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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Showing posts with label JHARKHAND-ENGLISH. Show all posts
Showing posts with label JHARKHAND-ENGLISH. Show all posts

Friday, February 19, 2021

Constitution of India- JPSC Gk Indian Polity and Governance


Q1. Which schedule of the Constitution of India contains provisions regarding the anti-deflection Act ? - Tenth (10th) Schedule

Q2. The Constitution of India recognizes ? - religious and linguistic minorities

Q3. An amendment to the Constitution of India can be initiated by the ? - Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha

Q4. The 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992 refers to the ? - laying the foundation for strong and vibrant Panchayati Raj institutions in the country

Q5. Which Article of the Constitution provides that it shall be the endeavor of every state to provide an adequate facility for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage of education ? - Article 350-A

Q6. Which describes the Fourth Schedule of the Constitution of India ? - It allocates seats in the Council of States

Q7. According to the status of National Territory to Delhi  - The Constitution (69th Amendment ) Act, 1991

Q8. Establishment of state-level Rent Tribunals - The Constitution (75th Amendment) Act, 1994

Q9. Accepting the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission - The Constitution (80th Amendment) Act, 2000

Q10. No reservations for Scheduled Castes in Panchayats in Arunachal Pradesh - The Constitution (83rd Amendment) Act, 2000

Q11. If a new state of the Indian Union is to be created, which schedule of the Constitution must be amended ? - First (1st)

Q12. Election of the President of India - Article 54

Q13. Appointment of the Prime Minister - Article 75

Q14. Appointment of the Governor of a State - Article 155

Q15. Appointment of the Chief Minister & Council of Ministers of a State - Article 164

Q16. Which amendment of the Indian Constitution empowers the President to send back any matter of reconsideration by the Council of Ministers - 44th Amendment

Q17. The 93rd Constitution Amendment deals with the ? - free and compulsory education for all children between the age of 6 and 14 years

Q18. No person can be discriminated against in the matter of public appointment on the ground of race, religion, or caste ? - Article 16 (2)

Q19. No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State, or receiving State aid, on grounds of religion, race, caste, language, or any of them ? - Article 29 (2)

Q20. All minorities whether based on religion or languages shall have to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice ? - Article 30 (I)

Q21. No person shall be deprived of his property save by the authority of law ? - Article 31 (I)

Q22. The purpose of the inclusion of Directive Principles of the State Policy in the Indian Constitution is to establish ? - Social and economic democracy

Q23. Which article of the Directive Principles of the State Policy deals with the promotion of international peace and security ? - Article 51

Q24. The Ninth (9th) Schedule to the Indian Constitution was added by ? - First Amendment

Q25. Under which Article of the Indian Constitution did the President give his assent to the ordinance on electoral reforms when it was sent back to him by the Union Cabinet without making any changes (in the year 2002) ? - Article 123

Q26. Which Article of the Indian Constitution provides that 'It shall be the duty of the Union to protect every State against external aggression and internal disturbance'? - Article 355

Q27. Directive Principles of State Policy - Ireland

Q28. Fundamental Rights - United States of America

Q29. Concurrent List in Union-State Relations - Australia

Q30. India as a Union of States with greater powers to the Union - Canada

Q31. Which Constitutional Amendments are related to raising the number of Members of Lok Sabha to be elected from the States ? - 7th and 31st Amendment

Q32. Which Schedule of the Indian Constitution lists the names of States and specifies their territories ? - First

Q33. What describes the Fourth Schedule of the Constitution of India ? - It allocates seats in the Council of States

Q34. Which article of the Constitution of India says that the executive power of every State shall be so exercised as not to impede or prejudice the exercise of the executive power of the Union ? - Article 257

Q35. The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of laws within the territory of India ? - Article 14

Q35. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of term ? - Article 15

Q36. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State ? - Article 16

Q37. 'Untouchability' is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden ? - Article 17

Q38. Which Article of the Constitution of India says, ' No child below the age of fourteen years shall the employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment' ? - Article 24

Q39. The Constitution (98th Amendment) Act is related to ? - the Constitution of the National Judicial Commission

Q40. Who was the Chairman of the Union Constitution Committee of the Constituent Assembly ? - Jawaharlal Nehru

Q41. What does the 104th Constitution Amendment Bill relate to ? - Providing quota to socially and educationally backward classes in private educational institutions

Q42. Which Schedule of the Constitution Amendment Acts, four languages were added to the list o languages under the Eighth Schedule of the constitution of India, thereby raising their number to 22 ? - Constitution (Ninety-third Amendment) Act

