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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Thursday, August 6, 2020



DELHI SULTANATE, (Time Period: 1206 - 1526 CE)

(A.) SLAVE/ILBARI DYNASTY, Time Period: 1206 - 1287 CE.

(1.) Qutub-ud-Din Aibak (Period: 1206 - 1210 CE.)
  • Founder of the Slave dynasty.
  • Known as "Lakh Baksh".
  • Built the first mosque in India "Quwwat-ul-Islam" at Delhi & Khai din a Jhopra' at Ajmer.
  • Started construction of 'Qutub Minar' in memory of the saint Qutub-ud-Din Bakhtiyar Khaki.
  • Died during playing Chaugun (horse polo).
(2.) Iltutmish (Period: 1210 - 1236 CE)
  • The real founder of Turkish rule.
  • Introduced 'Iqtadari' & 'Chahalghani' system.
  • Issued Arabic coinage of 'silver tank'.
  • Father of tomb building, completed construction of Qutub Minar.
  • Declared daughter Razia Sultan as his successor.
(3.) Razia Sultan (Period: 1236 - 1249 CE)
  • First & last lady Muslim ruler of medieval India.
  • Discarded female apparel and purdah.
  • Came in controversy over the appointment of a non-Turkish Abyssinian slave Malik-Yaqut.
  • Rebellion by Governor of Sirhind (Bhatinda) Altuniya.
(4.) Bahram Shah (Period: 1240 - 1242 CE)
  • The ascendancy of the Chahalghani (forty nobles)
  • Murdered by own Army.
(5.) Nasiruddin Mahmud (Period: 1246 - 1266 CE)
  • Grandson of Iltutmish but the real power in hands of Balban.
(6.) Ghiyas -ud-Din Balban (Period: 1266 - 1287 CE)
  • Followed policy of 'Blood & Iron'.
  • Introduced concept of - Zil-i-Ilahi, Sajda, Paibos, Persian festival of Nauroz.
  • Separated 'Diwan-i-Arz' (military department) from 'Diwan-i-Wizarat' (finance).
  • Administered justice with extreme impartiality.
  • Amir Khushrau (who invented Sitar) was at his court.

(B.) KHALJI DYNASTY, Time Period: 1290 - 1320 CE.

(1.) Jalauddin Khilji (Period: 1290 - 1296 CE.) 
  • Founder of Khalji
  • The first sultan to have benevolent (kind-hearted) towards Hindu.
(2.) Alauddin Khilji (Period: 1296 - 1316 CE.) 
  • 'Chehra & Daag' system.
  • Market reforms.
  • The permanent army had able soldier Malik Kafur who expanded the empire to as far as Rameshwaram.
  • Believed in the principle that 'Kingship knows no kinship', curbed the powers of nobles.
  • Recognized intelligence system.
  • Adopted the title of 'Sikandar-i-Azam' and gave Khusrau title of 'Tuti-i-Hind'.
  • Reputed suzerainty of the caliph.
(3.) Qutuddin Mubarak Shah (Period: 1316 - 1320 CE.) 

(4.) Nasiruddin Khurau Shah (Period: 1320 CE.)
  • Only Hindu convert to sit on the throne of Delhi.

(C.) TUGHLAQ DYNASTY, Time Period: 1320 - 1413 CE.

(1.) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (Period: 1320 - 1325 CE.) 
  • Founder of Tughlaq dynasty adopted the title of Ghazi (Slayer of Infields)
  • The first sultan to start irrigation work.
  • Have a troublesome relationship with Sufi saint Nizamuddin Aulia.
  • Died due to the collapse of the wooden structure.
(2.) Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (Period: 1325 - 1351 CE.) 
  • The idea of token currency (copper coins)
  • Shifted capital from Delhi --> Devagiri (Daulatabad) and later reverted back to Delhi.
  • Set up a new department of agriculture 'Diwan-i-amir-kohi'.
  • Built fort of Adilabad & city of Jahanpanah.
  • Famous traveler Ibn Battuta (author of Safarnama, Rehla) stayed at his court and acted as qazi for eight years.
(3.) Firoz Shah Tughlaq (Period: 1351 - 1388 CE.) 
  • Made Iqtadari system hereditary.
  • Built a number of canals and set up the department of public works and one department of charity.
  • Developed royal factories - Karkhanas.
  • Built new town of Hisar, Jaunpur, Firozabad.
  • Repaired Qutub Minar which was struck by lightning.
  • Famous historians Barani stayed at his court.
(4.) Nasiruddin Mohammad (Period: 1390 - 1413 CE.) 
  • Timur invaded Delhi (1398 CE) and plundered the city.
(5.) Daulat Khan (Period: 1413 CE.) o
  • Defeated by Khizr Khan who founded the Sayyad dynasty.

