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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Wednesday, July 29, 2020



There are two classes of Verbs:

Auxiliary Verbs are of two kinds:

Modal Auxiliary: A verb is used to express the mood (mode) or attitude of a speaker is called Modal Auxiliary.
(i.) You should regularly go to a dance class.
(ii.) They must attend tomorrow's ceremony.
(iii.) May I use your bottle, please?
(iv.) You can park the motor in front of my house.
(v.) You may take these dresses home.
(vi.) Could you open the room, please?

Most Commonly Used Modals:
(1.) can                           (2.) could 
(3.) may                         (4.) might 
(5.) should                    (6.) would
(7.) must                       (8.) ought to
(9.) used to                  (10.) dare
(11.) need                      (12.) have/had to 
(13.) shall/ will            (14.) am/was to
All these Modals Suggest the following:
(A.) Permission           (B.) Ability
(C.) Possibility             (D.) Suggestion, Advice
(E.) Promise                 (F.) Intention
(G.) Request                (H.) Necessity, Compulsion
(I.) Prohibition            (J.) Wish or Prayer
(K.) Duty, Obligation          

Different Uses of Modals:
1. May & Might - these are used to expressing
(A.) Possibility:
(a.) It may/might rain.
(b.) He may/might go to Ranchi tomorrow.
(c.) You may fall.
(d.) Rahul said that he might go there.

(B.) Permission:
(i.) May I go?
(ii.) Yes, you may go.

(C.) Prayer or Wish:
(i.) May you enjoy wedding happiness!
(ii.) May God bless you!

(D.) Purpose:
(i.) He works hard so that he may pass.
(ii.) They came so that they might see me.

(E.) Remote Possibility: 'Might' is used in place of 'may' to express remote possibility. 
(i.) It might rain.
(ii.) He might be reading now.
1.) Both 'May & Might' can be used to express the possibility of the present and future.
2.) 'Might' is used when the reporting verb is in the past.
3.) 'May/Might have' give the opposite sense of the action.

(F.) May/Might + Have: They are used to express possibility/desirability creating to the past action. 
(i.) He may/might have left yesterday.
(ii.) He might have failed. 
(iii.) Better, you might not have revealed the secret.

2. Can & Could (Able to) - these are used to expressing
(A.) Ability: (Present, Past & Future)
(i.) She can write French well.
(ii.) Reena could play at cards.
(iii.) She will be able to help me.
(iv.) I have been able to do it.

(B.) Polite Request:
(i.) Could you please do it for me? ('would' is also used for the polite request)
(ii.) Could you please give me a pen?

(C.) Permission/Order:
(i.) Yes, you can go now.
(ii.) You can take my book. ('can' is an alternative to 'may')

(D.) Polite Request:
(i.) You cannot go outside. (Prohibition)
(ii.) Can I get some chocolates? (Offer)
(iii.) Can I help you? (Offer)

(E.) Possibility:
(i.) Who is she with him?
      She could be his wife.
(ii) How old is she?
     She could be thirty.

(F.) Could + Have: This form is used for past ability while indicating that the action did not take place.
(i.) I could have revealed the secret. (but I did not)
(ii.) You could have borrowed money. (but you did not)
(iii.) The police could have arrested him. (but they did not)

3. Should - these are used to expressing
(A.) Duty/Obligation: 
(i.) You should stand by your brother.
(ii.) I should leave now.
(iii.) The promise should be kept.
(iv.) She should be present here.

(B.) Future in the Past: 
(i.) I told her that I should go there.
(ii.) Did I not tell you that I should qualify?

(C.) Purpose: 
(i.) Walk carefully lets you should fall.

(D.) Condition: 
(i.) Should you work hard, you will get success. ('should' is used in the sense of 'it')

(E.) Should + Have: This form is used to express obligation in the past. It may imply the non-performance of the action.
(i.) You should have stood by your brother.
(ii.) He should have left a message.
(iii.) She should have been present at the function.
(iv.) My sister should have replied politely.

4. Must - these are used to expressing
(A.) Necessity or Obligation: (in place of 'should'
(i.) You must follow the rules.
(ii.) She must leave now.

(B.) Order of the Speaker: 
(i.) You must not leave now.
(ii.) They must not play here.

(C.) Strong Possibility: (in place of 'may'
(i.) It is nine. The student must be in the class.
(ii.) She must be working in college now.