Q43. The distribution of powers between the Centre and the States in the Indian Constitution is based on the Act provided in the ? - Government of India Act, 1935

Q44. With reference to Indian History, the Members of the Constituent Assembly from the provinces were ? - elected by the Provincial Legislative Assembly

Q45. According to the Constitution of India, which is fundamental for the governance of the country ? - Directive Principles of State Policy

Q46. Which Schedule of the Constitution of India contains provisions regarding anti-deflection ? - Tenth Schedule

Q47. In the Constitution of India, the promotion of international peace and security is included in the ? Directive Principles of State Policy

Q48. The provisions of the Fifth Schedule and Sixth Schedule in the Constitution of India are made in order to ? - protect the interests of Scheduled Tribes

Q49. Who is the custodian of the Constitution of India ? - The Supreme Court of India

Q50. The Parliament of India acquires the power to legislate on any item in the State List in the national interest if a resolution to that effect is passed by the ? - Rajya Sabha by a majority of not less than two-thirds of its members present and voting

Q51. The mind of the makers of the Constitution of India is reflected in which ? - The Preamble

Q52. In federation established by the Government of India Act, 1935. Residuary Power was given to the ? - Governor-General

Q53. Right to Privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the Right to Life and Personal Liberty. Which Constitution of India correctly and appropriately imply ? - Article 21 and the freedoms guaranteed in Part III.


Thursday, February 4, 2021

Birsa Movement/ Munda Rebellion


  • Munda Movement (Rebellion) is one of the prominent 19th-century tribal rebellions in the Chotanagpur region near Ranchi between 1874 and 1901. It affected the area of about 400 sq. miles of South Bihar.

  • It was led by Birsa Munda from the year 1894. This revolt is also known as the 'Ulgulan revolt or Munda Rebellion', which means great commotion.

A course of Revolt:

  • The movement was born out of basic problems that affected the tribals in the colonial period.

  • Tribal people in the Chotanagpur area practiced the Khuntkatti system (joint holding by tribal lineages) till the mid 19th century.

  • The well to do revenue farmers, jagirdars, merchants, moneylenders, and dikus (non-tribals) from North India tried to replace the system with the typical Zamindari-tenancy system, which caused indebtedness and beth-gari (forced labor) among the tribal people.

  • Between 1780 to 1840, Mundas revolted 5 (five) times against the undue interference by the British administration, and the attitude of the landlords.

  • It is noteworthy that the movement had a distinct connection with Christianity in its early phase. The Mundas accepted Christianity with the belief that the German missionaries would help them against the exploitation of the zamindars. However, dissatisfaction with the German missionaries made them turn to a Catholic mission. But seeing the colonial ties between the colonial officers and the zamindars, the Munda Sardar turned against all outsides and finally rose in a rebellion ulgulan, led by Birsa Munda.

  • He formed 2 (two) military units- one for military training & armed struggle, the other for propaganda. He combined religion with politics and traveled across villages giving a discourse & building a politico-military organization.

  • He led the revolt against the British government imposed a feudal state system.

  • In the 1890s, Birsa Munda arrested the need for the Munda community to uproot superstition, stop animal sacrifice and avoid alcoholism.

  • In 1894 October, he mobilized a protest march for the remission of forest dues. During this struggle, he managed to bring the tribal community under a single umbrella and asked them to re-establish their own kingdom.

  • In 1899, he declared a rebellion to establish the Munda rule and encouraged the killing of 'jagirdars and Rajas and hakims (rulers) and Christians'. With support from the British, the scale of torture & discrimination only increased.

  • Birsa succeeded in mobilizing nearly 6000 Mundas armed with swords & spears, bows & arrows. There was the active participation of women in this movement.

  • In 1900, The rebellion was ruthlessly suppressed by the British forces. Birsa was arrested and he died in prison the same year by Cholera aged just 25.

  • Eight years after his death, the government enacted Chotanagpur Tenancy (CNT), Act.


Birsa Munda: 

  • Birsa Munda was born in the Munda tribe in 1875. He is often referred to as 'Dharti Abba' or the father of Earth.
  • His struggle against the exploitation and discrimination against tribal led to the passing of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908 which restricted the passing of land from the tribal people to non-tribals.


Physical Geography - Tectonic Plates


A tectonic plate (lithospheric plate) is a massive, irregular shape of the solid rock slab. The concept of Tectonic Plates was first introduced in 1967.

