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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Monday, August 30, 2021

Dharwar System (Proterozoic Formations): Geological Structure of India

Dharwar System (Proterozoic Formations)

The geologic time extends from 2500 million years ago to 1800 million years ago. These are the first metamorphosed sedimentary rock systems known as the Dharwar System in the Indian Geological Time Scale, as they were studied for the first time in the Dharwar district of Karnataka. 

They are composed largely of igneous debris, schists, and gneisses. 

Dharwar System (Proterozoic Formations): Geological Structure of India

The Dharwar rocks occur in scattered patches in;

  • Dharwar and Bellary districts of Karnataka and extends up to Nilgiris and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu.
  • The Aravallis, Rialo (Delhi series) from Delhi to the South of Alwar and the Himalayan region.

The Dharwar rocks are rich in minerals like iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, gold, silver, dolomite, mica, copper, tungsten, nickel, precious stones, and building materials.

Some of the important series of the Dharwar System are:

Name of the series of Dharwar System

Distribution in India

Significant Features

Champion Series

1. NE of Mysore city to the east of Bangalore.

2. It stretches in the Kolar and Raichur districts of Karnataka.

1. One of the deepest gold mines in the world.

2. Depth= >3.5 Km.

3. Gold content= 5.5 per tonne of the ore.

4. Headquarters of the National Institute of Miner's Health is located here.

Champaner Series

1. Lies in the outlier of the Aravalli system in the vicinity of Vadodara.

1. Minerals: Quartzites, conglomerates, phyllites, slates, limestones, and marbles.

2. Popular for the green variety of marble.

Chilpi Series

1. Occupies parts of Balaghat, Jabalpur, and Chindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh.

1. Minerals: grit, phyllite, quartzites, green stones, magniferous rocks.

Closepet Series

1. Distributed in Balaghat and Chhindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh.

1. It is the Dharwaian formation.

2. Minerals found: quartzite, copper pyrite, magniferous rocks.

3. Ore supplied to the Malanjhand Copper plant.

Iron Ore Series

1. Distributed in Singhbhum, Bonai, Mayubhanj, Keonjhar in the form of a range.1. It is about 65 km in length has reserves of about 3000 million tonnes of iron ore.

2. Iron ore is supplied to Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Rourkela, and Bokaro Steel plants.
Khondolite Series

1. Occupies large area in the eastern Ghats from the northern extremity to Krishna valley.

1. Principal rock types: khondlites, kodurites, charnockites, gneisses.

Rialo Series (Delhi Series)

1. Extends from Delhi (Majnu ka Tila) to Alwar (Rajsthan in the northeast to southwest direction).

1. Rich in limestone and Makrana marbles.

2. Makrana and Bhagwanpur are known for their high quality of marbles.

Sakoli Series 

1. Stretches over Jabalpur and Rewa districts

1. Series belongs to the Dharwian formation.

2. Rich in mica, dolomite, schist, and marble (Superiormost quality). 

Sausar Series 

1. Series spreads over Nagpur and Bhandara districts of Maharashtra and Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh.

1. It belongs to the Dharwarian group.

2. Minerals found: mica schist, quartzite, marble, and magniferous rocks.

Previous Page:Urbanization (Section- H): JPSC 

Next Page:Western Ghats: A World Heritage Site: Geography- JPSC/ JSSC


Tuesday, August 24, 2021

Urbanization (Section- H): JPSC


The tendency to concentrate in towns and cities is called urbanization. The level of urbanization is measured in terms of the percentage of the urban population to the total population. 31.16% is the urban population in India as per the census 2011. The decennial growth in urban population percentage in 2011 over 2001 was 31.08%. The urban population in the 2001 census was 27.78%.

As per the census 2011, the definition of an urban area is as follows-

1. Statutory town: All places with the municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.

2. Census town: All other places which satisfy the following criteria-

  • A minimum population of 5,000.
  • At least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.
  • A density of population of at least 400 persons/(km2)k

Urbanization (Section- H): JPSC

Urban Agglomeration:

It is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining outgrowths (OGs), or two or more physically contiguous towns together with or without outgrowths of such towns.

An Urban Agglomeration must consist of at least a statutory town and its population (i.e. all the constituents put together) should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 census.


An outgrowth (OG) is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block made up of such a village or hamlet and clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. Some of the examples are railway colony, university campus, port area, military campus, etc., which have come up within near a statutory town outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town. While determining the outgrowth of a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of wastewater, educational institution, post offices, medical facilities, bank, etc. and physically contiguous with the core team of the urban agglomeration. 

At the census 2011, there are (4041+ 3894= 7935) towns in the country. The number of towns has increased by 2774 since the last census of 2001. Many of the towns are part of an Urban agglomeration and the rest are independent towns. The total number of urban agglomerations/towns which constitute the urban frame is 6,166 in the country.

Based on population, urban centers have been classified in India into six (6) classes:

  • More than 1 Lakh- City/class 1 town.
  • Between 1-5 million- Metropolitan city.
  • More than 5 million- Megacity eg. Greater Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata.

There are 53 cities/urban agglomerations in India that are million-plus cities, as per the census 2011. 

  • 18 new urban agglomerations/towns have been added to this list since the last census of 2001.
  • Goa (62.17%) is the most urbanized state in India as per census 2011.
  • Himachal Pradesh is the least urbanized state/UT in India as per census 2011.


  • Rank in urbanization in India = 24th (2001) to 27th (2011).
  • Urbanization in Jharkhand = 22.24% (2001) to 24.05% (2011).
  • Largest urban agglomeration city - Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Ranchi.
  • Largest populous city - Ranchi.

As per the functional classification of towns, have been classified into nine (9) classes:

  • Administrative towns- New Delhi, Chandigarh, etc.
  • Industrial towns- Jamshedpur, Bhilai, Hugli, etc.
  • Transport town- Kandla, Kochi, etc.
  • Commercial towns- Kolkata, etc.
  • Mining towns- Jharia, Singrauli, etc.
  • Garrison cantonment towns- Ambala, Jalandhar, etc.
  • Educational towns- Roorkee, Aligarh, etc.
  • Religious & cultural towns- Varanasi, Amritsar, etc.
  • Tourist towns- Nainital, Shimal, etc.