(D.) Determination: 
(i.) I must help him.

(E.) Deduction, Inference: 
(i.) She has a big house. She must be rich.
(ii.) He reads a lot. He must be learned.

(F.) Must + Have: This form is used for a past action or situations to indicating the non-performance of the action. 
(i.) You must have followed guidelines.
(ii.) You must have left them.
(iii.) I must have helped her.

5. Ought To - these are used to expressing
(A.) Duty or Moral Obligation: It is used for 'should & must' when there is a strong sense of moral duty, advice, or indication of correct action.
(i.) You ought to serve your motherland.
(ii.) You ought not to take junk food.
(iii.) You ought to take food before leaving.

(B.) Ought to + Have: It is used in relation to past acts of duty that was not fulfilled or an action that was neglected in the past.
(i.) You ought to have taken care of your family.
(ii.) You ought to have served your parents.
(iii.) She ought to have been present at the wedding of her friend.
(iv.) He ought not to have smoked in the car.

6. To Be + Infinitive - these are used to expressing
(A.) Express Plan: 
(i.) She is to leave for college after marriage.
(ii) I am to make a speech tomorrow.

(B.) Express Order: 
(i.) Students are to wait outside.
(ii.) The maid is to remain in the house till we return.

(C.) Obligation/Duty: 
(i.) I am to help my ailing sister.
(ii.) My friend was to send fruits to his sister.

(D.) Express Plan: This expression is used to express an action that could not take place according to the plan.
(i.) She was to have attended the ceremony but fell ill.
(ii.) Kareena was to have appeared at the examination but she gave up the plan.

(7.) To have+Infinitive: This expression is used to express compulsion as is expressed with 'Must'. It also expresses Obligation (In the Present, Past, Future).
(i.) I have to leave for Kolkata today.
(ii.) I have not to meet him now.
(iii.) I will have to get up early in the morning.

8. Used To - Would these are used to expressing
(A.) To Denote Habitual Action or the Past Routine of the Subject: 
(i.) She used to go to Ranchi by car.
(ii.) She did not use to go to Patna.
(iii.) Mohan would study at noon.
(iv.) He would go out with me in the evening.

(B.) To Denote Discontinued Action: 
(i.) He used to play basketball. (now he has stopped)
(ii.) She used to work in a mall before marriage. (not now)

(C.) 'Used To' also used as an Adjective (be used to). It is equal to 'accustomed to' as
(i.) He is used to getting up early.
(ii.) I was used to driving through crowded.
(iii.) We are used to hot moons in the plains.

9. Would - It is used in the following cases-
(i.) Would you please help my sister? (polite request)
(ii.) She told me that she would give me a dress. (future in the past)
(iii.) I would/should like to read now. (wish)
(iv.) Who is he? He would be his brother. (possibly he is)
(v.) She would go to Pune by car.

10. Need & Not Need - 'Need' can be used as an auxiliary or as an ordinary verb
As an auxiliary verb - it is used mainly in the negative and the interrogative forms with a direct infinitive. It has No Past tense.
(A.) Need Not: It is used for an action that is not necessary.
(i.) He needs to work hard. (Ordinary verb)
(ii.) Need I write to her? (Auxiliary verb)
(iii.) She need not go there again. (Auxiliary verb)
(iv.) You do not need to work now. (Ordinary verb)

(B.) Need Not + Have: It is used for an action that is not necessary but was performed.
(i.) You need not have gone there.
(ii.) Rahul need not have called yesterday.

11. Dare - 'Dare' can be used as an auxiliary or as an ordinary verb
As an auxiliary verbit is used mainly in the negative and the interrogative forms with a direct infinitive.
(i.) She dared her sister to touch her. (Challenge, Ordinary verb)
(ii.) I dare to go outside now. (To have courage, Ordinary verb)
(iii.) Dare you go outside now? (Auxiliary verb)
(iv.) I dare say he will cheat you. (I suppose)
(v.) I dare say she will pass. (it is likely)
Note: '-s' is not used with dare & need as auxiliary verbs. 


