All Jharkhand Competitive Exam JSSC, JPSC, Current Affairs, SSC CGL, K-12, NEET-Medical (Botany+Zoology), CSIR-NET(Life Science)


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Wednesday, July 29, 2020



There are two classes of Verbs:

Auxiliary Verbs are of two kinds:

Modal Auxiliary: A verb is used to express the mood (mode) or attitude of a speaker is called Modal Auxiliary.
(i.) You should regularly go to a dance class.
(ii.) They must attend tomorrow's ceremony.
(iii.) May I use your bottle, please?
(iv.) You can park the motor in front of my house.
(v.) You may take these dresses home.
(vi.) Could you open the room, please?

Most Commonly Used Modals:
(1.) can                           (2.) could 
(3.) may                         (4.) might 
(5.) should                    (6.) would
(7.) must                       (8.) ought to
(9.) used to                  (10.) dare
(11.) need                      (12.) have/had to 
(13.) shall/ will            (14.) am/was to
All these Modals Suggest the following:
(A.) Permission           (B.) Ability
(C.) Possibility             (D.) Suggestion, Advice
(E.) Promise                 (F.) Intention
(G.) Request                (H.) Necessity, Compulsion
(I.) Prohibition            (J.) Wish or Prayer
(K.) Duty, Obligation          

Different Uses of Modals:
1. May & Might - these are used to expressing
(A.) Possibility:
(a.) It may/might rain.
(b.) He may/might go to Ranchi tomorrow.
(c.) You may fall.
(d.) Rahul said that he might go there.

(B.) Permission:
(i.) May I go?
(ii.) Yes, you may go.

(C.) Prayer or Wish:
(i.) May you enjoy wedding happiness!
(ii.) May God bless you!

(D.) Purpose:
(i.) He works hard so that he may pass.
(ii.) They came so that they might see me.

(E.) Remote Possibility: 'Might' is used in place of 'may' to express remote possibility. 
(i.) It might rain.
(ii.) He might be reading now.
1.) Both 'May & Might' can be used to express the possibility of the present and future.
2.) 'Might' is used when the reporting verb is in the past.
3.) 'May/Might have' give the opposite sense of the action.

(F.) May/Might + Have: They are used to express possibility/desirability creating to the past action. 
(i.) He may/might have left yesterday.
(ii.) He might have failed. 
(iii.) Better, you might not have revealed the secret.

2. Can & Could (Able to) - these are used to expressing
(A.) Ability: (Present, Past & Future)
(i.) She can write French well.
(ii.) Reena could play at cards.
(iii.) She will be able to help me.
(iv.) I have been able to do it.

(B.) Polite Request:
(i.) Could you please do it for me? ('would' is also used for the polite request)
(ii.) Could you please give me a pen?

(C.) Permission/Order:
(i.) Yes, you can go now.
(ii.) You can take my book. ('can' is an alternative to 'may')

(D.) Polite Request:
(i.) You cannot go outside. (Prohibition)
(ii.) Can I get some chocolates? (Offer)
(iii.) Can I help you? (Offer)

(E.) Possibility:
(i.) Who is she with him?
      She could be his wife.
(ii) How old is she?
     She could be thirty.

(F.) Could + Have: This form is used for past ability while indicating that the action did not take place.
(i.) I could have revealed the secret. (but I did not)
(ii.) You could have borrowed money. (but you did not)
(iii.) The police could have arrested him. (but they did not)

3. Should - these are used to expressing
(A.) Duty/Obligation: 
(i.) You should stand by your brother.
(ii.) I should leave now.
(iii.) The promise should be kept.
(iv.) She should be present here.

(B.) Future in the Past: 
(i.) I told her that I should go there.
(ii.) Did I not tell you that I should qualify?

(C.) Purpose: 
(i.) Walk carefully lets you should fall.

(D.) Condition: 
(i.) Should you work hard, you will get success. ('should' is used in the sense of 'it')

(E.) Should + Have: This form is used to express obligation in the past. It may imply the non-performance of the action.
(i.) You should have stood by your brother.
(ii.) He should have left a message.
(iii.) She should have been present at the function.
(iv.) My sister should have replied politely.

4. Must - these are used to expressing
(A.) Necessity or Obligation: (in place of 'should'
(i.) You must follow the rules.
(ii.) She must leave now.

(B.) Order of the Speaker: 
(i.) You must not leave now.
(ii.) They must not play here.

(C.) Strong Possibility: (in place of 'may'
(i.) It is nine. The student must be in the class.
(ii.) She must be working in college now.

(D.) Determination: 
(i.) I must help him.

(E.) Deduction, Inference: 
(i.) She has a big house. She must be rich.
(ii.) He reads a lot. He must be learned.

(F.) Must + Have: This form is used for a past action or situations to indicating the non-performance of the action. 
(i.) You must have followed guidelines.
(ii.) You must have left them.
(iii.) I must have helped her.