As per the basis of evolution in different time periods:

Urbanization's causes: 

  • Industrialization, Job opportunities, Boundary changes, Natural growth rate.

Impact of Urbanization:

  • Positives: Employment, Education, Social integration, Standard of living, etc.
  • Negatives: Disintegration of joint families, High cost of living, Crime, Pollution, etc.


Sunday, August 22, 2021

Physical Geography (Part-11): Islands & Coral Reefs

Islands and Coral Reefs

An island is a piece of land surrounded on all sides by water. It may occur individually or in a group, in open oceans or seas. Smaller ones of only local significance are found even in lakes and rivers. 

Physical Geography (Part-11): Islands & Coral Reefs

All Islands may be grouped under the following types:

1.) Continental Islands: These islands were formerly part of the mainland and are now detached from the continent. They may be separated by a shallow lagoon or a deep channel. Their separation could be due to subsidence of some part of the land or to a rise in sea level so that the lowland links are submerged by the sea. Their former connection with the neighbouring mainland can be traced from the similar physical structure, flora and fauna that exist on both sides of the channel. Over time, modification by men and other natural forces may give rise to different surface features. But even then, the basic structural features will remain the same. Continental islands may appear as:

  • Individual Island: These lie just outside the continent, very much associated with the characteristics features of the mainland of which they were once part. Example- Newfoundland, separated from the mainland by the Strait of Belle Isle, Madagascar, by the Mozambique Channel, Ceylon by the Palk Strait, Tasmania by the Bass Strait and Formosa by the Formosa Strait.

  • Archipelagoes or Island groups: These comprise groups of islands of varying sizes and shapes. Eg. the British Isles, the Balearic Islands of the Mediterranean and also those of the Aegean Sea.

  • Festoons or Island arc: The islands form an archipelago in the shape of a loop around the edge of the mainland, marking the continuation of mountain ranges that can be traced in the continent. Eg. the East Indies, the Aleutian Island, Ryukyu Islands, Kurile Islands and other arcs of the Pacific coasts. 

2.) Oceanic Islands: These islands are normally small and are located in the midst of oceans. They have no connection with the mainland which may be hundreds or thousands of miles away. They have a flora and fauna unrelated to those of the continents. The Galapagos Islands have many unique species of animals. Due to their remoteness from the major trading centres of the world, most of the oceanic islands are very sparsely populated. Some of them provide usefully stops for aeroplanes and ocean streams that ply between continents across vast stretches of water.

Generally, oceanic islands fall into one of the following groups:

  • Volcanic Islands: Many of the islands in the oceans are in the fact the topmost part of the cones of volcanoes that rise from the ocean bed. Most of them are extinct, but there are also some active ones. The best known volcanic peak of the Pacific Ocean is Muana Loa in Hawaii, which is 13,680 feet above sea level. Mauna Loa is found to have been built up from the water surface! Other volcanic islands have emerged from the submarine ridges of the oceans. The volcanic islands are scattered in most of the earth's oceans. In the Pacific Ocean, they occur in several groups such as Hawaii, the Galapagos Island and the South Sea islands. In the Atlantic are the Azores, Ascension, St. Helena, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Those of the Indian Ocean are Mauritius and Reunion. In the Antarctic Ocean are the South Sandwich Islands, Bouvet Island and many others.

  • Coral Island: The coral islands are very much lower and emerge just above the water surface. These islands, built up by coral animals of various species, are found both near the shores of the mainland and in the midst of oceans. Coral islands include the Marshall Islands, Gilbert and Ellice Islands of the Pacific, Bermuda in the Atlantic and the Laccadives and Maldives of the Indian Ocean.

Coral Reefs:

In tropical seas, many kinds of coral animals and marine organisms such as coral polyps, calcareous algae, shell-forming creatures and lime-secreting plants live in large colonies. Though they are very tiny creatures, their ability to secrete calcium carbonate within tiny cells has given rise to a particular type of marine landform. They exist in numerous species of my forms, colours and shapes. Under favourable conditions, they grow in great profusion just below the water level. Taking coral animals as a whole, the polyps are the most abundant and also the most important. Each polyp resides in a tiny cup of coral and helps to form coral reefs. When they die, their limy skeletons are connected to coastline limestones. There are also non-reef-building species such as the 'precious corals' of the pacific ocean and the 'red coral' of the Mediterranean which may survive in the colder and even the deeper waters. As a rule, they thrive well only in the warmer tropical seas.

The reef-building corals survive best under the following conditions:

  • The water temperature must not fall below 68° F (20°C). This virtually limits the areal distribution of coral s to the tropical, and subtropical zones. Again they will not flourish where there are cold currents because of the upwelling of the cold water from the depths that cools the warm surface water. This explains why coral reefs are generally absent on the western coasts of continents. On the other hand of the warming effect of the warm currents eg. the Gulf stream, means that corals are found to the north of the West Indies in the Atlantic Ocean. The pacific and the Indian oceans, however, have the most numerous coral reefs.

  • The depth of the water should not exceed 30 fathoms or 180 feet, because beyond this depth sunlight is too faint for photosynthesis to take place. This is essential for the survival of the microscopic algae, on which the coral polyps depend. The shallow water of fewer than 100 feet is ideal. But there should always be plenty of water as polyps cannot survive for too long out of water.

  • The water should be saltish and free from sediment. Corals, therefore, survive best in the moving ocean water well away from the silty coasts or muddy mouths of streams. The corals are best developed on the seaward side of the reef, where constantly moving waves, tides and currents maintain an abundant supply of clear, oxygenated water. They also bring an adequate supply of food in the form of microscopic organisms.

Types of Coral Reefs:

There are three (3) main types of coral reefs:

1.) Fringing reefs: A fringing reef is a coralline platform lying close to the shore extending outwards from the mainland. It is sometimes separated from the shore by a shallow lagoon. It is widest when fringing a protruding headland but completely absent when facing the mouth of the stream. The outer edge grows rapidly because of the splashing waves that continuously renew the supply of fresh food. The reefs may be about a mile wide, lying just above the level of low water and sloping steeply downwards on the seaward side to a depth of about 100 feet.

