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Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity


Education Marks Proper Humanity

Showing posts with label JH-HISTORY-E. Show all posts
Showing posts with label JH-HISTORY-E. Show all posts

Friday, February 26, 2021

Munda Administrative System: Jharkhand History- JPSC

Munda Administrative System

Munda Administrative System

The Mundas are a powerful tribe of the Kolarion group in Jharkhand. It is ethnically placed in the proto-australoid group. These tribes are mainly found in Ranchi, Khunti, Simdega, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Singhbhum, and Santhal Parganas of Jharkhand.


Scholars differ about their place of residence. According to various ideology, followings are considered about their origin 

  • First- their native land is considered to be the birth of Tibet.
  • Second- they came from the South-West of India to Madhya Pradesh under the pressure of the Aryan and later they entered the reason of Jharkhand.
  • Third- they entered Jharkhand from the South-Eastern part of India and defeated the Asura tribe and later established their domination over Jharkhand.

  • Munda has its own language which is called 'Mundari'. This language belongs to the Austro-Asiatic language family. They called this language 'Hodo Jagr'

Munda village has some special sites, which can also be considered as a specialty of a tribal village. These places are;
  • Akhada- where the panchayat meets and, the young men and women gather and dance & sing at night. 
  • Sasan- which is Tomb, where dead bodies are buried. Stones are placed on the tomb, which is called 'Sasanadiri'.
  • Gitiora- the youth house in Munda tribal village.


  • When the Mundas entered the Jharkhand region, they cleaned the forest for livelihood and started agricultural work, and established themselves as permanent residents.
  • They built a farm, Khunt Katti Khet, and their settled village came to be a name known as Khunt Katti Village. The builder of the field was called 'Khuntkattidar'
  • The Mundas traditionally enjoyed a preferential rent rate as the Khuntkattidar or the original clearer of the forest. (Note: In the course of the 19th century they had seen this 'Khuntkatti land system' being eroded by the jagirdars and thikadars coming as merchants & moneylenders).
  • Due to the increase in population, there was a shortage of space, so the peasants started building new villages in the vicinity. These villages were new, but the social, cultural, religious, and political systems of these villages were operated from the same ancestral villages.
  • When the number of such villages became more, the panchayat system of these Khunt Kattidar villages developed. The 'Parha' was formed by combining various such villages.
  • Each village in the Munda tribe had a Panchayat, whose chief was called Munda. Many such Gram Panchayat or villages were made into a cluster, which is headed by 'Manaki' standard.
  • 'Parha' was formed by mixing several clusters, the chief of which was called 'Parha Raja'. There were often members of the same clan in the Parha.
  • There was also Panchayat of Parha, who was called 'Parha Panchayat'. There were five executive officers in this Panchayat who worked under the king. These officers were Diwan, Thakur, Pandey, Karta, and Lal. All these positions were hereditary. These people obeyed the orders of the 'Parha King' and made recommendations to the king. 
  • The nomination of the king was a by-election. This post was not heredity. This is the reason why the administrative system of this Munda-Manaki-Parha-Sardar represented the example of India's first democratic system.
  • Manaki and Parha Raja did not receive any revenue of any kind. On this basis, it is called Cooperative-System, and not called Raj-System.
  • Border disputes, settlement of mutual disputes, and other disputes were resolved by the Parha Panchayat. It was considered the highest Judiciary, Executive, and Legislature of Munda.


The Munda considered the village as a political unit. In a village, there are four prominent persons- Munda, Bhandari, Pahan, Panbhara. They had a head (chief) and an organization to deal with other villages. The head of the Munda village was called the Pahan (the priest). He obtained this title by virtue of being the original founder of a new community, or the oldest representative of the original founder. His duty was to offer sacrifice at festivals mainly for three reasons;
  • to prevent the village from the ravages of wild animals;
  • to obtain satisfactory harvest;
  • to ensure successful hunts.

The chief function of the 'Pahan':
  • head of the village in many villages; 
  • to preside over the Panchayat;
  • to punish those who violated established customs;
  • to collect the contributions of the village and hand them over to the proper authority.
The Pahan began to exercise the above functions with the introduction of the Rajya into the Munda political system. Later on, he was assisted by a Munda in the execution of his duties. These two offices were solely for service without any remuneration for a special grant of land attached to it. These two officials were highly respected.

The chief function of the Bhandari;
  • to the responsibility of floating information in the whole village before any event and festive celebration and meetings like Gram Sabha.

The chief function of the Panbhara;
  • to assists, the Pahan in all his rituals and does the job of fetching water during practices along the Pahan.