  • It is generally composed of both continental and oceanic lithosphere.
  • The lithosphere includes the crust and top mantle with its thickness range varying between 5- 100 km in oceanic parts and about 200 km in the continental ranges.
  • A tectonic plate maybe a continental plate or an oceanic plate, depending on which of the two occupies the larger portion of the table.
  • Oceanic plate: Pacific plate
  • Continental plate: Eurasian plate.

The Major & Minor Plates:

The Earth's lithosphere is divided into 7 (seven) major and some minor plates:

A.) Young Fold Mountain ridges, oceanic trenches, and transform faults surround the major plates. These includes
  • The North American plate- with the western Atlantic floor separated from the South American plate along with the Caribbean islands.
  • The South American plate- with the western Atlantic floor separated from the North American plate along with the Caribbean islands.
  • The Antarctic and the surrounding oceanic plate.
  • The Pacific plate.
  • The India-Australia-New Zealand plate.
  • Eurasia and the adjacent oceanic plate.

B.) Some Minor plates include

  • Cocos plate- between Central America & Pacific plate.
  • Nazca plate- between South America & Pacific plate.
  • Juan de Fuca plate- Southeastern (SE) of North American plate.
  • Philippine plate- between the Asiatic & Pacific plate.
  • Caroline plate- between the Philippine & Indian plate (North of New Guinea)
  • Fuji Plate- Northeastern (NE) part of Australia
  • Arabian plate- Saudi Arabian landmass.

C.) Mountain Ridge: The chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance.

D.) Ocean Trenches: The long, narrow depressions on the sea-floor. These are the deepest part of the ocean and some of the deepest natural spots on Earth. They are found in every ocean basin on the planet and the deepest ocean trenches ring the Pacific called the "Ring of Fire".

E.) Transform Fault: It is a type of fault in which 2 (two) tectonic plates slide past one another.

The Indian Plate:

  • The Indian plate includes Peninsular India and the Australian continental portion.
  • In the East, it extends through the Rakim Yoma Mountains (Myanmar) towards the island arc along with the Java Trench.
  • In the West, it follows Kirthar Mountain (Pakistan). It further extends along the Makrana coast (Balochistan) and joins the spreading site from the Red Sea rift southeastward along with the Chagos Archipelago.
  • The boundary between the Indian & the Antarctic plate is also marked by an oceanic ridge (divergent boundary) running roughly West to East direction and merging into the spreading site, a little south of New Zealand.


  • It is the zone of Earth's mantle that lies just beneath the lithosphere and is believed to be much hotter and more fluid than the lithosphere.
  • The asthenosphere extends from about 100 km (62.13 miles) to about 700 km (434.96 miles) below Earth's surface.

Movement of Plates:

  • The tectonic plates are not fixed but constantly move horizontally over the Asthenosphere as rigid units.
  • Sometimes these plates collide, move apart, or slide next to each other which leads to Earthquakes or Volcanic Eruptions.

Rates of Movement of Plates: 

  • The rate of movement of the tectonic plates is varied considerably.
  • The Arctic Ridge has the slowest rate (less than 2.5 cm/ yr).
  • The East Pacific, in the South Pacific, about 3,400 km west of Chile has the fastest rate (more than 15 cm/yr).

Force of Movement of Tectonic Plates: 

  • The mobile rock beneath the rigid plates is believed to be moving circularly.
  • The heated material rises to the surface, spreads & begins to cool, and then sinks back into deeper depths.
  • This slow movement of the hot, softened mantle that lies below these rigid plates is the driving force behind the plate movement.


  • When tectonic plates shift, and one plate is pushed under another.
  • This movement of the ocean floor produces a 'mineral transmutation', which leads to the melting & solidification of magma i.e., the formation of volcanoes.
  • When a 'downgoing' oceanic plate is pushed into a hotter mantle plate, it heats up, volatile elements mix, and this produces the magma.
  • The magma then rises up through the overlying plate and spurts out at the surface.

Boundaries of Plates:

The movement of the tectonic plates creates 3 (three) types of tectonic boundaries:
  • Convergent- plates move into one another.
  • Transform- plates move sideways in relation to each other.

A.) Convergent Boundaries:

  • It is formed when tectonic plates crash into each other, also known as destructive boundaries.
  • These boundaries are often subduction zones, where the heavier plate slips under the lighter plate, creating a deep trench.
  • This subduction changes the dense mantle material into buoyant magma, which rises through the crust to the Earth's surface.
  • Over millions of years, the rising magma has been creating a series of active volcanoes known as a volcanic arc.
  • Convergent plate boundaries also lead to mountain building and the formation of island arcs (Festoons). If both the convergent plates are oceanic, the volcanoes form a curved line of islands, known as an island arc, that is parallel to the trench.