2.) Barrier reef: A barrier reef is separated from the coast by a much wider and deeper channel or lagoon. The reef is partially submerged. where it lies above the water level and sand can accumulate on it, a little vegetation is possible. The barrier reefs have narrow gaps at several places to allow the water from the enclosed lagoon to return to the open ocean. Such gaps are very useful for shipping and provide the only entrances for ships to enter or leave the lagoon. Eg. the Great Barrier reef off the coast of Queensland (Australia). It is 1,200 miles long, separated from the coast by a channel 100 miles wide in places and over 200 feet deep.

3.) Atolls: Atolls are similar to barrier reefs except that they are circular in shape, enclosing a shallow lagoon without any land in the centre. The encircling ring is usually broken in a few places to allow the free flow of water. On the inside of the reefs, sand and limestone debris collect and palm trees like coconuts may grow. Such palm trees thrive well in the brackish water of the lagoon. The nuts fall into the water and are distributed widely by floating from one coral island to another. The calm waters are useful for fishing and canoeing. Some of the large atolls eg. Suvadiva (Maldives), west of Ceylon, have a lagoon over 40 miles across. A number of them provide essential air bases for trans-Pacific aircraft. 

Previous Page:Physical Geography (Part-8): Lime Stone & Chalk Landforms

Next Page:Urbanization (Section- H): JPSC


Thursday, August 19, 2021

Physical Geography (Part-7): Arid and Desert Landforms

Arid and Desert Landforms

About a fifth of the world's land is made up of deserts, some rocky other stony, and the rest sandy. Deserts that are absolutely barren and where nothing grows at all are rare and they are better known as 'true deserts'.

Physical Geography (Part-7): Arid and Desert Landforms

On the World's Map almost all the deserts are confined within the 15° to 30° parallels of latitude N and S of the equator. They lie in the trade wind belt on the western parts of the continents where Trade Winds are off-shore. They are bathed by cold currents which produce a 'desiccating effect' so that moisture is not easily condensed into precipitation. Dryness or aridity is the keynote. Such deserts are tropical hot deserts or 'Trade Wind deserts'. Example: Great Sahara deserts, Arabian, Iranian, and Thar deserts, Kalahari, Namib, and Atacama deserts, the Great Australian deserts, and the desert of the south-west USA and northern Mexico. In the continental interiors of the mid-latitudes, the deserts such as Gobi and Turkestan are characterized by extremes of temperatures. 

The work of winds and water in eroding elevated uplands, transporting the worn-off materials, and depositing them elsewhere, has given rise to five distinct kinds of a desert landscape.

  • Reg or Stony Desert: This is composed of extensive sheets of angular pebbles and gravels which the winds are not able to blow off. Such stony deserts are much more accessible than the sandy deserts, and large herds of camels are kept there. In Libya and Egypt, the term serir is used; elsewhere in Africa, stony deserts are called reg.

  • Erg or Sandy Desert: This is a sea of sand that typifies the popular ideas of desert scenery. Winds deposit vast stretches of undulating sand-dunes in the heart of the deserts. The intricate patterns of the ripples on the dune surfaces indicate the direction of the winds. The Calanscio Sand Sea (Libya) is characteristic of a sandy desert. In Turkestan, sandy deserts are also known as koum.

  • Badlands: The term 'badlands' was first given to an arid area in South Dakota (USA), where the hills were badly eroded by occasionally rainstorms into gullies and ravines. The extent of water action on hill slopes and rock surfaces was so great that the entire region was abandoned by the inhabitants. Deserts with similar features are now referred to as badlands. Eg. the Painted Desert (Arizona), which lies southeast of the Grand Canyon of Colorado River.

  • Mountain Deserts: Some deserts are found on highlands such as plateaux and mountain ranges. Erosion has dissected the desert highlands into harsh, serrated outlines of chaotic peaks and craggy ranges. Their steep slopes are cut by wadis (steep-sided, often dry, valleys) and the action of frost has craved out sharp, irregular edges. Eg. In the Sahara Desert, the Ahaggar Mountains, and the Tibesti Mountains.

The Mechanism of Arid Erosion:

Arid landforms are the results of many combined factors, one creating upon the other. Insufficient rainfall (often less than 5 inches) coming at most irregular periods, coupled with very high temperatures (87° F is the average) and a rapid rate of evaporation, are the chief causes of aridity. Sub-aerial denudation through the processes of weathering (mechanical and chemical), wind action, and the work of water have combined to produce a desert landscape that is varied and distinctive.

Weathering: This is the most potent factor in reducing rocks to sand in arid regions. Even though the amount of rain that falls in the desert is small, some manage to penetrate into the rocks and sets up chemical reactions in the various minerals. Intense heating during the day and rapid cooling at night by radiation set up stresses in the already weakened rocks so that they eventually crack. As heat penetrates rocks slowly when the outer surface of rocks remains quite cool. The heating of the rocks causes the outer surface to expand and so prise itself off from the interior rocks so that it peels off in successive very thin layers. As the onion-peeling process of mechanical weathering is called exfoliation. Angular rock debris is found in abundance as screes at the foot of upstanding rocks. Similarly, when water gets into the cracks and joints of rocks and the temperature at night suddenly drops to below freezing point, the water freezes and therefore expands by 10% of its volume. Successive freezing will prise off fragments of rock that accumulate as screes. These rock fragments become the 'teeth' or tools of wind erosion.

Action of winds in deserts: The wind though not the most effective agent of erosion, transportation, and deposition is more efficient in arid than in humid regions. Since there is little vegetation or moisture to bind the loose surface materials, the effects of wind erosion are almost unrestrained.

Wind erosion is carried out in the following ways:

  • Deflation: This involves the lifting and blowing away of loose materials from the ground. Such unconsolidated sands and pebbles may be carried in the air or rolled along the ground depending on the grain size. The finer dust and sands may be removed miles away from their place of origin, and be deposited even outside the desert margins. Deflation results in the lowering of the land surface to form large depressions called deflation hollows. The Qattara Depression (Sahara Desert) lies almost 450 feet below sea level.

  • Abrasion: The sand-blasting of rock surfaces by winds that hurl sand particles against them is called abrasion. The impact of such blasting results in rock surfaces being scratched, polished and worn away. Abrasion is most effective at or near the base of rocks, where the amount of material the wind can carry is greatest. A great variety of desert features are produced by abrasion.