The Confederation of villages was made up of ten or twelve villages. It was called a 'Patti'. The chief of the 'Patti' was called the 'Manaki'. He was the political organizer of the Munda. His duties were;
  • to settle disputes concerning land and other matters;
  • to settle the questions of exceptional tribal interest within a village;
  • to settle peace between different villages with the help of a council of elders;
  • to collect Chanda or rent and hand over it to the Raja.


At present, Government Panchayats have also been established in Munda tribal areas. These panchayats also interfere with the social affairs of Munda, due to which the traditional Panchayat are now becoming secondary.


Vibhuti of Jharkhand: Jharkhand History- JPSC

Vibhuti of Jharkhand

Vibhuti of Jharkhand

Fig: Vibhuti of Jharkhand


Diva Soren: He was born in 1820 AD at Matkomdeda village under Rajnagar police station of the district of Singhbhum. His father's name was Devi Soren.

Kishun Soren: He was born in Gumidpur in the Rajnagar police station area.

Diva Soren and Kishun Soren were maternal brothers. Their Guru name was Raghunath Bhuiyan. After Raja (Kunwar) Abhiram Singh of Podhat accepted the independence of the British, atrocities and exploitation of Adivasis and Sedans living in that area increased more rapidly.

Rebellion Work (1872):
  • People inhabiting the area began to collect under the leadership of Diva-Kisun to revolt against the exploitation and atrocities.
  • Diva-Kisun organized several public meetings in Dando.
  • They inspired the people against King Abhiram Singh of Phodat and the British administration. 
  • People of all religions organized and participated in this rebellion. The rebellion had its impact in all areas of Phodat.
  • This rebellion lasted for a long time, but in the tempt of money the local people informed the British administration about Diva-Kisun hiding in the mountain.
  • Diva-Kisun was arrested by the British administration and soldiers of Raja Abhiram Singh and hanged in Saraikela jail.

2. RANI SARBESHWARI (Suryavanshi dynasty)
  • Rani Sarbeshwari (wife/widow of Raja Gurjan Singh) of Maheshpur Raj (Santhal Pargana) opposed the British government's construction. 
  • British contractors of the company government without permission to prepare the fields and bring the Santhals from the Chotanagpur area.
  • Rani was arrested and locked in Bhagalpur jail, where he was hanged on 6 May 1807 AD.

  • During the rebellion of 1857 AD, this king of Porhat gave shelter to the rebel soldiers, which was opposed by the British Captain Henry Brush. The conflict between the two continued until 1859.
  • Finally, Arjun Singh had to surrender in front of Commissioner Edward Tuite Dalton.
  • He was jailed in Benaras, where he died in 1870.

  • He had been active since the time of the Sardari Movement. 
  • He was born in Atkediha village of Murhu block in Khunti district. 
  • When the Abua Dishum movement started under the leadership of Birsa Munda, he became the commander of Birsa Munda. 
  • On 6th January 1900, he was arrested from his village and lodged in Ranchi Jail, where he was hanged. 

  • Chero ruled in Palamu and he belongs to this Chero tribe.
  • King Medini became the most famous king of this dynasty.
  • Another king Chudaman Rai was king in his own lineage around 1800. He was unfit. Due to the support of the British, his governance was going on.
  • The people led a revolt against the king in Palamu and this Revolt was initiated by Bhushan Singh. From Palamu to Sarguja the flames of revolt continued to rise. They fought for two years with the British.
  • In 1802, Bhushan Singh was caught and the British hanged him.

  • In the Agnayya language in Jharkhand, 'Dai '= sister.
  • About 400 years, during the Mughal time two women of the Oraon community started the war against them. As Mughals had invaded Rohatashgarh fort thrice.
  • In this war, women showed leadership by bravely facing enemies.
  • 'Jani Shikhar' is organized every 12 years in memory of this war.

  • He was the hero of the 'Brigade of the Guards' of the Army.
  • He was martyred while threatening the enemy attack in the 1971 Indo-Pak war.
  • The Government of India posthumously awarded the highest military honor 'Paramveer Chakra' to him.
  • He was born on 27th December 1942 in a tribal Christian community in the village of Gumla district.

8. FATHER HOFFMAN (1857- 1928)
  • He was a priest of German origin.
  • He did many important things for the tribes. He had launched a 'Cooperative Lending Society' to liberate the tribe from the clutches of moneylenders.
  • Books wrote: 'Munda Grammar' and 'Encyclopaedia Mundarika'-16 volume'

  • He is known to be India's first anthropologist.
  • He had supported the creation of 'Ranchi District Gazetteer (1917), and established an institution called 'Man in India'.
  • Books wrote: 'Birhor', 'Munda and his community', 'Oraon'.