5. Ought To - these are used to expressing
(A.) Duty or Moral Obligation: It is used for 'should & must' when there is a strong sense of moral duty, advice, or indication of correct action.
(i.) You ought to serve your motherland.
(ii.) You ought not to take junk food.
(iii.) You ought to take food before leaving.

(B.) Ought to + Have: It is used in relation to past acts of duty that was not fulfilled or an action that was neglected in the past.
(i.) You ought to have taken care of your family.
(ii.) You ought to have served your parents.
(iii.) She ought to have been present at the wedding of her friend.
(iv.) He ought not to have smoked in the car.

6. To Be + Infinitive - these are used to expressing
(A.) Express Plan: 
(i.) She is to leave for college after marriage.
(ii) I am to make a speech tomorrow.

(B.) Express Order: 
(i.) Students are to wait outside.
(ii.) The maid is to remain in the house till we return.

(C.) Obligation/Duty: 
(i.) I am to help my ailing sister.
(ii.) My friend was to send fruits to his sister.

(D.) Express Plan: This expression is used to express an action that could not take place according to the plan.
(i.) She was to have attended the ceremony but fell ill.
(ii.) Kareena was to have appeared at the examination but she gave up the plan.

(7.) To have+Infinitive: This expression is used to express compulsion as is expressed with 'Must'. It also expresses Obligation (In the Present, Past, Future).
(i.) I have to leave for Kolkata today.
(ii.) I have not to meet him now.
(iii.) I will have to get up early in the morning.

8. Used To - Would these are used to expressing
(A.) To Denote Habitual Action or the Past Routine of the Subject: 
(i.) She used to go to Ranchi by car.
(ii.) She did not use to go to Patna.
(iii.) Mohan would study at noon.
(iv.) He would go out with me in the evening.

(B.) To Denote Discontinued Action: 
(i.) He used to play basketball. (now he has stopped)
(ii.) She used to work in a mall before marriage. (not now)

(C.) 'Used To' also used as an Adjective (be used to). It is equal to 'accustomed to' as
(i.) He is used to getting up early.
(ii.) I was used to driving through crowded.
(iii.) We are used to hot moons in the plains.

9. Would - It is used in the following cases-
(i.) Would you please help my sister? (polite request)
(ii.) She told me that she would give me a dress. (future in the past)
(iii.) I would/should like to read now. (wish)
(iv.) Who is he? He would be his brother. (possibly he is)
(v.) She would go to Pune by car.

10. Need & Not Need - 'Need' can be used as an auxiliary or as an ordinary verb
As an auxiliary verb - it is used mainly in the negative and the interrogative forms with a direct infinitive. It has No Past tense.
(A.) Need Not: It is used for an action that is not necessary.
(i.) He needs to work hard. (Ordinary verb)
(ii.) Need I write to her? (Auxiliary verb)
(iii.) She need not go there again. (Auxiliary verb)
(iv.) You do not need to work now. (Ordinary verb)

(B.) Need Not + Have: It is used for an action that is not necessary but was performed.
(i.) You need not have gone there.
(ii.) Rahul need not have called yesterday.

11. Dare - 'Dare' can be used as an auxiliary or as an ordinary verb
As an auxiliary verbit is used mainly in the negative and the interrogative forms with a direct infinitive.
(i.) She dared her sister to touch her. (Challenge, Ordinary verb)
(ii.) I dare to go outside now. (To have courage, Ordinary verb)
(iii.) Dare you go outside now? (Auxiliary verb)
(iv.) I dare say he will cheat you. (I suppose)
(v.) I dare say she will pass. (it is likely)
Note: '-s' is not used with dare & need as auxiliary verbs. 


Tuesday, July 28, 2020



Voice: A verb may tell about what a person or thing does. Therefore, a verb is said to be an action on the part of a doer/subject. Example-
(a.) They will do the work.
(b.) The teacher has punished the girl.
Transitive Verb: The verb 'do, punish' are transitive. The actions of the subject 'They, The teacher' passes over to the objects 'work, the boy'. The verb may also tell what is done to a person or a thing. Example-
(a.) The work will be done by them. (Passive Voice)
(b.) The boy has been punished by the teacher. (Passive Voice)

Intransitive VerbThe verbs do not have objects. The effect of the action does not pass over to any object. Since they are not used with objects. They do not admit of Passive.

How to Define a Voice?
(1.) Active Voice = a sentence begins with a subject. Example-
(a.) They will do the work.
(b.) The teacher has punished the girl.

(b.) Passive Voice = a sentence begins with an object. Example-
(a.) The work will be done by them. 
(b.) The boy has been punished by the teacher.

How to make a Passive Voice?
(1.) The passive of an active voice is formed by using the verb "to be". The active verb must be converted into Past Participle.
(2.) The object may be placed before the verb in passive expression.
Example: the forms of "Be".
(a.) (i.) Subject + Transitive verb + Object (Active)
      (ii.) Subject + Intransitive verb (Active)
(b.) Object + To be + Past Participle of Transitive Verb + Subject (Passive Voice)
The Verb "To Be": It has two uses
(1.) As an auxiliary verb: it is used with other verbs both in the active and passive voice.
(2.) As an ordinary/regular verb: it is used in 'No verb' sentences.