Tuesday, July 28, 2020



Voice: A verb may tell about what a person or thing does. Therefore, a verb is said to be an action on the part of a doer/subject. Example-
(a.) They will do the work.
(b.) The teacher has punished the girl.
Transitive Verb: The verb 'do, punish' are transitive. The actions of the subject 'They, The teacher' passes over to the objects 'work, the boy'. The verb may also tell what is done to a person or a thing. Example-
(a.) The work will be done by them. (Passive Voice)
(b.) The boy has been punished by the teacher. (Passive Voice)

Intransitive VerbThe verbs do not have objects. The effect of the action does not pass over to any object. Since they are not used with objects. They do not admit of Passive.

How to Define a Voice?
(1.) Active Voice = a sentence begins with a subject. Example-
(a.) They will do the work.
(b.) The teacher has punished the girl.

(b.) Passive Voice = a sentence begins with an object. Example-
(a.) The work will be done by them. 
(b.) The boy has been punished by the teacher.

How to make a Passive Voice?
(1.) The passive of an active voice is formed by using the verb "to be". The active verb must be converted into Past Participle.
(2.) The object may be placed before the verb in passive expression.
Example: the forms of "Be".
(a.) (i.) Subject + Transitive verb + Object (Active)
      (ii.) Subject + Intransitive verb (Active)
(b.) Object + To be + Past Participle of Transitive Verb + Subject (Passive Voice)
The Verb "To Be": It has two uses
(1.) As an auxiliary verb: it is used with other verbs both in the active and passive voice.
(2.) As an ordinary/regular verb: it is used in 'No verb' sentences.

The Forms of 'To be'


The forms of Verb in the passive voice

 No Verb


 is, are, was, were been, being

Infinitive, Modals, Future Indefinite, Present Indefinite, Past Indefinite, Perfect (Present, Past, Future), Continous (Present, Past), Past/Gerund  

Past Participle (PP) of Transitive Verb





The use of 'To be" in passive sentences:
Object + to (be + PP of Transitive Verb) + by Subject
(A.) Infinitive
(B.) Modals
(C.) Future Indefinite
(i.) He doesn't like to be punished.
(ii.) The young persons should be taught good manners.
(iii.) He will be punished for his misbehavior.

(D.) Present Indefinite - is, am, are.
(a.) Active: Subject + (Verb)1/(Verb)5 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) She is taught English daily by her class teacher.
(ii.) I am often invited to attend the party with my friends.
(iii.) Elections are held every five years.

(E.) Past Indefinite - was, were.
(a.) ActiveSubject + (Verb)2 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) + was/were + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) I was punished for her negligence.
(ii.) Both the friends were selected for the senior basketball team

(F.) Perfect (Present, Past, Future) - been.
(a.) ActiveSubject + has/have + (Verb)3 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  has/have + been + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(c.) Active: Subject + had + (Verb)3 + Object
(d.)Passive: Subject (Objective case) + had + been + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(e.) ActiveSubject + will/shall + have + (Verb)3 + Object
(f.)Passive: Subject (Objective case) + will/shall + have been + by + (Verb)3 + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) He has just been elected as President of the company.
(ii.) She had already been admitted to the hospital.
(iii.) My friend will have been married by now.

(G.) Continuous (Present, Past) - being.
(a.) Active: Subject + is/am/are + (Verb) + ing + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  is/am/are + being + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(c.) Active: Subject + was/were + (Verb) + ing + Object
(d.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  was/were + being + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) The match is being telecast now.
(ii.) The match was being telecast yesterday.

(H.) Participle/Gerund - being.
(i.) Nobody likes being cheated.
(ii.) The murderer escaped being hanged.
(iii.) I saw her being taken to the hospital.

Note: Future Continous and Perfect Continuous tenses do not admit of passive voice expressions.

Some Hints/Rules on Making Passive Verbs:
(1.) The Use of Interrogative Pronoun while changing Active to Passive Voice.
(a.) Active - What are you writing?
Passive - What is being written by you?
(b.) Active - What makes you angry?
Passive - By what are you made angry?
(c.) Active - By whom are you taught French?
Passive - By whom are you taught French? 
or, Who are you taught French by?
(d.) Active - Whom are you teaching?
Passive - Who is being taught by you?

(2.) (a.) When the Subjects are indefinite/unclear pronouns or understood noun, it is not necessary to use them in Passive voice as "by somebody".
(i.) Somebody has picked my pocket.
      My pocket has been picked.
(ii.) They will clear the result soon.
      The result will be cleared soo.