  • He became famous due to his revolutionary writing and journalism.
  • He was a significant contributor in starting the Swadeshi movement in 1905.
  • He died in 1913 in Karaon village near Deoghar.
  • Editor: 'Hitwad' magazine.
  • Books wrote: 'Desher Katha', 'Tilkare Mukadma', 'Etah Kon Jug'.

  • He was a famous author of Jharkhand.
  • He wrote Hindi comedy-satire (mockery) with the surname Ghosh-Bose-Banerjee-Chatterjee.
  • Editor: magazine 'Adivasi' from 1947- 1970.
  • Apart from Hindi he also used to write in the Nagpuri language.

  • In 1941, he prepared the script Santali Ol Chiki. 
  • Since then, the folk literature and other compositions of the Santali language started being written in Ol Chiki script.
  • He was consulted with the title Pandit for his significant contribution. 

  • He did his Ph.D. from Allahabad University on 'Ramakantha Origin and Development'.
  • The title of the English-Hindi dictionary prepared by him became quite popular.
  • Award: 'Padma Bhushan' by the Government of India, 'Radha Krishna Award' for Sahitya Seva. 

  • He was a critical writer who wrote on the folk culture of Jharkhand and has published many books on folk culture
  • Books wrote: 'Folk Literature and Culture' and 'On Mundari Poetry'.
  • Together with Dr. Camil Bulcke, he prepared the English-Hindi dictionary.

  • He produced many books on various movements in Jharkhand.
  • Famous Books: 'Birsa Munda and his Movement'.
  • He had made a significant contribution to the establishment of the tribal and regional language department.
  •  His contribution as the President of the Anthropological Survey of India, the Vice-Chancellor of Ranchi University, and the Commissioner of Chotanagpur Commissionerate was admirable.
  • Books wrote: 'Colonial transformation of tribal society in middle India', 'Famine in India', 'The People of India'.

  • He was a famous dancer and dance director of the Saraikela style of Chhau dance.
  • He contributed significantly to making the Chhau dance globally famous.
  • He was also honored by the Sangeet Kala Academy.

17. P.N. BOSE
  • He was the geologist of India.
  • Based on his research findings, Jamshedpur Tata established the Iron manufacturing company, 'TISCO' in Sakchi in 1907.
  • It was he who first discovered the Guru Maheshani Loha Khan of Mayurbhanj.

  • He was a famous social reformer journalist and writer in the 20th century.
  • He had written for Jharkhand's first weekly 'Aryavarta' which was published from Ranchi from 1898 to 1905.

  • He was the world-famous choreographer of Chhau dance.
  • 'Padmashree' award from Government of India.

  • He was a famous freedom fighter and social reformer.
  • He was one of the initiators of the Swadeshi Movement in Jharkhand.
  • He was the first person to spread modern education in Marwari society.
  • He established several institutions for the Welfare of child widows.

  • He was a prominent leader of the revolutionary organization of 'Yugantar Samiti' and a famous freedom fighter.
  • Sharad Chandra had written a novel based on his revolutionary personality and work.

  • He continued to work throughout his life for the establishment and development of socio-cultural-related educational institutions. Due to this work, he was identified as the conductor of the Indian educational institution.


  • He was famous literature of the Nagpuri language.
  • Books wrote: 'Nagpuri Grammar', 'History of Nagpuri languages literature'.

  • Sarna tribals leader and freedom fighter.
  • He established the Unnati Samaj (1915) and Kisan Sabha (1929).
  • He did many things to protect the tribal from becoming Christian.

  • He was a famous muralist.
  • He accorded with the 'Surmani' and 'Bismillah Samman'.

  • He was known as Chotanagpur Kesari and was a pioneer leader during the Independent movement. 
  • He was the first tribal leader to submit a memorandum to the President of India for the establishment of the state of Jharkhand in 1954.

  • He was a famous freedom fighter to promote and proclaim the creative ideas of Mahatma Gandhi among the tribe.
  • He did important work in the 'Primitive Caste Service Board'
  • He was the editor of a letter called 'Gram Nirman'. 

  • He was a famous freedom fighter during the non-cooperation movement.
  • He was very active with his wife Mahadevi Kejriwal to fight for the freedom of the country
  • He was also the editor of the magazine 'Nirman' and 'Gandhi Sandesh'. 

  • He was a famous revolutionary leader and literature.
  • He organized the Santhal and Pahadiya people to carry out an armed revolution against the British government.
  • The British government issued an order to shoot him at the site if seeing.