The Forms of 'To be'


The forms of Verb in the passive voice

 No Verb


 is, are, was, were been, being

Infinitive, Modals, Future Indefinite, Present Indefinite, Past Indefinite, Perfect (Present, Past, Future), Continous (Present, Past), Past/Gerund  

Past Participle (PP) of Transitive Verb





The use of 'To be" in passive sentences:
Object + to (be + PP of Transitive Verb) + by Subject
(A.) Infinitive
(B.) Modals
(C.) Future Indefinite
(i.) He doesn't like to be punished.
(ii.) The young persons should be taught good manners.
(iii.) He will be punished for his misbehavior.

(D.) Present Indefinite - is, am, are.
(a.) Active: Subject + (Verb)1/(Verb)5 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) She is taught English daily by her class teacher.
(ii.) I am often invited to attend the party with my friends.
(iii.) Elections are held every five years.

(E.) Past Indefinite - was, were.
(a.) ActiveSubject + (Verb)2 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) + was/were + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) I was punished for her negligence.
(ii.) Both the friends were selected for the senior basketball team

(F.) Perfect (Present, Past, Future) - been.
(a.) ActiveSubject + has/have + (Verb)3 + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  has/have + been + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(c.) Active: Subject + had + (Verb)3 + Object
(d.)Passive: Subject (Objective case) + had + been + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(e.) ActiveSubject + will/shall + have + (Verb)3 + Object
(f.)Passive: Subject (Objective case) + will/shall + have been + by + (Verb)3 + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) He has just been elected as President of the company.
(ii.) She had already been admitted to the hospital.
(iii.) My friend will have been married by now.

(G.) Continuous (Present, Past) - being.
(a.) Active: Subject + is/am/are + (Verb) + ing + Object
(b.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  is/am/are + being + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)

(c.) Active: Subject + was/were + (Verb) + ing + Object
(d.) Passive: Subject (Objective case) +  was/were + being + (Verb)3 + by + Object (Subjective case)
(i.) The match is being telecast now.
(ii.) The match was being telecast yesterday.

(H.) Participle/Gerund - being.
(i.) Nobody likes being cheated.
(ii.) The murderer escaped being hanged.
(iii.) I saw her being taken to the hospital.

Note: Future Continous and Perfect Continuous tenses do not admit of passive voice expressions.

Some Hints/Rules on Making Passive Verbs:
(1.) The Use of Interrogative Pronoun while changing Active to Passive Voice.
(a.) Active - What are you writing?
Passive - What is being written by you?
(b.) Active - What makes you angry?
Passive - By what are you made angry?
(c.) Active - By whom are you taught French?
Passive - By whom are you taught French? 
or, Who are you taught French by?
(d.) Active - Whom are you teaching?
Passive - Who is being taught by you?

(2.) (a.) When the Subjects are indefinite/unclear pronouns or understood noun, it is not necessary to use them in Passive voice as "by somebody".
(i.) Somebody has picked my pocket.
      My pocket has been picked.
(ii.) They will clear the result soon.
      The result will be cleared soo.

(b.) A sentence beginning with negative indefinite pronouns is converted into negative.
(i.) Nobody can change destiny.
      Destiny cannot be changed.
(ii.) None saw her in the school.
      She was not seen in the school.

(3.) When the Principle clause is followed by the Noun clause as object the passive voice is made as follows. Some Noun clauses as an object are- consider, belief, understand, suspect, report, say, claim, expect, know, allege, find, learn, require, suppose, seem, appear, etc.  
(i.) People consider that he is honest.
      It is considered that he is honest.
(ii.) We hope that he will pass.
      It is hoped that he will pass. 

(4.) Verbs with Two Objects: Sometimes are verbs are used with two objects in active sentences. Passive Voice can be made with either of the objects. 
(i.) He gave me a book.
      (a.) I was given a book by him.
or, (b.) A book was given to me by him.
(ii.) They made him a leader.
      (a.) He was made a leader.

(5.) "By" is not used with certain verbs when making a Passive Voice, Instead we use at, with, in, to, etc.
(i.) I know her.
      She is known to me.
(ii.) His sudden arrival surprised everyone.
       Everybody was surprised at his sudden arrival.

(6.) Infinitives:
(i.) My brother has to buy a new car.
      A new car has to be bought by my brother.
(ii.) There is nothing to lose.
       There is nothing to be lost.
(iii.) I would like someone to help me.
       I would like to be helped.
(iv.) I am not to blame for the loss.
      I am not to be blamed for the loss.

(7.) Participles/Gerund: 
(i.) I remember my sister taking me to the doctor.
      I remember being taken to the doctor by my sister.
(ii.) I found his friends laughing at him.
      I found him being laughed at by his friends.