There are 3 (three) ways in which convergence can occur:

  • between an oceanic & continental plate
  • between two oceanic plate
  • between two continental plate
When continental & oceanic plates collide, the thinner & denser oceanic plate is overridden by the thicker and less dense continental plate.
  • Oceanic-Continental convergent: the Washington-Oregon coastline of United States = Here, the Juan de Fuca oceanic plate is subducted beneath the North American continental plate.
  • Oceanic-Oceanic convergent: Marina Trench, the deepest point of Earth. The mighty Pacific plate is subducted beneath the smaller, less-dense Philippine plate.
  • Continental convergent: the Himalayan Mountain Range. India & Asia crashed about 55 million years ago, slowly giving rise to the Himalayas, the highest mountain system on Earth. Here, the Indian & Eurasia plates are currently in a collision.

Subduction Zones:

  • It is the biggest crash scene on Earth. These boundaries mark the collision between two tectonic plates.
  • When 2 (two) tectonic plates meet at a subduction zone, one bends and slides underneath the other, curving down into the mantle, the hotter layer under the crust.

B.) Divergent Boundaries:

  • It is formed by tectonic plates pulling apart from each other, known as constructive boundaries.
  • These are the site of seafloor spreading & rift valleys.
  • At divergent boundaries in the oceans, magma from deep in the Earth's mantle rises toward the surface and pushes apart two or more plates. Mountain & volcanoes rise along the seam. The process renews the ocean floor and widens the giant basins.
  • The best-known example is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the American plates are separated from the Eurasian & African plates. The single mid-ocean ridge system connects the world's oceans, making the ridge the longest mountain range in the world ( 10,000 miles).

On Land, giant troughs such as the Great Rift Valley (in Africa) from where plates are tugged apart.
  • If the plates there continue to diverge, millions of years from now eastern Africa will split from the continent to form a new landmass.
  • A mid-ocean ridge would then mark the boundary between the plates.

Seafloor Spreading:

  • It is the process of magma welling up in the rift as the old crust pulls itself in opposite directions.
  • Cold seawater cools the magma, creating a new crust.
  • The upward movement & eventual cooling of this magma has created high ridges on the ocean floor over millions of years.
  • The East-Pacific Rise is a site of major seafloor spreading in the 'Ring of Fire'.

It is located on the divergent boundary of

  • the Pacific plate
  • the Cocos plate (west of Central America)
  • the Nazca plate (west of South America)
  • the North American plate & Antarctic plate.

Rift Valleys:

  • It is a lowland region that forms where Earth's tectonic plates move apart or rift.
  • It is found on land and at the bottom of the ocean, and are created by tectonic activity and not the process of erosion.
  • The Great Rift Valley System, which stretches from the Middle East in the north to Mozambique in the south is a geologically active area. It features volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and frequent earthquakes. 

C.) Transform Boundaries:

  • It is formed as tectonic plates slide horizontally past each other but parts of these plates get stuck at the places where they touch.
  • These boundaries are conservative because the plate interaction occurs without creating or destroying crust. Hence, they don't produce spectacular features like mountains or oceans, but the halting motion often triggers large earthquakes, such as the 1906 earthquake that devastated San Francisco.
  • In this area of contact, stress is built which causes the rocks to break or slip, suddenly lurching the plates forward and causing earthquakes. These areas of breakage or slippage are called faults. The majority of Earth's faults can be found along transform boundaries in the 'Ring of Fire'.
  • The San Andreas Fault (California) is an example of a transform boundary, where the Pacific plate moves northward past the North American plate. It is one of the most active faults on the 'Ring of Fire'.


  • Most of the volcanic activities are concentrated along or adjacent to plate boundaries, but there are some important exceptions, in which this activity occurs within plates, called the Hotspots.
  • Hotspots exist over the Mantle Plumes. A mantle plume is an area under the crest of Earth, where magma is hotter than surrounding magma. The heat from this extra hot magma causes melting & thinning of the rocky crust, which leads to widespread volcanic activity on Earth's surface above the plume.
  • The hotspots are stationary, unlike the tectonic plates where they are located.
  • There are about 40 to 50 hot spots estimated to be around the world.

Major hot spots include:

  • Iceland hotspot- in North America.
  • Reunion hotspot- in the Indian Ocean.
  • Afar hotspot- in Northeastern Ethiopia.


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