to suppress the Paharia conflict and declared their land as government property by giving the name 'Damin-e-Koh'.

Before the Santhal rebellion in the 19th century, Sardar Sundara Paharia, a resident of Dharni Pahar recognized them again.

In the Santhal rebellion of 1855-56, Mal Paharia played a more important role than Sauria and Kumarbagh.

Paharia Revolt (1772- 1782)

Previous Page:Dhal Rebellion/ Dhalbhum Revolt (1767- 1777): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS


Dhal Rebellion/ Dhalbhum Revolt (1767- 1777): JPSC/ JSSC/ PSC

Dhal Rebellion (1767- 1777)

Important Facts:

1765: On August 12, 1765, the Mughal ruler Shah Alam II handed over the responsibility of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa to the East India Company.

1767: The British's entry into Jharkhand began in 1767 AD.

1765: In 1765 AD, the area of Chotanagpur came under British rule.

Dhal Rebellion/ Dhalbhum Revolt (1767- 1777): JPSC/ JSSC/ PCS

The 'British's entry' in Jharkhand was first done from the side of Singhbhum-Manbhum. The first whirlwind of rebellion against the British sounded in this area.

At that time the main states in Singhbhum were: Dhalbhum, Porhat, and Kolhan.

1766: In March 1766, the East India Company (IEC) government determined that if the Rajas of Singhbhum accepted the Company's submission and paid annual taxes, military action would not be taken against them.

1767: The Rajas of SInghbhum refused to accept the Company's conditions. As a result, Singhbhum was attacked in 1767 AD under the leadership of Ferguson. At that time the hilly region of Chotanagpur was a safe haven for the rebel landlords.

1767: In 1767 AD, after the British entered Singhbhum, there was a widespread rebellion under the leadership of the deposed Raja Jagannath Dhal of Dhalbhum, which is known as the 'Dhal Rebellion'.

The Dhal Rebellion lasted for ten (10) years. Lieutenant Rook and Charles Megan were sent by the English Company to suppress this rebellion, but they did not succeed.

1777: In 1777 AD, this rebellion was pacified after the English Company accepted Jagannath Dhal as the king of Dhalbhum again. 

In return for becoming the king, Jagannath Dhal agreed to pay an annual tax of Rs. 2000, Rs. 3000, and Rs. 4000 to the English company in three (3) years respectively. This amount is increased to Rs. 4267 in 1800 AD.

Dhal Rebellion/ Dhalbhum Revolt (1767- 1777)

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