(8.) If a Preposition or an Adverb is used with a Verb to convey specific meaning, it should not be removed while making a Passive Voice.
(i.) Mothers look after their children.
   Children are looked after by their mother.
(ii.) You should not look down upon the rich.
   The rich should not be looked down upon.

(9.) The Verbs - let, bid, make, help, feel, see, watch, hear, are used with Direct Infinitive (without to) in the Active Voice.
In Passive Voice, these given verbs are used with Infinitive (To + Verb). 
Exception, Let - it is followed by Direct Infinitive both in Active & Passive Voice sentences.
(i.) I bade him go.
      He was bidden to go.
(ii.) I have made her sing a song.
      She has been made to sing a song.
(iii.) She let me go.
      I was let go of her.

(10.) Imperative Sentences:
(A.) Command & Order
(B.) Permission, Request, Advice

(A.) Command & Order: 
(i.)Passive- When Object is given, use Let + Object + be + Past Participle.
     (a.) Bring a book.
           Let a book be brought.
(ii.)Passive- When No Object is given, begin in the sentence with You are ordered/commanded to + .....
     (a.) Go out at once.
            You are ordered to go out at once.
     (b.) Don't stay here.
            You are ordered not to stay here.      

(B.) Permission, Request, Advice
(i.) Passive - When Object is given, make Passive with Object.
      Object + Should + Past Particle (PP)
(i.) Obey parents.
      Parents should be obeyed.
(ii.) Listen to me.
      I should be listened to.
(iii.) Prepare for war.
      You should be prepared for war.
Or, Be prepared for war.

(ii.)Passive- When No Object is given, begin in the sentence with You are ordered/requested/advised to + ..... 
(i.) Please come soon.
      You are requested to come soon.
(ii.) Please don't talk loudly.
      You are requested not to talk loudly.

(11.) Sentences Beginning with Let: (Permission, Suggestion)
(i.) Passive - When Object is given, make Passive Voice.
(i.) Let me play here. (Permission)
      I may be allowed to play here.
(ii.) Let us help him. (Suggestion)
      He should be helped.

(iI.)Passive - When Object is given, begin, the sentence, with - It is suggested___
(i.) Let us stay here. (Suggestion)
      It is suggested that we should stay here.
(ii.) Let us sleep here.
      It is suggested that we should sleep here.
(12.) 'To be' is often allowed in the sense of 'have' in Passive Voice sentences of the following Verbs- Rise, fall, come, arrive, go, lose, etc.
(i.) Summer is come. (Incorrect)
       Summer has come.
(ii.) The book is lost. (Incorrect)
       The book has been lost.
(iii.) The Sun is risen. (Incorrect)
       The Sun has risen.
(iv.) Golden days are gone. (Incorrect)
       Golden days have gone.




Jharkhand ki Rajvyavastha Part-2 (झारखंड की राजव्यवस्था PART-2)

Jharkhand ki Rajvyavastha Part-2

झारखंड की राजव्यवस्था PART-2

मुख्यमंत्री (वास्तविक प्रधान)

💨संविधान में (अनुच्छेद 163) के अनुसार राज्यपाल को उनके कार्यों में सहायता एवं सलाह देने के लिए एक मंत्री परिषद का गठन किया जाता है,जिसका प्रधान मुख्यमंत्री होता है

मुख्यमंत्री के कार्यकाल

💨राज्य में मंत्री परिषद का प्रधान मुख्यमंत्री होता है,मुख्यमंत्री का कार्यकाल राज्य विधानसभा के कार्यकाल के समांतर ही 5 वर्ष का होता है
💨 यदि विधानसभा का कार्यकाल बढ़ा दिया जाता है तो मुख्यमंत्री का कार्यकाल स्वतः बढ़ जाता है

मुख्यमंत्री के कार्य और अधिकार

💨राज्य की मंत्री परिषद का प्रधान मुख्यमंत्री होने के नाते राज्य का प्रशासन प्रणाली पूरी तरह से मुख्यमंत्री के नियंत्रण में होता है
💨मुख्यमंत्री को मंत्रिपरिषद का विस्तार तथा पुनर्गठन करने का अधिकार प्राप्त है
💨राज्यपाल और मंत्रिपरिषद के बीच मुख्यमंत्री कड़ी का कार्य करता है 
💨मुख्यमंत्री राज्यपाल का मुख्य परामर्शदाता होता है
💨मंत्रिपरिषद के  निर्णयों की सूचना राज्यपाल को तथा राज्यपाल की कोई सलाह मंत्री परिषद को मुख्यमंत्री के द्वारा दी जाती है 
💨राज्य शासन प्रणाली के सभी विभागों में मुख्यमंत्री समन्वय स्थापित करता है 
💨मुख्यमंत्री मंत्री परिषद का अध्यक्ष होता है वह मंत्री परिषद के अधिवेशनो की अध्यक्षता करता है, तथा अधिवेशनो की तिथि तय करना तथा उसके लिए कार्य सूचना बनवाना 
💨राज्य में सभी महत्वपूर्ण नियुक्तियां राज्यपाल,मुख्यमंत्री,मुख्यमंत्री की सलाह पर ही करता है 
💨राज्य विधानमंडल का नेता मुख्यमंत्री होता है 
💨मुख्यमंत्री मंत्रियों की नियुक्ति करता है तथा विभागों का विभाजन मुख्यमंत्री की सलाह से राज्यपाल करता है