(D.) SAYYAD DYNASTY, Time Period: 1414 - 1451 CE.
(1.) Khizr Khan (Period: 1414 - 1421 CE.) o
  • Founder of the Sayyad dynasty.

(E.) LODHI DYNASTY, Time Period: 1451 - 1526 CE.

(1.) Bahlol Lodhi (Period: 1451 - 1489 CE.) 

(2.) Sikander Lodhi (Period: 1489 - 1517 CE.) 
  • Greatest & noblest of all Lodhis introduced 'Gaz-i-Sikandari'.
  • Founded Agra & wrote 'Gulrakhi' (Persian verses)
(3.) Ibrahim Lodhi (Period: 1517 - 1526 CE.) 
  • Defeated by Rana Sanga of Mewar & Babur in the First battle of Panipat (1526 CE).

MUGHAL DYNASTY, Time Period: 1526 - 1857 CE.

(1.) Babur (Period: 1526 - 1530 CE.) 
  • Founder of the Mughal Empire.
  • Wrote his memory in Turki Tuzuk-i-Babri.
  • Introduced concept of Char Baghs.
  • Built two Mosque - at Panipat, and Sambhat in Rohilkhand.
  • 1526: First battle of Panipat = Babur (winner) + Ibrahim Lodhi.
  • 1527: Battle of Khanwa = Babur (winner) + (Rana Sanga of Mewar, Raja Medini Rai of Chanderi, Hasan Khan of Mewat, Mahmud Lodhi)
  • 1529: Battle of Chanderi = Babur (winner) + Medini Rai of Chanderi.
  • 1529: Battle of Ghaghra = Babur (winner) + Mahmud Lodhi ( younger brother of Ibrahim Lodhi)
(2.) Humayun (Period: 1530 - 1556 CE.) 
  • 1529: Battle of Chausa = Humayun + Sher Shah Suri.
  • 1540: Battle of Bilgrama/Kannauj = Sher Shah Suri + Humayun (had to flee from Delhi and remain in exile for next 15 years)
  • 1555: Again regained the Mughal throne but died shortly after falling from stairs.
  • His sister Gulbadan Begum wrote 'Humayun-nama'.
  • Got built a new city Dinapanah and mosque of Isa Khan & Jamali.
  • Had famous painters Mir Sayyid & Abdus Sannad at his court.
(3.) Akbar (Period: 1556 - 1605 CE.) 
  • Born at Amarkot, son of Humayun & Hamida Banu Begum.
  • 1556: Second battle of Panipat = Akbar represented by Bairam Khan (winner) + Hemu Vikramaditya.
  • 1576: Annexation of Gujarat and got constructed Buland Darwaza (Door of victory) to mark his victory.
  • Shifted capital from Agra --> Fatehpur Sikri.
  • Got constructed Agra Fort & Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri, where he discussed with scholars of different religions.
  • 1563: Abolished pilgrim tax.
  • 1564: Abolish Jaziya.
  • 1576: Battle of Haldighati = Akbar (winner) + Rana Pratap, Rana of Mewar.
  • 1585: Ralph Fitch (1st Englishman) visited Akbar's court.
  • 1582: promulgated a new religion called Din-i-Illahi.
Had Navratnas:
  • Abul Fazl - wrote 'Ain-i-Akbari' & 'Akbarnama'.
  • Faizi - a Persian poet, translated Lilavati into Persian.
  • Fakir Aziaudin - Sufi mystic and chief advisor.
  • Tansen - Great musician.
  • Raja Birbal/ Mahesh Das - Courtier, who died fighting Yusuf Shahis on NW frontier.
  • Raja Todar Mal - Finance Minister.
  • Raja Man Singh - Trusted General.
  • Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khan - A great poet, translated Baburnama into Turki, Devotee of Lord Krishna.
  • Mirza Aziz Koka - Leading noble.
(4.) Jahangir (Salim) (Period: 1605 - 1627 CE.) 
  • Revolted against Akbar.
  • Under the influence of Nur Jahan, his wife.
  • Got fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev Beheaded for supporting rebel Prince Khusrau.
  • Captain Hawkins & Thomas Roe visited his court and Thomas Roe got Farman for setting a factory at Surat.
  • Wrote his autobiography 'Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri' and famous author Abdul Hamid Lahori wrote 'Padshah Namah'.
  • Built - Moti Mahal at Lahore, Shalimar & Nishat garden in Kashmir.
  • Under his reign, the Mughal painting reached its zenith. 
Had painters-
  • Ustad Mansur (animal painting specialist)
  • Bishan Das (master of portrait)
(5.) Shah Jahan (Khurram) (Period: 1628 - 1658 CE.) 
  • His era known as the Golden age of the Mughal Empire.
  • 1636: His Deccan policy was more successful, and treaties were signed with Bijapur & Golconda.
  • During his reign, French traveler Bernier & Tavernier, Italian Manucci & Peter Mundy visited.
  • Sudden illness plunged the empire into a civil war.
He built-
  • 1632 - 53: Tajmahal - at Agra, built for Mumtaz Mahal, by Ustad Isa in 22 years.
  • 1638 - 48: Red Fort, Delhi.
  • 1639: City of Shehjahanabad.
  • 1641: Shalimar Garden, Lahore, Pakistan
  • 1650 - 56: Jama Masjid, Delhi
  • Moti Masjid (Agra Fort) - at Agra.
  • Sheesh Mahal, Delhi.
(6.) Aurangzeb (Darveshi Zindapir) (Period: 1658 - 1707 CE.) 
  • 1658: Battle of Samuragh = Aurangzeb & Murad (winner) + Dara Shikoh.
  • 1659: Battle of Khajwah = Aurangzeb (winner) + Shah Shuja
  • 1659: Battle of Deorai = Aurangzeb (winner) + Dara Shikoh.
  • Executed the ninth Sikh Guru Tej Bahadur.
  • was orthodox in his outlook & reimposed Jaziya.
  • Due to the simple lifestyle, also known as 'Darveshi Zindapir'.