(b.) A sentence beginning with negative indefinite pronouns is converted into negative.
(i.) Nobody can change destiny.
      Destiny cannot be changed.
(ii.) None saw her in the school.
      She was not seen in the school.

(3.) When the Principle clause is followed by the Noun clause as object the passive voice is made as follows. Some Noun clauses as an object are- consider, belief, understand, suspect, report, say, claim, expect, know, allege, find, learn, require, suppose, seem, appear, etc.  
(i.) People consider that he is honest.
      It is considered that he is honest.
(ii.) We hope that he will pass.
      It is hoped that he will pass. 

(4.) Verbs with Two Objects: Sometimes are verbs are used with two objects in active sentences. Passive Voice can be made with either of the objects. 
(i.) He gave me a book.
      (a.) I was given a book by him.
or, (b.) A book was given to me by him.
(ii.) They made him a leader.
      (a.) He was made a leader.

(5.) "By" is not used with certain verbs when making a Passive Voice, Instead we use at, with, in, to, etc.
(i.) I know her.
      She is known to me.
(ii.) His sudden arrival surprised everyone.
       Everybody was surprised at his sudden arrival.

(6.) Infinitives:
(i.) My brother has to buy a new car.
      A new car has to be bought by my brother.
(ii.) There is nothing to lose.
       There is nothing to be lost.
(iii.) I would like someone to help me.
       I would like to be helped.
(iv.) I am not to blame for the loss.
      I am not to be blamed for the loss.

(7.) Participles/Gerund: 
(i.) I remember my sister taking me to the doctor.
      I remember being taken to the doctor by my sister.
(ii.) I found his friends laughing at him.
      I found him being laughed at by his friends.

(8.) If a Preposition or an Adverb is used with a Verb to convey specific meaning, it should not be removed while making a Passive Voice.
(i.) Mothers look after their children.
   Children are looked after by their mother.
(ii.) You should not look down upon the rich.
   The rich should not be looked down upon.

(9.) The Verbs - let, bid, make, help, feel, see, watch, hear, are used with Direct Infinitive (without to) in the Active Voice.
In Passive Voice, these given verbs are used with Infinitive (To + Verb). 
Exception, Let - it is followed by Direct Infinitive both in Active & Passive Voice sentences.
(i.) I bade him go.
      He was bidden to go.
(ii.) I have made her sing a song.
      She has been made to sing a song.
(iii.) She let me go.
      I was let go of her.

(10.) Imperative Sentences:
(A.) Command & Order
(B.) Permission, Request, Advice

(A.) Command & Order: 
(i.)Passive- When Object is given, use Let + Object + be + Past Participle.
     (a.) Bring a book.
           Let a book be brought.
(ii.)Passive- When No Object is given, begin in the sentence with You are ordered/commanded to + .....
     (a.) Go out at once.
            You are ordered to go out at once.
     (b.) Don't stay here.
            You are ordered not to stay here.      

(B.) Permission, Request, Advice
(i.) Passive - When Object is given, make Passive with Object.
      Object + Should + Past Particle (PP)
(i.) Obey parents.
      Parents should be obeyed.
(ii.) Listen to me.
      I should be listened to.
(iii.) Prepare for war.
      You should be prepared for war.
Or, Be prepared for war.

(ii.)Passive- When No Object is given, begin in the sentence with You are ordered/requested/advised to + ..... 
(i.) Please come soon.
      You are requested to come soon.
(ii.) Please don't talk loudly.
      You are requested not to talk loudly.

(11.) Sentences Beginning with Let: (Permission, Suggestion)
(i.) Passive - When Object is given, make Passive Voice.
(i.) Let me play here. (Permission)
      I may be allowed to play here.
(ii.) Let us help him. (Suggestion)
      He should be helped.

(iI.)Passive - When Object is given, begin, the sentence, with - It is suggested___
(i.) Let us stay here. (Suggestion)
      It is suggested that we should stay here.
(ii.) Let us sleep here.
      It is suggested that we should sleep here.
(12.) 'To be' is often allowed in the sense of 'have' in Passive Voice sentences of the following Verbs- Rise, fall, come, arrive, go, lose, etc.
(i.) Summer is come. (Incorrect)
       Summer has come.
(ii.) The book is lost. (Incorrect)
       The book has been lost.
(iii.) The Sun is risen. (Incorrect)
       The Sun has risen.
(iv.) Golden days are gone. (Incorrect)
       Golden days have gone.




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