  • Attrition: When wind-borne particles roll against one another in a collision they were each other away so that their sizes are greatly reduced and grains are rounded into millet seed sand. This process is called attrition.

Landforms of Wind Erosion in Deserts:

  • Rock pedestal or Mushroom rocks: The sand-blasting effect of winds against any projecting rock masses wears back the softer layers so that an irregular edge is formed on the alternate bands of hard and soft rocks. Grooves and hollows are cut in the rock surfaces, carving them into fantastic and grotesque-looking pillars called rock pedestals. Such rock pillars will be further eroded near their bases where the friction is greatest. This process of undercutting produces rocks of mushroom shape called mushroom rocks or gour in the Sahara.

  • Zeugen: These are tabular masses that have a layer of soft rocks lying beneath a surface layer of more resistant rocks. The sculpting effects of wind abrasion wear them into a weird-looking ridge and furrow landscape. Mechanical weathering initiates their formation by opening up joints of the surface rocks. Wind abrasion further eats into the underlying softer layer so that deep furrows are developed. The hard rock then stands above the furrows as ridges or zeugen and many even overhang. Such tabular blocks of zeugen may stand 10 to 100 feet above sunken furrows. Continuous abrasion by wind gradually lowers the zeugen and widens the furrows. 

  • Yardangs: Quite similar to the 'ridge and furrow' landscape of zeugen are steep-sided yardangs. Instead of lying in horizontal strata upon one another, the hard and soft rocks of yardangs are vertical bands and are aligned in the direction of the prevailing winds. Wind abrasion excavated the bands of softer rocks into long, narrow corridors, separating the steep-sided overhanging rides of hard rocks, called yardangs. They are commonly found in the Atacama Desert (Chile), but the more spectacular ones with yardangs rising to 25-50 feet are best developed in the interior deserts of Central Asia.

  • Mesas and Buttes: Mesa= table (in Spanish). It is a flat, table-like landmass with a very resistant horizontal top layer and very steep sides. The hard stratum on the surface resists denudation by both wind and water, and thus protects the underlying layers of rocks from being eroded away. Mesas may be formed in canyons regions eg. Arizona, or on fault blocks eg. the Table Mountain (Cape Town, South Africa). Continued denudation through the ages may reduce mesas in the area so that they become isolated flat-topped hills called buttes. Many of them in arid countries are separated by deep gorges or canyons.

  • Inselbergs: Inselbergs= island mountain (in German). They have isolated residual hills rising abruptly from the level ground. They are characterized by their very steep slopes and rather rounded tops. They are often composed of granite or gneiss and are probably the relics of an original plateau that has been almost entirely eroded away. Inselbergs are typical of many deserts and semi-arid landscapes in old age eg. Nothern Nigeria, Western Australia, and the Kalahari Desert.

  • Ventifacts or Dreikanter: These are pebbles faceted by sand-blasting. They are shaped and thoroughly polished by wind abrasion to shapes resembling Brazil nuts. Rock fragments, mechanically weathered from mountains and upstanding rocks are moved by wind and smoothed on the windward side. If the wind direction changes another facet is developed. Such rocks have characteristics of flat facets with sharp edges. Amongst the ventifacts, those with three wind-faceted surfaces are called dreikanter. These wind-faceted pebbles from the desert pavement a smooth, mosaic-like region, closely covered by the numerous rock fragments and pebbles.

  • Deflation hollows: Wind lower the ground by blowing away the unconsolidated materials, and small depressions may form. Similarly, minor faulting can also initiate depressions and the eddying action of on-coming winds will wear off the weaker rocks until the water table is reached. Water then seeps out forming oases or swamps, in the deflation hollows or depressions. The Faiyum Depression in Egypt lies 130 feet below sea level. Large areas in the western USA, stripped of their natural vegetation for farming, were completely deflated when strong winds, moved materials as dust-storms, laying waste crops and creating what is now known as the Great Dust Bowl. In a dust storm, winds may lift dust hundreds of feet high and carry it thousands of miles away.

Landforms of Wind Deposition in Deserts:

Materials eroded and transported by winds must come to rest somewhere. The finest dust travels enormous distances in the air and may be moved completely out of the desert. It has been estimated that some dust grains travel as far as 2,300 miles of dust before they are finally deposited on land or sea. The dust from the Sahara Desert is sometimes blown across the Mediterranean to falls as blood rains in Italy or on the glaciers of Switzerland. Dust that has accumulated over past centuries to a depth of several hundred feet!

The following are some of the major features of wind deposition:

1.) Dunes: Dunes are, in fact, hills of sand formed by the accumulation of sand and shaped by the movement of winds. They may be active or live dunes, constantly on the move, or inactive fixed dunes, rooted with vegetation. Dunes are most well represented in the erg desert where a sea is redeposited into a variety of features. Because of their great contrast in shape, size, and alignment, they have been given a long list of fanciful names, such as attached dune or head dune, tail dune, advanced dune, lateral dune, wake dune, star dune, pyramidal dune, sword dune, parabolic blow-out dune, hairpin dune, smoking dune, and transverse dune. Various types of common dunes:

  • Barchans: These are crescentic or moon-shaped dunes that occur individually or in groups. They are live dunes that advance steadily before winds that come from a particular prevailing direction. They are most prevalent in the desert of Turkestan and in the Sahara. Barchans are initiated probably by a chance accumulation of sand at an obstacle, such as a patch of grass or a heap of rocks. They occur transversely to the wind so that their horns thin out and become lower in the direction of the wind due to the reduced frictional retardation of the winds around the edges. The windward side is convex and gently sloping while the leeward side, being sheltered, is concave and steep. The crest of the sand dune moves forward as more sand is accumulated by the prevailing wind. The sand is driven up the windward side and, on reaching the crest, slips down the leeward side so that the dune advances. The rate of advancement varies from 25 feet a year for the high dunes measuring up to 100 feet high, to 50 feet a year, for the lower dunes which may be only a dozen feet high. The migration of the barchans may be a threat to desert life for they may encroach on an oasis burying palm trees or houses. Long rooted trees and grasses are therefore planted to halt the advances of the dunes thus preventing areas of fertile land from being devastated. Under the action of winds, barchans take a chaotic changing pattern. Several barchans may coalesce into a line of irregular ridges, ever-changing with the direction of the winds. Ergs or sandy deserts are thus most difficult to cross.