The power of kings declined and nobles became proxy kings.
(1.) Shah Alam I/Bahadur Shah/Muazzam (Period: 1707 - 1712 CE.) o
  • Adopted a more tolerant attitude towards Hindus.
  • Had half-hearted conciliation with Marathas as released Shahu but didn't recognize him as rightful Maratha king.
  • The real power in the hands' Wazir Zulfiqar Khan and the king was title as Shah-i-Bekhabar.
(2.) Jahader Shah (Period: 1712 - 1713 CE.) 
  • First puppet rulers of Mughals.
  • The evil practice of Ijarah (Revenue farming) was introduced.
  • Real power again in hands of Wazir Zulfiqar Khan.

(3.) Farrukh Siyar (Period: 1713 - 1719 CE.) 
  • Ascended the throne with the help of Sayyad brothers (King Makers) - Abdullah Khan (wazir), Hussain Ali Khan (Mir Bakshi)
  • Executed Sikh leader Banda Bahadur.
  • 1717: granted many trading privileges to East India Company.
  • Thrice plotted against Sayyad brothers but failed, and ultimately Sayyad brothers with the assistance of Balaji Vishwanath killed Farrukh Siyar. 
(4.) Rafi-us-Darajat (Period: 1717 CE.) 
  • Placed on the throne by Sayyad brothers but died within 4 months of tuberculosis.
(5.) Rafi-us-Daula (Period: 1719 CE.) 