मंत्री परिषद

राज्य की कार्यपालिका को सुचारू रूप से चलाने के लिए मुख्यमंत्री एक मंत्री परिषद का गठन करता है,
इसमें एक मुख्यमंत्री और अन्य मंत्री होते हैं
💨इसमें मंत्री परिषद का मुख्य अध्यक्ष मुख्यमंत्री होते हैं
💨मुख्यमंत्री तथा अन्य मंत्री की नियुक्ति (मुख्यमंत्री की सलाह )पर राज्यपाल द्वारा की जाती है
💨मंत्री परिषद की कुल संख्या 12 है मुख्यमंत्री सहित  इस से अधिक नहीं हो सकती
💨मंत्री परिषद सामूहिक उत्तरदायित्व पर कार्य करती है एक मंत्री के विरुद्ध अविश्वास प्रस्ताव पारित होने पर समस्त मंत्री परिषद त्यागपत्र दे देती हैं

मंत्री परिषद के कार्य

💨संविधान के अनुसार मंत्री परिषद का कार्य राज्यपाल को उसके कार्यों में परामर्श एवं सहायता प्रदान करना है,लेकिन वास्तव में शासन का सारा कार्य मंत्री परिषद करती है 

मंत्री परिषद के मुख्य कार्य निम्नलिखित हैं

💨यह सरकार की नीति निर्धारित करती है तथा उस कार्य को पूरा करने का प्रयास करते हैं 
💨मंत्रियों के द्वारा ही विधान मंडल में विधेयक पेश किए जाते हैं 
💨राज्य के सभी महत्वपूर्ण नियुक्तियां राज्यपाल मंत्रिमंडल की परामर्श से करता है 
💨विधानसभा में बजट प्रस्तुत करने से पहले मंत्री परिषद बजट को स्वीकृत करती हैं

 झारखंड के मुख्यमंत्री की सूची:-

क्रमांक   नाम              कार्यकाल

   1       बाबूलाल मरांडी  -      15 नवंबर 2000 से 17 मार्च 2003
   2       अर्जुन मुंडा -               18 मार्च 2003 से 2 मार्च 2005
   3       शिबू सोरेन  -               2   मार्च 2005 से 12 मार्च 2005
   4       अर्जुन मुंडा  -              12  मार्च 2005 से 18 सितंबर 2006
   5        मधु कोड़ा    -             18  सितंबर 2006 से 27 अगस्त 2008 
   6        शिबू सोरेन-               27 अगस्त  2008  से 18 जनवरी 2009 
 💥       राष्ट्रपति शासन -       19  जनवरी 2009 से 29 दिसंबर 2009
   7        शिबू सोरेन-               30  सितंबर 2009 से 31 मई 2010
 💥      राष्ट्रपति शासन-           1   जून 2010 से 10 सितंबर 2010
   8       अर्जुन मुंडा -               11  सितंबर 2010 से 17 जनवरी 2013
 💥      राष्ट्रपति शासन -        18  जनवरी 2013 से 12 जुलाई 201 3
   9        हेमंत सोरेन  -            13  जुलाई 2013 से 28 दिसंबर 2014 
  10       रघुवर दास -              28  दिसंबर 2014 से 23 दिसंबर 2019
  11       हेमंत सोरेन -              29  दिसंबर 2019 से अब तक

महत्वपूर्ण तथ्य :-

💨 राष्ट्रपति शासन-3 बार  
💨शिबू सोरेन तीन बार मुख्यमंत्री बने थे 
💨 अर्जुन मुंडा तीन बार मुख्यमंत्री बने थे 
💨 मधु कोड़ा एक बार मुख्यमंत्री बने थे  
💨 बाबूलाल मरांडी एक बार मुख्यमंत्री बने थे  
💨 रघुवर दास  एक बार मुख्यमंत्री बने थे  
💨 हेमंत सोरेन दो बार मुख्यमंत्री बने थे  
💨शिबू सोरेन सबसे काम दिन (10 )के लिए मुख्यमंत्री बने थे 


Monday, July 27, 2020



Tense: A tenses may be defined as that form of a verb which indicates the time and the state of an action or event. In this manner, a verb may refer to,

(A.) Time of Action (Tense):
(a.) He goes to school. (Present time of action)
(b.) He went to school. (Past time of action)
(c.) He will go to school. (Future time of action)
From the above sentences it will be clear that there are three main tenses:
(1.) The Present Tense 
(2.) The Past Tense
(3.) The Future Tense

(B.) State of an Action (Function of Tense):
(a.) I write letters regularly. (Present time, Habitual Function)
(b.) I am writing a letter. (Present Continuous, Progressive Function)
(c.) I have just written a letter. (Present Perfect, Preceding Function)
(d.) I have been writing a letter for some time. (Present Perfect Continuous, Time Expression)