  • Seifs or longitudinal dunes: Seif= sword (in Arabic). They are long, narrow ridges of sand, often over a hundred miles long lying parallel to the direction of the prevailing winds. The high, serrated ridges may attain a height of over 200 feet. The Crestline of the seif rises and falls in alternate peaks and saddles in regular successions like the teeth of a monstrous saw. The dominant winds blow straight along the corridor between the lines of dunes so that they are swept clear of sand and remain smooth. The eddies that are set up blow towards the sides of the corridor, and, having less power, drop the sand to form the dunes. In this manner, the prevailing winds increase the length of the dunes into tapering linear ridges while the occasional crosswinds tend to increase their height and width. Extensive seif dunes are found in the Sahara Desert, south of the Qattara Depression, the Thar Desert, and the West Australian Desert.

2.) Loess: The fine dust blown beyond the desert limits is deposited on neighboring lands as loess. It is a yellow, friable material and is usually very fertile. Loss is in fact, fine loam, rich in lime, very coherent, and extremely porous. Water sinks in readily so that the surface is always dry. Streams have cut deep valleys through a loess region soon sink and their walls rise steeply. The most expensive deposit of loess is found in northwest China in the loess plateau of the Hwang-Ho basin. It is estimated to cover an area of 250,000 square miles, and the deposits have accumulated to a depth of 200 to 500 feet! In China, such yellowish wind-borne dust from the Gobi Desert is called 'Hwangtu-the yellow earth'! But the original term loess actually comes from a village in Alsace, France. Similar deposits also occur in some parts of Germany, France and Belgium, and are locally called Limon. They are also wind-borne but were blown from material deposited at the edge of ice sheets during the Ice Ages. In part of the Mid-West, USA loess was derived from the ice sheets which covered northern North America and is termed adobe.

Landforms due to Water Action in Deserts:

Few deserts in the world are entire without rain or water. The annual precipitation may be small, 5 to 10 inches, and comes in irregular showers. But thunderstorms do occur and the rain falls in torrential down porous, producing devastating effects. A single rainstorm may bring several inches of rain within a few hours, drowning people who camp in dry desert streams and flooding mud-baked houses in the oases. A desert has little vegetation to protect the surface soil, large quantities of rock wastes are transported in sudden ranging torrents or flash-floods. Loose gravel, sand and fine dust are swept down the hillsides. They cut deep gullies and ravines forming badland topography. Subsequent down porous widen and deepen the gullies when they wash down more soft rocks from the surface. There is so much material in the flash floods that the flow becomes liquid mud. When the masses of debris are deposited at the foot of the hill or the mouth of the valley, an alluvial cone or fan or 'dry delta' is formed, over which the temporary stream discharges through several channels, depositing are subjected to rapid evaporation by the hot sun and downward percolation of water into the porous ground, and soon dry up leaving mounds of debris.

Apart from gullies, there are many larger dry channels or valleys. These are deepened by vertical corrosion by raging torrents during the occasional cloudburst. These are wadis and are dry for most of the time. Some desert streams are fed by the melting snow of the distant mountains outside the deserts and rivers flow as exotic streams. The water carves out steep walls, which rise abruptly from the stream bed. In Algeria, such gorges are termed chebka.

In arid and semi-arid areas the outflowing streams from the upland regions are both short and intermittent. They drain into the lower depressions so that drainage is almost entirely internal. Sometimes water collected in a depression or a desert basin does not completely disappear by evaporation or seepage, and a temporary lake is formed. Such lakes contain a high percentage of salts, because of high evaporation, and are glistening white when they dry up. The lakes and the alluvial plains formed by them are called playas, salinas or salars in the United States, Mexico, and shotts in northern Africa. The floor of the depression is made up of two features, the bajada and the pediment. The bajada is a depositional feature made up of alluvial material laid down by the intermittent streams. The pediment is an erosional plain formed at the base of the surrounding mountain scarps.

Next Page: Physical Geography (Part-8): Lime Stone & Chalk Landforms


Physical Geography (Part-8): Lime Stone & Chalk Landforms

Limestone and Chalk Land-Forms

Physical Geography (Part-8): Lime Stone & Chalk Landforms

Limestone and chalks are sedimentary rocks of organic origin derived from the accumulation of corals and shells in the sea.

In its pure state, limestone is made up of calcite or calcium carbonate, but where magnesium is also present it is termed dolomite. Chalk is a very pure form of limestone, white and rather soft. Limestone is soluble in rainwater, which, with carbon dioxide from the air, forms a weak acid. A region with a large stretch of limestone, therefore, possesses a very distinct type of topography. It is then, termed a karst region, a name derived from the Karst district of Yugoslavia where such topography is particularly well developed.

Characteristics features of a Karst Region:

Karst region has a bleak landscape, occasionally broken by precipitous slopes. There is a general absence of drainage as most of the surface water has gone underground. Streams raising of the other rocks only flow over limestone for a short distance and then disappear underground. For the greater part of their course, they cut their way along the joints and fissures of the rock wearing out a system of underground channels. The surface valleys are therefore dry. When the water penetrates to the base of the limestone and meets non-porous rocks it re-emerges onto the surface as a spring or resurgence.

Limestones are well jointed and it is through these joints and cracks that rainwater finds its way into the underlying rock. Progressive widening by solution enlarges these cracks into trenches and a most intriguing feature called limestone pavement is developed. The enlarged joints are called grikes and the isolated, rectangular blocks are termed clints. The limestone pavements may have been formed beneath the soil and are now exposed by the removal of the soil cover.

On the surface of the limestones are numerous swallow holes, which are small depressions carved out by solution where rainwater sinks into the limestone at a point of weakness. They are also known as sinkholes. Example: Gaping Ghyll in Yorkshire. These holes grow in size through continuous solvent action.

Once the water has sunk into the limestone it etches out caverns and passages along joints or bedding planes. When the roof of an underground tunnel collapses, a precipitous limestone gorge such as the Cheddar Gorge is formed. Where several swallow holes coalesce a larger hollow is formed and is called a doline. Several Dolina may merge as a result of subsidence to form a larger depression called an uvala. Some of them are miles across, containing much clayey soil from the limestones, weathered after their subsidence.