(6.) Mohammad Shah 'Rangeela' (Period: 1719 - 1748 CE.) 
  • Nephew of Jahandar Shah.
  • Sayyad brothers were deposed.
  • Expert Kathak dancer himself.
  • More interested in sensual pleasures.
  • 1739: Nadir Shah invaded India & Ahmad Shah Abdali too raided kingdom for the first time.
  • Many autonomous states emerged - 1.) In Deccan: Nizam-ul-Mulk. 2.) In Awadh: Saadat Khan. 3.) In Bengal: Murshid Quli Khan.
(7.) Ahmad Shah Abdali (Period: 1748 - 1754 CE.) 
  • Multiple invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali and the emergence of other autonomous states.
  • Was blinded and prisoned by his Wazir Imad-ul-Mulk.
(8.) Alamgir II (Period: 1754 - 1759 CE.) M
  • 1757: Battle of Plassey - murdered by the wazir Imad-ul-Mulk.
(9.) Shah Alam/Ali Gauhar II (Period: 1759 - 1806 CE.) 
  • Due to fear of Wazir, remained as a refugee with Shuja-ud-daulah of Avadh.
  • 1761: Third battle of Panipat = Marathas + Ahmad Shah Abdali.
  • 1764: Battle of Buxar = British (winner) + Mughal, Shuja-ud-daulah of Awadh.
(10.) Akbar II (Period: 1806 - 1837 CE.) M
  • Remained in British protection.
  • Conferred title of Raja on Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
(11.) Bahadur Shah II Zafar (Period: 1837 - 1857 CE.) 
  • Last Mughal emperor.
  • After the revolt of 1857 CE, deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862 CE.
BRITISH RULE...started


Tuesday, August 4, 2020



  • They have always been attracted to ample opportunities for our country provided and have been interested in its diverse culture, religions, and traditions. 
  • Most of these came to India wrote their own accounts that deal with its unique focus areas.
  • Some travelers wrote about the affairs of the court while some focused on contemporary style architecture and monuments or depicted the social and economic life.
  • Every such account presents a veracious picture of then Indian Civilisation.
  • In the ancient and medieval periods, many prominent travelers visited India and recorded their observations and declarations.
Brief description of some of the most important Travelers:
(1.) Megasthenes, Time period: 302 - 298 BC.
  • Born- 350 BC.
  • Greek Historian, Diplomat, Explorer, Ambassador of Greek Warrior Seleucus I Nikator.
  • Indian Dynasty- Maurya dynasty.
  • Ruler: Chandragupta Maurya = Founder of the Maurya dynasty.
  • He visited the Maurya capital Patliputra.
  • The book- Indica/Indika
  • Indica described the sub-continent as a quadrilateral shaped country, bounded by the ocean on the Southern & Eastern side.
  • It also gives us the details of soils, rivers, plants, animals, administration & the social and religious life of India.
  • The book also communicated that Indians worshiped Lord Krishna during that time and there existed seven castes in India.
  • He founded two major caste system - 1.) Endogamy, 2.) Hereditary occupation.
  • He was influenced by the Herodotus classification of Egyptian society.
(2.) Fa - Hien, Time Period: 405 - 411 AD.
  • Chinese Buddhist monk and translator.
  • First Chinese pilgrim to visit India.
  • He studied the Sanskrit language in Patliputra.
  • Indian dynasty - Gupta dynasty.
  • Ruler- Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya).
  • He visited Peshawar, Taxila, Mathura, Kannauj, Sravasti, Kapilvastu, Sarnath, and many other places.
  • Books - Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms.
  • His Religious & Social life of Indians at that time.
(3.) Hiuen Tsang, Time Period: 630 - 645 AD.
  • The Chinese traveler, Buddhist scholar-monk, and translator.
  • Known as - Xuanzang, Prince of Pilgrims.
  • Ruler - Harshavardhana (Pushyabhuti).
  • He spent five years at the Nalanda University and studied under Acharya Shilabhadra.
  • He visited Kashmir, Punjab, Kapilvastu, Bodhgaya, Sarnath, Kushinagar, Decca, Odisha, Bengal.
  • Book: Si-Yu-Ki = Buddhist Record of The Western World.
(4.) I -Tsing, Time Period: 671 - 695 AD.
  • Chinese traveler.
  • He visited India in connection with Buddhism.
  • Contributions - work on Biographies of eminent monks, which provides information about the social, religious & cultural life of the country.
(5.) Al - Masudi, Time Period: 956 AD.
  • Arab historian, geographer, author, and explorer.
  • Known as - Herodotus of the Arabs.
  • Book - Muruj-ul-Zehab.
  • He combined world history with scientific geography, social contemporary, and biography as is published in English named "The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems".
(6.) Al-Biruni (Abu Rehman Muhammad), Time Period: 1024 - 1030 AD.
  • Scholar well versed in Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Sanskrit.
  • He came to India along with Mahmud of Ghazni and traveled all over India.
  • Books - 1.) Kitab-ul-Hind, 2.) Tahqiq-i-Hind.
  • The books dealt with social, religious, and political conditions in India.
(7.) Marco Polo, Time Period: 1292 - 1294 AD.
  • Italian merchant, adventurer, writer.
  • He visited South India during the reign of the Pandyan ruler of Madurai, Madverman, Kulshekhara.
  • Books - 1.) The Travels of Marco Polo, 2.) The Book of Sir Marco Polo = this book is inspired, Christopher Columbus.
(8.) Ibn Batuta, Time Period: 1333 - 1347 AD.
  • Moroccan traveler.
  • Throughout his life, he traveled in Syria, Iraq, Persia, Yemen, Oman, and few trading ports on the coast of East Africa.
  • India visit- during the reign of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, who appointed him as "Qazi" or Judge of Delhi.
  • Book - Rihla (in Arabic)
  • The book is highly meticulous where deep observations about new cultures, people, beliefs, and values.
  • He also mentions - postal systems.
The route he took is shown diagrammatically below:

(9.) Nicole De Conti, Time Period: 1420 - 1421 AD.
  • Italian merchnat & traveler.
  • He traveled to the Vijayanagara kingdom.
  • Ruler - Devaraya I.
  • In Mylapore (Chennai), he founded the tomb of St. Thomas.
  • He confirmed the gold and spice trade amongst India, Sumatra, China.
  • He referred to the Telugu language as "Italian of the East".
  • Book - Cristofordo da Bollate.
(10.) Abdur RazzaqTime Period: 1443 - 1444 AD.
  • Persian, Timurid chronicler, scholar.
  • He traveled to the Vijayanagara kingdom.
  • Ruler - Devaraya II.
  • Book: Malta-us-Sadain was Majma-ul-Bahrain.

(11.) Domingo PaesTime Period: 1520 - 1522 AD.
  • Portuguese merchant, writer, explorer.
  • Indian dynasty- Tuluva dynasty (Vijayanagara empire)
  • Ruler - Krishnadeva Raya.
  • Book - Chronica dos reis de Bisnaga.
He reported the following features about the empire:
  • Advanced irrigation technology - that allowed the present to high yielding crops.
  • wide variety of cultures where shown in crops & vegetation.
  • the busy market of precious stones.
  • the city was prospering and its size was comparable to Rome, which abundant vegetation, aqueducts, and artificial lakes.
(12.) William HawkinsTime Period: 1608 - 1611 AD.
  • The representative of English East India Company and ambassador of the British King James-I.
  • Traveled to Agra in the court of Mughal Emperor Jahangir.
  • He came to negotiate for the establishment of a factory at Surat.
  • Favor by Jahangir enabled him to overcome all difficulties and this permission was the first distinct recognition of English commerce in the East.
(13.) Sir Thomas RoeTime Period: 1615 - 1619 AD.
  • English diplomats, members of the House of Commons, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.
  • He stayed at the court of Mughal Emperor Jahangir.
  • The main objective of his mission was to get the protection of the factory of British East India Company at Surat.
  • Book - 1.) The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of the Great Mogul, 2.) Journal of the Mission to the Mughal Empire.
(14.) Jean-Baptise TavernierTime Period: 1638 - 1643 AD.
  • French gem (diamond) merchant, traveler.
  • He came to ti India and traveled as far as Agra and from there to the Kingdom of Golconda.
  • He also visited the court of Shahjahan.
  • In his book, he has discussed diamond and the diamond mines of India.
(15.) Francois Bernier, Time Period: 1656 - 1717 AD.
  • Frenchman, doctor, political philosopher, historian.
  • Indian Dynasty - Timurid dynasty.
  • Ruler - Dara Sikhoh
  • He stayed here for 12 years in the Mughal Empire.
  • He compared Mughal India with contemporary Europe.
  • He wrote in his book about the prevalent social and economic life.
  • He described Mughal cities as 'Camp Towns' because towns owned their existence on the imperial camps.



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