(C.) Time Frame of a Tense:
(i.) Point of Time: Which denotes any specific time/proper time. E.g., in 1947, on Monday, etc.
(ii.) Period of Time: Which denotes a specific duration of time. E.g., from 2001 to 2020, from Monday to Sunday, etc.
(iii.) Expression of Time: Which denotes the combination of both point and period of time. E.g., winter 1947, summer 1950, etc.
1. Present Tense & Their Rules:
(1.) The Present Indefinite Tense (Habitual Action)
(a.) This tense is used to denote habit, custom, practice, repeated, action, permanent activity, general truth, etc. 
(b.) Ideas are expressed by the adverb of frequency such as often, seldom, rarely, usually, never, occasionally, sometimes, normally, always, frequently, daily, etc. Example- 
(i.) The old lady goes for a walk in the morning.
(ii.) Mohan usually believes everybody.
(iii.) Suhani always comes in time.
(c.) It is also used to make a statement in the present showing permanent nature and activity of the subject and eternal principles. Example-
(i.) I know her well.
(ii.) The cow gives milk.
(iii.) Rivers freeze at high altitudes.
(d.) Historical Present:
(i.) Now Netaji enters and addresses the Indian soldiers.
(ii.) Now Arjun shoots arrows at Bhishma.
(e.) Future Arrangement: 
(i.) The Chief Minister arrives from New Delhi tomorrow.
(ii.) She leaves his job next week.

(2.) The Present Continuous Tense (Progressive Action)
(a.) It is used for an action in progress, that is temporary in nature (not for a permanent activity) in the present at the time of speaking. Example-
(i.) She is not working. She is swimming in the river.
(ii.) It is raining outside.
(b.) It also expresses future action or a definite arrangement in the near future. Example-
(i.) I am going to the market tomorrow.
(ii.) She is coming next week.
(c.) Continuous tense + 'always' may express an idea, which is not to the linking of the speaker. Example-
(i.) He is always teaching his children.
(ii.) She is always praising her friends.
(d.) There are some of the verbs which sometimes do not admit of progressive action. Such verbs are called as Non-Progressive (Static verbs). Example-
(i.) Perception Verbs: See, taste, smell, please.
(ii.) Verbs of Thinking Process: Think, know, mind, mean.
(iii.) Verbs of Showing Possession: Own, have, belong, possess, contain.
(iv.) Verbs expressing Feelings or State of Mind: Belief, like, love, want, wish.
(v.) Verbs in General: Look, seem, appear, affect, resemble, cost, stand.

(3.) The Present Perfect Tense (Preceding Action)
(a.) It is a mixture of present & past tense. The action is already complete in the past, when at the time of speaking. It signifies a strong connection with the present though action took place in the past. The following adverbs & conjunctions are used to express the preceding action. (Ever, just, recently, already, yet, till, so far, of late, lately, before, by the time, after) Example-
(i.) I have just seen that film.
(ii.) I have already had my breakfast.
(iii.) 'So far, yet, till = up to now, up to this. (Negative implication)

(b.) (Present Perfect + Point of Time = Simple Past). The point of time in the past indicates that action took place at a point in the past. The point of time is expressed by since, ever since, last, yesterday, the other day, ago, before, back, formerly (any time in the past). Example-
(i.) She has returned three days ago/before. (Incorrect, omit 'has')
(ii.) She returned three days ago/before. (Correct)

 (c.) (Present Indefinite + Time Expression= Present Perfect)This also can be used with since, for, how long, whole, all, throughout, all along, etc. to express time expression. Example-
(i.) She has known me for three years.
(ii.) He has owned this house since 2017.

2. Past Tense & Their Rules:
(1.) The Past Indefinite Tense (Habitual Action)
(a.) It is used for a past habit, indicated by often, seldom, usually, frequently, rarely, daily, used to, would, etc. Example-
(i.) They never drank juice.
(ii.) She always carried an umbrella.
(iii.) I used to go to Mumbai by train.
(b.) It is also used for a single act completed in the past. A definite point of time is denoted by since, ever since, earlier, ago, back, last, yesterday, the other day (any point of time in the past). Example-
(i.) I have ever met your brother yesterday. (Incorrect, remove 'have')
      I ever met your brother yesterday. (Correct)
(ii.) She has bought a car two years ago. (Incorrect, remove 'has')
       She bought a car two years ago.

(2.) The Past Continuous Tense (Progressive Action)
(a.) It is used for past action in progress. Example-
(i.) It was still raining when I reached there. 
(ii.) She was busy packing last evening.
(b.) It is also used for a definite arrangement for the future in the past. Example-
(i.) She was leaving that night.
(ii.) I asked him what he was doing on Sunday.
(c.) While, still, at that moment, then these words also help to express action in the past.