In Yugoslavia, some very large depressions called polje may be as large as hundred square miles but these are partly due to faulting. During the rainy season, parts of the floor that are at or near the water table may become temporary lakes, but the drier areas are fertile and may support large villages.

Where subterranean streams descend through swallow holes to underground passages, the region may be honeycombed with caves and caverns, some containing ponds and lakes. The most spectacular underground features that adorn the limestone caves are stalactites, stalagmites, and pillars.

  • Stalactites: These are the sharp, slender, downward-growing pinnacles that hang from the cave roofs. The water carries calcium in the solution and when this lime-charged water evaporates, it leaves behind the solidified crystalline calcium carbonate.
  • Stalagmites: As moisture drips from the roof it trickles down the stalactite and drops to the floor where calcium is deposited to form stalagmites. They are shorter, flatter, and more rounded.
  • Pillar: Over a long period, the stalactite hanging from the floor forms a pillar. Such features are commonly seen in any well-developed limestone cave eg. Batu caves, Kuala Lampur, Mammoth caves, Kentucky and Carlsbad cave, New Mexico, in the USA, and Postojna caves, Yugoslavia.

The major Limestone Regions of the World:

  • Other regions include the Causses district of southern France, the Pennines of Britain, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire in particular, the Kentucky region of United States, the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, the Cockpit Country of Jamaica, and the limestone hills of Perlis.

Human activities of Karts Regions:

Karts regions are often barren and at best carry a thin layer of soil. The porosity of the rocks and the absence of surface drainage make vegetative growth difficult, so that limestone can usually support only poor and short turf, some sheep grazing is possible. Limestone vegetation in tropical regions, however, is luxuriant because of the heavy rainfall all year round. Settlement is scattered and the population is often sparse. The only mineral of importance is lead which occurs in veins in association with limestone. Besides this, good-quality limestones are often used as building material or quarried for the cement industry.

In West Malaysia, the limestone outcrops of the Kledang range and the Main range are quarried for the Pan-Malaysian and Tasek Cement Works.


The landforms of chalk are rather different from those of other limestones. There is little or no surface drainage and valleys that once contained rivers are now dry. These are often called coombes. The chalk forms low rounded hills in southern and southern eastern England, where they are called downs, and in Northern France. 

The chalk is covered with short turf, and in places with woodland, and is used for pasture and sometimes for arable farming. Because of the friable nature of the rock, swallow-holes and underground cave networks do not generally develop.

Previous Page: Physical Geography (Part-7): Arid and Desert Landforms

Next Page:Physical Geography (Part-11): Islands & Coral Reefs


Thursday, August 12, 2021

Chotanagpur Kashtkari Adhiniyam 1908 Part-4 (छोटानागपुर काश्तकारी अधिनियम 1908)

Chotanagpur Kashtkari Adhiniyam 1908 Part-4

छोटानागपुर काश्तकारी अधिनियम 1908 part-4

अध्याय 8 :-जोतों  और भूघृतियों  के पट्टे और अंतरण (धारा- 44 से 51) 

➧ धारा - 44 :- रैयत का पट्टे का अधिकार होना

➧ प्रत्येक रैयत अपनी भूस्वामी से पट्टा प्राप्त करने का अधिकारी होगा। पट्टे में सभी बातें जैसे - भूमि का क्षेत्रफल, वार्षिक लगान, भुगतान की किस्ते और अन्य शर्तें उल्लेखित होती हैं।  

➧ धारा -45 :- भूस्वामी का प्रतिलेख वचनबंध के लिए हकदार होना

➧ जब कोई भूस्वामी किसी का काश्तकार को कोई पट्टा देगा तो गोस्वामी पट्टा के शर्तों के अनुरूप एक प्रतिलेख पाने का हकदार होगा 

➧ धारा -46 :-  रैयतों द्वारा अपने अधिकारों के अंतरण पर प्रतिबंध

(i) यदि अधिभोगी रैयत अनुसूचित जनजाति (एस.टी)  का सदस्य हो, तो उपायुक्त के अनुमति से अपनी जोत  के किसी भाग को विक्रय, दान या अंतरण कर सकता है बशर्ते की खरीदार रैयत उसी स्थानीय निवासी हो और अनुसूचित जाति का सदस्य हो 

(ii) यदि अधिभोगी रैयत अनुसूचित जाति या पिछड़े वर्ग का सदस्य हो, तो उपायुक्त के अनुमति से अपनी जोत  या उसके किसी भाग को विक्रय, विनियम, दान, वसीयत या पट्टे द्वारा किसी व्यक्ति को दें (अंतरण) कर सकता है बशर्ते कि खरीदार व्यक्ति अनुसूचित जाति या पिछड़े वर्ग का सदस्य हो और उसी जिले का निवासी हो 

(iii)  यदि कोई अधिभोगी रैयत अपनी जोत या उसके किसी भाग का अंतरण, बिक्री, वसीयत, दान के द्वारा किसी कोऑपरेटिव सोसाइटीज को, राष्ट्रीकृत बैंक या केंद्र सरकार या राज्य सरकार के कोई उपक्रम को करना चाहता है, तो कर सकता है 

(iv) यदि कोई भोगी रैयत सामान्य जाति का सदस्य हो तो वह किसी को भी अपनी भूमि बिक्री कर सकता है

(v) अधिभोगी रैयत अपने जोत या उसके किसी भाग का 5 वर्ष से अधिक अवधि के लिए विक्रय, दान या संविदा (कॉन्ट्रैक्ट) नहीं कर सकता  

(vi) यदि अधिभोगी रैयत अपनी जोत या उसके किसी भाग को चाहे, तो 7 वर्ष से कम अवधि के लिए भुगतबंध बुक बंद कर सकता है  

(vii) अगर कोई  अधिभोगी रैयत चाहे, तो बिहार और उड़ीसा सहकारी समिति अधिनियम 1935 के अधीन रजिस्ट्री कृत कंपनी को 15 जुलाई 15 वर्ष हेतु अपनी भूमि  भुगतबंध बंधक कर सकता है  