  • He was a freedom fighter journalist and labor leader.
  • He raised the problems of coal workers prominently during the independence movement
  • He edited a weekly magazine, 'Yugantar', and it was released.
  • He had to spend years in prison for opposing Indira Gandhi's emergency in the Yugantar magazine.

  • He was famous literature and early storyteller of Jharkhand.
  • He was the founder president of the 'Palamu Hindi Sahitya Sammelan'.
  • Many things related to social reforms were done by him in Vaishya society.
  • Books wrote: 'The history of Palamu'.

  • He was a famous freedom fighter and the first from Jharkhand to become the Chief Minister of Bihar (1961- 1963).
  • During the National freedom movement, he contributed significantly to the establishment of 'Hindi Vidyapith' in Deoghar (1929).

  • He was a famous freedom fighter, journalist, and second from Jharkhand to become Chief Minister of Bihar (1963- 1967).
  • In 1948, he played an important role in organizing the Ramgarh session of the Congress during the Independence movement.
  • Editor: weekly magazine- 'Chotanagpur Sandesh' from Hazaribagh.

  • Born- 23rd July 1934 in Ranchi in a Brahmin family.
  • She was an important figure in the state.
  • She became the head of Missionaries of Charity (M.C.) after the death of Mother Teresa and continued to serve the help, helpless people.
  • 2009- awarded with the 'Padma Vibhushan' by Government of India.
  • Died- June 23rd, 2015.

  • She was a famous freedom fighter.
  • She got active support from the masses in the eradication of the Parda Parda system, Child marriage, etc.
  • She was the first woman from Hazaribagh to go to jail.  

  • Born- 7th July 1981 (Ranchi)
  • He is the most successful captain of the Indian cricket team.
  • He has been honored with the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award (2007), the Padma Shri (2009), the Padma Bhushan (2018) for his contribution to Indian Cricket.

  • An International Women hockey player.
  • She succeeded in many tournaments and became the captain of the Indian Womens' Hockey team.

  • Born- Khaksi toli, Bero Block (Ranchi)
  • Known as- Parha Raja (1964), Waterman, Simon Baba, Environmentalist & water Conservationist, Social worker.
  • Awards- Padma Shri (2016), PM Rural Development Fellow.
  • Slogan- 'If you want to become a man then work hard from plants to land'.
  • He built the first dam for irrigation with the help of villages. 
  • He built the first dam through indigenous technique after this the dams at Deshbali and Jharia have constructed through which the fields of many villages get water for irrigation through the canal.

  • They are internationally renowned Sarod & Sitar players.
  • They were born district of Giridih Jharkhand.
  • They had presented their art at the Global Investors Summit, 2017 held in Ranchi.

  • Born- 23rd August 1939 in the tribal village of Diuri, Ranchi. He was known as an Anthropologist, Scholar, Linguist, Folklorist, Music exponent, Acamedician, Agriculturist, Acamedician, Vice-Chancellor, MP of the upper house of Parliament, and icon of socialism.
  • He was the pioneer leader of the Jharkhand movement.
  • The tribal and regional language department of Ranchi University was his important achievement.
  • Dr. Munda, who elevated Jharkhandi art & culture worldwide, was honored with Sangeet Natak Academy (2007), Padma Shri (2010).
  • Books wrote: Adi Dharma=Religious beliefs of Adivasi of India, Ocean of Laughter, Adandi Bonga, Sosobonga, Baha Bonga (Sarhul Mantra), Adivasi Astitava aur Jharkhand Asmita Ke Sawal, etc.
  • Died- 30th September 2011

  • Born- Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Known as- Babaji.
  • He is a social worker and the secretary of Vikas Bharti (Bhushunur, Gumla), an NGO working for the upliftment of the rural population of Jharkhand. He has done important work in the field of water management and the environment.
  • He was running the Bora Dam Scheme for water conservation which was quite famous in rural areas.
  • He is a nominated leader of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan campaign for the state of Jharkhand.

  • Santali writer and cine actor Pitambar Soren and was a well-known face in tribal-dominated areas including Jharkhand, Bengal, and Bihar.
  • He received several awards at All India Santali Film Association (AISFA) and Raghunath Academy of Santali Cinema & Art (RASCA) film festival.
  • He won the Best Santhali Film Award in 2014.
  • Died- 1st August 2015.

  • Pradeep Chandra Sahu, a former officer of Tata Steel Noamundi's Mines division, along with white Chetna Sahu, hoisted the tricolor on Mt. Everest on May 19, 2016, illuminating the name of the state.
  • Pradeep Chandra Sahu is also known by the nickname 'Pahad Chado Sahu'.