(3.) The Past Perfect Tense (Past Preceding Action)
(a.) It is used when out of two actions. It is necessary to highlight the preceding action was completely finished before the succeeding action started. Example-
(i.) I had gone to Mumbai last week before my mother came. (Correct)
(ii.) I had gone to Mumbai last week. (Incorrect, as preceding action is not implied here)

(b.) Sometimes preceding action is implied and is indicated by the use of ever, just, recently, already, yet, so far, till (time), by the time, before, by, after, etc. Example-
(i.) I had already taken breakfast.
(ii.) I had finished the book before he came.
(iii.) I had retired from college just then.
(iv.) She finished the book after she had returned from college.

(c.) It is also used as time expression with since, for, how long, whole, all, throughout, all along, etc. Example-
(i.) She has known him for five years.
(ii.) She had owned this house for three years.

(d.) It is also used with verbs such as want, hope, expect, think, suppose, mean, intend, these indicate that the cation mentioned did not take place. Example-
(i.) I had wanted to help my sister (but could not help)
(ii.) I had expected to pass. (but did not pass)   
(iii.) My sister had hoped that I would send her money. (unfulfilled hope)

3.  Future Tense & Their Rules:
(1.) The Future Indefinite Tense (Future Action)
(a.) It expresses an action that is to take place in the future. Soon, shortly, in a few, tomorrow, presently (soon), next year/month/week, indicates the future action. Example-
(i.) They will come tomorrow. 
(ii.) The teacher will take an examination next week.
(b.) It is expressed in the present continuous tense. But it is more definite action than the action expressed in the future indefinite. Example-
(i.) They are coming tomorrow. (certain to come)
(ii.) She is marrying soon. (certain to marry)
(c.) It is expressed in the future continuous. Example-
(i.) Mohan will be arriving soon. (He will arrive)
(ii.) I shall be going tomorrow. (I shall go)
(d.) It is expressed in the present indefinite tense. Example-
(i.) She arrives from the India next month. (will arrive)
(ii.) The Prime Minister leaves for Kanpur tomorrow. (will leave)

(2.) The Future Continuous Tense (Future Progressive)
(a.) It is used to express an action that will be in progress with a point of time in the future. Example-
(i.) She will be waiting for me when I reach her home.
(ii.) What will he be doing when you visit him?
(iii.) Get home at once. Your mother will be wondering where you are.
(iv.) Probably, it will be raining when you reach Ranchi.
(b.) It is also used to express the future indefinite tense or definite future arrangement. Example-
(i.) She will be going to Patna by car today.
(ii.) He will be arriving tomorrow to meet his wife.

(3.) The Future Perfect Tense (Future Preceding)
(a.) It is used when out of two actions it is necessary to highlight the preceding action will be completely finished before the succeeding action starts in the future. It is indicated by the use of ever, just, already, recently, yet, so far, till (time), before, by the time, after. Example-
(i.) She will have already prepared food when I reach home.
(ii.) He will have rung up his wife before he arrives.
(iii.) I think the news will not have been published so far.
(iv.) My assistant will have typed letters by lunch today.

(b.) It is also used to express time expression. Since, for, how long, whole, all, throughout, all long, denote the action started sometime in the past and is continuing into the present. Example-
(i.) He will have known her for three years next month.
(ii.) She will have suffered a lot by now since her birth.

4. Perfect Continuous: Present, Past, Future (Time Expression)
(a.) Perfect Continuous tense (Present, Past, Future) denotes an action continuing from the past into the present. It implies the duration of action (past to present). The time expression is indicated by since, for, how long, whole, all, throughout, all along.

(b.) Time expression can be used with both continuous & definite tenses as follows-
(i.) Continuous + Time Expression = Perfect Continuous (Action is not yet complete)
(ii.) Indefinite + Time Expression = Perfect (Action is complete)
(i.) She goes to the temple every Tuesday. (Point of time)
(ii.) She has completed two letters since last night. (Time Expression)
(iii.) She had been playing Ludo the whole day yesterday. (Time Expression)




Sunday, July 26, 2020

Jharkhand ki Rajvyavastha Part-1 (झारखंड की राजव्यवस्था PART-1)

Jharkhand ki Rajvyavastha Part-1

झारखंड की राजव्यवस्था PART-1

भारतीय संविधान के प्रावधान के अनुसार झारखंड भारत संघ का एक अभिन्न अंग है झारखंड भारत संघ का एक राज्य है झारखंड की शासन प्रणाली भारत संघ के अन्य राज्यों के समान है, झारखंड में संसदीय शासन प्रणाली स्थापित है 

1. विधायिका-   सरकार के कानून बनाने वाले अंग को विधायिका कहते हैं 
2. कार्यपालिका - सरकार के कानूनों को कार्यान्वित करने वाले अंग को कार्यपालिका कहते हैं 

3. न्यायपालिका - सरकार के न्याय करने वाले अंग को न्यायपालिका कहते हैं


संसदीय शासन प्रणाली के अंतर्गत राज्य में दो प्रकार की कार्यपालिका होती है 

1.नाम मात्र की कार्यपालिका -जिसका प्रमुख राज्यपाल होता है 
2.वास्तविक कार्यपालिका  -   जिसका प्रमुख मुख्यमंत्री होता है 