(viii) अगर किसी जोत या उसके भाग के संबंध में ऐसा वाद (केस)कोर्ट में लंबित हो जिसमें एक पक्ष अनुसूचित जनजाति का सदस्य हो और दूसरा पक्ष गैर अनुसूचित जनजाति का सदस्य हो, तो ऐसे मामले में उपायुक्त को तीसरा पक्षकार अवश्य होगा   (धारा- 46 , 3 'क')

(ix) अगर कोई रैयत ने जिस समय अवधि के लिए किसी व्यक्ति को जमीन अंतरित किया हो, समय अवधि समाप्त होते ही 3 वर्ष के भीतर रैयत के आवेदन पर, उपायुक्त रैयत को जमीन वापस दिलाएगा । (धारा-46, 4)

(x) अगर कोई जोत धारकया रैयत उपायुक्त के पास इस बाबद आवेदन दे, कि उसके भूमि का अंतरण के मामले में उचित प्रक्रिया का पालन नहीं किया गया है, तो उपायुक्त ऐसे आरोपों की जांच करेगा, परंतु यह आवेदन उपायुक्त तभी स्वीकार करेगा, जब जोत धारक ने अपनी भूमि के अंतरण की तारीख से 12 वर्ष के समय अवधि के भीतर आवेदन प्रस्तुत किया हो (ऐसे मामलों में डी.सी. स्वत: भी संज्ञान ले सकता है।)  (धारा-46, 4 'क')

(xi) अगर उपायुक्त जांच के पश्चात यह पाता है, कि किसी जोत धारक की भूमि अंतरण में आवश्यक नियम का उल्लंघन नहीं हुआ है, फिर भी जोतधारक  ने आवेदन प्रस्तुत किया है, तो उपायुक्त आवेदन को रद्द कर देगा तथा आवेदनकर्ता को मामले में होने वाले खर्च का भुगतान करने का आदेश देगा। (धारा-46, 4, 'ख')   

(xii) यदि जांच के बाद उपायुक्त यह पाता है, कि खरीदार पक्ष ने नियम का उल्लंघन करते हुए भूमि का अंतरण अपने पक्ष में कराया है, तो वह जमीन खरीदार पक्ष (अंतरिती) से वापस लेकर विक्रयकर्ता (अंतरक)  को उसकी जमीन पर दखल वापस दिलाएगा 

 परंतु यदि खरीदार (अंतरिती) पक्ष ने जोत भूमि पर भवन या संरचना का कार्य निर्मित कर लिया हो, और विक्रयकर्ता (अंतरक)  उसके मूल्य का भुगतान नहीं करना चाहता हो, तो उपायुक्त खरीदार पक्ष को यह आदेश देगा कि, वह 2 वर्ष के भीतर अपने निर्मित संरचना को हटा लें 

➧ परंतु यदि उपायुक्त को यह जानकारी प्राप्त हो जाये कि खरीदार पक्ष ने जोत भाग पर संरचना का निर्माण छोटानागपुर अभिघृति अधिनियम 1969 के आरंभ से पहले कर लिया है, उस स्थिति में नियम का उल्लंघन होने के बावजूद भूमि अंतरण को विधि की मान्यता दे देगा। ऐसी स्थिति में खरीदार पक्ष समतुल्य मूल्य की भूमि निकट के किसी वैकल्पिक जोत या भाग में उपलब्ध करा दें या उपायुक्त द्वारा निर्धारित की गई राशि का भुगतान कर कर दे। सामान्य तौर पर इससे ही कम्पनसेशन कहा जाता है। (धारा-46, 4, 'ग')

➧ धारा -47  :- न्यायालय आदेश के जरिए रैयती अधिकार के विक्रय पर प्रतिबंध 

➧ किसी न्यायालय के द्वारा किसी रैयत को उसकी जोत या उसकी किसी भाग के विक्रय के लिए कोई आदेश या  डिक्री नहीं पारित किया जाएगा । परंतु निम्न परिस्थितियों में समाना लें परिस्थितियों में न्यायालय द्वारा रैयत के जोत को विक्रय का आदेश जारी किया जा सकता है 
(i) जोत के संबंध में बकाया लगान की वसूली के लिए  
(ii) किसी बैंक ऋण या उधार रकम की वसूली हेतु 
(iii) बिहार, उड़ीसा लोक मांग वसूली अधिनियम द्वारा उपबंधित प्रक्रिया के अधीन परंतु उपरोक्त परिस्थिति में किसी जमीन का विक्रय हो रहा तो भी अनुसूचित जाति या अनुसूचित जनजाति के जमीन को अनुसूचित जाति या अनुसूचित जनजाति का ही कोई सदस्य खरीद सकता है 

➧ धारा -48 :- भुईहारी भूघृति के अंतरण पर प्रतिबंध 

➧ किसी भुईहरि कुटुम का कोई भी सदस्य छोटानागपुर भूघृति  अधिनियम-1869 के अंतर्गत किसी भी भुईहरि भूघृति का या उसके भाग का अंतरण कर सकता है। यह  अंतरण ठीक उसी प्रकार का होगा जैसे धारा- 46 में वर्णित है । राज्य सरकार चाहे तो भुईहरि कुटुंब के किसी व्यक्ति को उसके  भूघृति का विक्रय, दान, विनिमय द्वारा अंतरित करने के संदर्भ में नियम बना सकती है 

➧ धारा -49 :-कतिपय प्रयोजनों के लिए अधिभोग जोत या भुईहरि एवं  भूघृति का अंतरण

 धारा-46 , 47 तथा 48 के अंतर्गत कोई भी भुईंहरी खूँट का सदस्य अपने जोत या भूघृति का स्थानांतरण कर सकता है :-
(ii) किसी खनन कार्य हेतु या इससे जुड़ी कोई परियोजना हेतु या इससे जुड़े पथ निर्माण हेतु भूमि को अधिसूचित किया जाए 