  • Born- 15th October 1949 at Bokba, Kolabira block, Simdega, Jharkhand. He is a folk singer, songwriter, and dancer.
  • He belongs to a family of the Ghasi community, who are traditional musicians.
  • He won international recognition for remitting the folk dance jhumar in the field of art. He made folk dance Jhumar popular in Asia.
  • He went to many countries in Europe and Africa to promote this dance form.
  • 1985- he established an organization 'Kunjban' to promote Nagpuri culture, specially Nagpuri Jhumar.
  • Filmography: Sona kar Nagpur (1992), Baha (2009), Phulmania (2019).
  • Awards: Padma Shri (2017), Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (2019), and Sanskritik Samman by Kala Sanskriti Vibhag.

  • Born- 31st May 1935 (Rawalpindi, Punjab)
  • He is an eminent journalist and the founder-director & editor in chief of Hindi daily newspaper Deshpran.
  • He was educated in Rawalpindi Dehradun Ambala cantonment and Ranchi.
  • He studied journalism from Ranchi he was established many records in the field of literature and journalism.
  • Editor- 'Ranchi Express' in 1963, a weekly magazine 'Jai Matribhumi', and a daily 'Deshpran'.
  • Guest Lecture- Ranchi University for 25 years.
  • Books wrote- 'Kahani Jharkhand Andolan Ki', 'Safarnama Pakistan', 'Jaipal Singh: Ek Romanchak Ankahi Kahani', 'Emergency ka Kahar & Censor ka Zahar'.
  • Awards- Padma Shri (2017), Lifetime Achievement Award, Mahanayak Sharda Samman, Rashtriya Patrakarita Purashkar.


Thursday, February 4, 2021

Birsa Movement/ Munda Rebellion


  • Munda Movement (Rebellion) is one of the prominent 19th-century tribal rebellions in the Chotanagpur region near Ranchi between 1874 and 1901. It affected the area of about 400 sq. miles of South Bihar.

  • It was led by Birsa Munda from the year 1894. This revolt is also known as the 'Ulgulan revolt or Munda Rebellion', which means great commotion.

A course of Revolt:

  • The movement was born out of basic problems that affected the tribals in the colonial period.

  • Tribal people in the Chotanagpur area practiced the Khuntkatti system (joint holding by tribal lineages) till the mid 19th century.

  • The well to do revenue farmers, jagirdars, merchants, moneylenders, and dikus (non-tribals) from North India tried to replace the system with the typical Zamindari-tenancy system, which caused indebtedness and beth-gari (forced labor) among the tribal people.

  • Between 1780 to 1840, Mundas revolted 5 (five) times against the undue interference by the British administration, and the attitude of the landlords.

  • It is noteworthy that the movement had a distinct connection with Christianity in its early phase. The Mundas accepted Christianity with the belief that the German missionaries would help them against the exploitation of the zamindars. However, dissatisfaction with the German missionaries made them turn to a Catholic mission. But seeing the colonial ties between the colonial officers and the zamindars, the Munda Sardar turned against all outsides and finally rose in a rebellion ulgulan, led by Birsa Munda.

  • He formed 2 (two) military units- one for military training & armed struggle, the other for propaganda. He combined religion with politics and traveled across villages giving a discourse & building a politico-military organization.

  • He led the revolt against the British government imposed a feudal state system.

  • In the 1890s, Birsa Munda arrested the need for the Munda community to uproot superstition, stop animal sacrifice and avoid alcoholism.

  • In 1894 October, he mobilized a protest march for the remission of forest dues. During this struggle, he managed to bring the tribal community under a single umbrella and asked them to re-establish their own kingdom.

  • In 1899, he declared a rebellion to establish the Munda rule and encouraged the killing of 'jagirdars and Rajas and hakims (rulers) and Christians'. With support from the British, the scale of torture & discrimination only increased.

  • Birsa succeeded in mobilizing nearly 6000 Mundas armed with swords & spears, bows & arrows. There was the active participation of women in this movement.

  • In 1900, The rebellion was ruthlessly suppressed by the British forces. Birsa was arrested and he died in prison the same year by Cholera aged just 25.

  • Eight years after his death, the government enacted Chotanagpur Tenancy (CNT), Act.


Birsa Munda: 

  • Birsa Munda was born in the Munda tribe in 1875. He is often referred to as 'Dharti Abba' or the father of Earth.
  • His struggle against the exploitation and discrimination against tribal led to the passing of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908 which restricted the passing of land from the tribal people to non-tribals.


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