💨राज्यपाल राज्य का नाम मात्र का अध्यक्ष है राज्य की समस्त कार्यपालिका संबंधित शक्ति राज्यपाल में निहित होता है जिसका प्रयोग वह मंत्रिपरिषद की सहायता से करता है 

💨 भारत के प्रत्येक राज्य में एक राज्यपाल होगा(अनुच्छेद 153 में यह प्रावधान है)। 
💨राज्यपाल की नियुक्ति राष्ट्रपति के द्वारा की जाती है तथा अपनी इच्छा के अनुरूप पद पर बना है रहता है(अनुच्छेद 155 )

राज्यपाल पद पर नियुक्त किए जाने वाले व्यक्ति में निम्नलिखित योग्यताएं होनी चाहिए

 💨वह भारत का नागरिक  हो
💨वह 35 वर्ष की आयु पूरी कर चुका हो
💨वह संसद या किसी राज्य विधानमंडल का सदस्य ना हो
💨वह किसी लाभ के पद पर ना हो 
💨राज्य की विधान सभा का सदस्य बनने की योग्यता रखता है

राज्यपाल की कार्यकाल

💨राज्यपाल का कार्यकाल (अनुच्छेद 156) के अनुसार उनके पद ग्रहण करने की तारीख से लेकर 5 वर्ष तक का होता है इस अवधि की समाप्ति के बाद भी वह तब तक अपने पद पर बना रहता है, जब तक की उसका कोई उत्तराधिकारी पद ग्रहण नहीं कर लेता है 
💨राज्यपाल  राष्ट्रपति को अपना त्यागपत्र दे कर पद से मुक्त हो सकता है

राज्यपाल की शपथ

 राज्यपाल को शपथ संबंधित राज्य के उच्च न्यायालय का मुख्य न्यायाधीश पद एवं गोपनीयता की शपथ दिलाता है (अनुच्छेद 159 के तहत)

राज्यपाल का वेतन और भत्ता

राज्यपाल को तीन लाख पचास हजार रूपये (₹3,50,000) प्रति माह वेतन मिलता है तथा वह ऐसे भत्ते का भी हकदार होता है जिसे संसद द्वारा नियत किया जाता है

राज्यपाल के कार्य और अधिकार संक्षिप्त में:-

💨राज्य की समस्त कार्यपालिका शक्तियां राज्यपाल में निहित होता है (अनुच्छेद 154)
💨राज्यपाल का समस्त कार्य राज्यपाल के नाम से संचालित किया जाता है (अनुच्छेद 166 )
💨राज्यपाल मुख्यमंत्री की नियुक्ति करता है तथा मुख्यमंत्री के परामर्श से ही अन्य मंत्रियों की नियुक्ति करता है।(अनुच्छेद 164)
💨राज्य के महाधिवक्ता, राज्य लोक सेवा आयोग के अध्यक्ष तथा सदस्य अधीनस्थ न्यायालयों के न्यायाधीशों आदि की नियुक्तियां भी राज्य के राज्यपाल करते हैं
💨राज्यपाल विधानसभा में एक अंगलो भारतीय सदस्य की नियुक्ति करता है(अनुच्छेद 333 )

राज्यपाल की आपत्कालीन अधिकार

💨राज्यपाल राज्य में(अनुच्छेद 356) के तहत राष्ट्रपति से राज्य में राष्ट्रपति शासन लागू करने का सिफारिश कर सकता है 

राज्यपाल की विधायी अधिकार

💨राज्यपाल को  राज्य में  विधानमंडल का सत्र बुलाने,सत्रवास करने तथा विधानसभा को विघटित करने का अधिकार प्राप्त है(अनुच्छेद 174)
💨राज्यपाल की अनुमति के बिना कोई धन विधेयक अधिनियम पारित नहीं होता है (अनुच्छेद 200)
💨प्रतिवर्ष राज्य में वित्तीय लेखा-जोखा को तैयार करवा कर सदन के सामने प्रस्तुत करता है(अनुच्छेद 202 के तहत)

राज्यपाल के प्रमुख न्यायिक अधिकार निम्नलिखित हैं

💨राज्यपाल जिला न्यायाधीशों और अन्य अधिकारों की नियुक्ति स्थानांतरण पदोन्नति के संबंधित मामलों पर निर्णय करता है राज्यपाल इन शक्तियों का प्रयोग उच्च न्यायालय की सलाह से करता है
💨राज्यपाल किसी व्यक्ति को न्यायालय द्वारा दिए गए दंड को क्षमादान,लघु करण,निलंबन आदि में  परिवर्तित कर सकते हैं
💨किंतु मृत्युदंड प्राप्त किसी व्यक्ति के बारे में कोई भी निर्णय लेने का शक्ति राज्यपाल को प्राप्त नहीं है


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