➧ धारा -50  :-कतिपय प्रयोजनों के लिए भू-स्वामी द्वारा घृति या जोत का अर्जन

➧ धारा 46 एवं 47 के अंतर्गत उपायुक्त किसी जोत के भूस्वामी के द्वारा आवेदन करने पर भूमि के अर्जन करने का आदेश दे सकता है। जैसे-
(i) खैराती, धार्मिक या शैक्षणिक कार्य हेतु 
(ii) राज्य सरकार द्वारा खनन कार्य हेतु 
(iii) यदि जोत के किसी भाग पर मंदिर, मस्जिद, पूजा स्थल, पवित्र उपवन, कब्र या शमशान हो तो उपायुक्त भूमि के अर्जन को प्राधिकृत नहीं करेगा 

➧ धारा -51  :- अंतरण की सूचना के बिना भूतपूर्व स्वामी को दिए गए लगान के लिए अभिधारी भू-स्वामी के हित के अंतरिती के प्रति दायी नहीं होगा 

अध्याय-9 :- लगान के बारे में साधारण उपबंध (धारा-52 से 63) 

➧ धारा -52 :- किस्तलगान का भुगतान एक कृषि का वर्ष में प्रत्येक तिमाही पर चार सामान्य किस्तों में जमा होगा 

➧ धारा -53 :- लगान भुगतान की रीतियाँ

➧ लगान का जमा माल कचहरी में या मनीआर्डर से किया जाना चाहिए तथा लगान की राशि भूस्वामी या अभिकर्ता के द्वारा उपायुक्त के यहां किया जाएगा 

➧ धारा -54 :-लगान तथा उसके ब्याज के लिए रसीद

➧ लगान और उस पर देय ब्याज की राशि का भुगतान करने पर रसीद निशुल्क प्राप्त करने का अधिकार रहेगा  लगान के भुगतान की रसीद अगर भूस्वामी नहीं देता है, तो उसे 1 माह का कारावास या ₹100 जुर्माना या दोनों का दंड दिया जा सकता है

➧ धारा -55 :- उपायुक्त के न्यायालय में लगान का निक्षेप 

➧ धारा -56 :-जमा  का प्राप्ति और उसके भुगतान की प्रक्रिया

➧ भुगतान विवाद होने पर लिखित आवेदन प्राप्त होने के आधार पर उपायुक्त लगान का जमा लेकर रसीद दे देगा। तथा उपायुक्त तुरंत इसकी सूचना भूस्वामी को दे देगा 

➧ धारा -57 :- जमा के पूर्व में लगान के लिए वाद या आवेदन की परिसीमा

➧ धारा -58  :- लगान का बकाया और उस पर ब्याज के प्रावधान 

(i) लगान की किस्त जिस दिन देय हो, उस दिन सूर्यास्त के पूर्व भुगतान नहीं किया गया, तो उस कृषि वर्ष के अंत में लगान बकाया समझा जाएगा 

(ii) यदि भूस्वामी राज्य सरकार हो, तो कृषि वर्ष के अंत में लगान का भुगतान न करने पर लगान बकाया समझा जाएगा 

(iii) लगान की बकाया राशि पर वसूली पक्ष अधिकतम 6.25% साधारण ब्याज वार्षिक लगेगा 

(iv) यदि अभिधारी किसी कृषि वर्ष में बकाया लगान की राशि का भुगतान अगले कृषि वर्ष के भीतर कर दे तो, भुगतान लगान की राशि पर अधिकतम 3% की दर से ही ब्याज आरोपित होगा  

➧ धारा -59 :- भू -धारक की बेदखली और बकाए के कारण पट्टे का रद्द किया जाना

➧ यदि किसी भूधारक के यहां लगान बकाया हो तो उसके पट्टे को रद्द किया जा सकता है 

➧ धारा -60 :लगान के बकाया का काश्तकारी पर प्रथम भार होगा 

➧ साधारणत: लगान का भार कश्तकारी पर ही होता है, परंतु लगान के बकाए का भुगतान करने हेतु कश्तकारी का विक्रय कर दिया जाए तो, खरीददार उस कश्तकारी का विक्रय की तारीख के पहले के लगान की भार से मुक्त कर देगा 

➧ धारा -61 :वस्तुरूप में देय लगान का रूपांतरण

➧ किसी अधिभोगी रैयत द्वारा लगान का भुगतान फसल के रूप में जमा किया जा रहा हो, और आगे वह इस लगान का भुगतान धन (नगद) के रूप में करना चाहे तो इसके लिए वह उपायुक्त या राजस्व अधिकारी के यहां आवेदन जमा करेगा  

➧ धारा -61 (क) :- अधिभोगी जोत के लगान का रूपांतरण

 यदि राजपाल सूचना के द्वारा आदेश दे, तो उपायुक्त अधिभोगी  रैयत के पक्ष में लगान का रूपांतरण धन लगान के रूप में कर सकता है 

➧ धारा -62 :- रूपांतरित लगान के अपरिवर्तित रहने की कालावधि 

➧ धारा -63  :-स्थानीय उपकर लगाने या निर्धारित लगान से अधिक उदग्रहण करने पर दंड का नियम 

➧ यदि कोई भूस्वामी किसान से विधि पूर्वक दे लगान बकाया ब्याज राशि के अलावा कोई अतिरिक्त कर वसूलता है, या लगान बढ़ाकर बसूलता है, तो ऐसे में भूस्वामी को छह माह के साधारण कारावास या 500 /- जुर्माना या दोनों दंड के रूप में दिया जा सकता है 

अध्याय-9 (क) :- बंजर भूमि का बंदोबस्त  (धारा-63 (क) से 63 (ख) 

➧ धारा -63 (क) :- बंजर भूमि का बंदोबस्त पट्टे द्वारा किया जाना 

➧ राज्य सरकार बंजर भूमि का बंदोबस्त विहित प्रारूप में पट्टे पर किया जाएगा, प्रत्येक पट्टा की दो प्रति बनेगी जिसमें एक प्रति रैयत को और एक प्रति जिला उपायुक्त को भेज दी जाएगी 

➧ धारा -63 (ख)  :- बंदोबस्त को अपास्त (रद्द) किए जाने का प्रावधान

➧ इस विधि से प्राप्त बंदोबस्त की कि 5 वर्षों की अवधि तक प्राप्त जमीन पर खेती नहीं की गई हो या धारा-46 के उल्लंघन का दोषी पाया जाए तो धारा 63-(क) के अंतर्गत बंदोबस्त को अपास्त रद्द किया जा सकता है 


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